- Microbiota changes impact on sexually transmitted infections and the development of pelvic inflammatory disease. [Journal Article]
- MIMicrobes Infect 2018 Feb 13
- The integrity of the human urogenital microbiome is crucial for women's health and well-being. An imbalance of the urogenital microbiota increases the risk for sexually transmitted infections. In thi...
The integrity of the human urogenital microbiome is crucial for women's health and well-being. An imbalance of the urogenital microbiota increases the risk for sexually transmitted infections. In this review, we discuss the microbiota composition of the female urogenital tract and its role in protecting from sexually transmitted infections and the emergence of pelvic inflammatory disease.
- Unusual Self-Assembly of the Recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP)-based Fusion Antigen CTH522 into Protein Nanoparticles. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Sci 2018 Feb 13
- Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need fo...
Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infects more than 100 million people annually, and untreated chlamydia infections can cause severe complications. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a chlamydia vaccine. The Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is highly immunogenic but is a challenging vaccine candidate by being an integral membrane protein, and the immunogenicity depends on a correctly folded structure. We investigated the biophysical properties of the recombinant MOMP-based fusion antigen CTH522, which is tested in early human clinical trials. It consists of a truncated and cysteine-free version of MOMP fused to four variable domains from serovars D-G. In the native state, CTH522 did not exist as a monomer, but showed an unusual self-assembly into nanoparticles with a negative zeta-potential. In contrast to the β-barrel structure of MOMP, native CTH522 contained no well-defined secondary structural elements, and no thermal transitions were measurable. Chemical unfolding resulted monomers that upon removal of the denaturant self-assembled into higher order structures, comparable to the structure of the native protein. The conformation of CTH522 in nanoparticles is thus not entirely random and contains structural elements stabilized via denaturant-disruptable hydrophobic interactions. In conclusion, CTH522 has an unusual quaternary structure of supramolecular self-assemblies.
- Factors associated with HIV co-infection in cases of acquired syphilis reported in a Reference Center for Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, 2014. [Journal Article]
- ESEpidemiol Serv Saude 2018; 27(1):e20171678
- CONCLUSIONS: there was a high prevalence of HIV co-infection in the service analyzed, disproportionately affecting MSM who were notified with acquired syphilis.
- Epididymo-orchitis caused by enteric organisms in men > 35 years old: beyond fluoroquinolones. [Review]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Feb 15
- Epididymo-orchitis is a common urological condition in men of all ages, causing a unilateral or bilateral swelling of the epididymis and/or testis. It is frequently caused by sexually transmitted inf...
Epididymo-orchitis is a common urological condition in men of all ages, causing a unilateral or bilateral swelling of the epididymis and/or testis. It is frequently caused by sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae, as well as common enteric organisms implicated in urinary tract infections. Men over 35 years old may develop epididymo-orchitis associated with enteric organisms, often associated with functional bladder outlet problems such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or urethral stricture disease. Fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin, have long been the mainstay of treatment for these infections; however, rising resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli isolates in Europe and the USA means that there is an unprecedented necessity for alternative antimicrobials with adequate penetration into genital tissues (epididymis and testes) to allow appropriate and comprehensive treatment of epididymo-orchitis in this group of patients.
- Epidemiology and Treatment of Hepatitis B in Prisoners. [Journal Article]
- CHCurr Hepatol Rep 2017; 16(3):178-183
- The review details recent literature reports regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and, in particular, Hepatitis B prevalence/incidence in incarcerated populations around the world. Furthermore, the revi...
The review details recent literature reports regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and, in particular, Hepatitis B prevalence/incidence in incarcerated populations around the world. Furthermore, the review will summarize the national/international guidelines regarding HBV and look at diagnosis, vaccination, treatment, and linkage to care after release.
- Ebselen alleviates testicular pathology in mice with Zika virus infection and prevents its sexual transmission. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2018; 14(2):e1006854
- Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongo...
Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongoing; therefore, in the meantime, preventing the disease transmission is critical. Primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, ZIKV also can be sexually transmitted. We used AG129 mice lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors to study the testicular pathogenesis and sexual transmission of ZIKV. Infection of ZIKV progressively damaged mouse testes, increased testicular oxidative stress as indicated by the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase 4, spermatogenesis-associated-18 homolog in sperm and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and G-CSF. We then evaluated the potential role of the antioxidant ebselen (EBS) in alleviating the testicular pathology with ZIKV infection. EBS treatment significantly reduced ZIKV-induced testicular oxidative stress, leucocyte infiltration and production of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, it improved testicular pathology and prevented the sexual transmission of ZIKV in a male-to-female mouse sperm transfer model. EBS is currently in clinical trials for various diseases. ZIKV infection could be on the list for potential use of EBS, for alleviating the testicular pathogenesis with ZIKV infection and preventing its sexual transmission.
- HEV and HAV seroprevalence in men that have sex with men (MSM): an update from Milan, Italy. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Virol 2018 Feb 15
- Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a feco-orally transmitted pathogen and one of the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Recent studies in developed countries suggested that a direct human-to-hum...
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a feco-orally transmitted pathogen and one of the most common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Recent studies in developed countries suggested that a direct human-to-human contact such as for sexually transmitted diseases may play a significant role in the HEV spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HEV and HAV in a group of MSM, including subjects HIV and Treponema infected, in Milan, Italy. The overall anti HEV IgG seroprevalence in MSM was 10.2% (65/636), instead in the control group the detection rate was 5.2% (15/288) (p < 0.05); the anti HAV seroprevalence was 42.8% in MSM, when in the control group the positivity rate was 29.2% (p < 0.05). The rate of coinfection HEV/HAV was 14.6% in MSM and 1% in control group (p < 0.05). In the future, sexual history, HIV status and STI risk might address specific investigations to prevent spread of pathogens such HEV in MSM, before becoming a substantial public health problem like for HAV outbreaks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Efficacy of multicomponent culturally tailored HIV/ STI prevention interventions targeting foreign female entertainment workers: a quasi-experimental trial. [Journal Article]
- STSex Transm Infect 2018 Feb 14
- CONCLUSIONS: This trial was effective in promoting consistent condom use for vaginal and oral sex as well as reducing STI incidence among the foreign Thai and Vietnamese FEWs in Singapore. The feasibility of scaling up the interventions to all entertainment establishments in Singapore should be assessed.
- Protein palmitoylation plays an important role inTrichomonas vaginalisadherence. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2018 Feb 14
- The flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. As an obligate extracellular pat...
The flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. As an obligate extracellular pathogen, adherence to epithelial cells is critical for parasite survival within the human host and a better understanding of this process is a prerequisite for the development of therapies to combat infection. In this sense, recent work has shown S-acylation as a key modification that regulates pathogenesis in different protozoan parasites. However, there are no reports indicating whether this post-translational modification is a mechanism operating in T. vaginalis. In order to study the extent and function of S-acylation in T. vaginalis biology, we undertook a proteomic study to profile the full scope of S-acylated proteins in this parasite and reported the identification of 363 proteins involved in a variety of biological processes such as protein transport, pathogenesis related and signaling, among others. Importantly, treatment of parasites with the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate causes a significant decrease in parasite: parasite aggregation as well as adherence to host cells suggesting that palmitoylation could be modifying proteins that are key regulators of Trichomonas vaginalis pathogenesis.
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- Comprehensive knowledge on cervical cancer, attitude towards its screening and associated factors among women aged 30-49 years in Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- RHReprod Health 2018 Feb 14; 15(1):29
- CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of women who had knowledge on cervical cancer was low where as relatively, a large proportion of the study participants in this study had favorable attitude towards cervical cancer screening. Educational status, knowing someone with cervical cancer, a history of sexually transmitted diseases was factors affecting both women's knowledge and their attitude. Having knowledge on cervical cancer was factor affecting attitude towards screening services. Provision of information, education, and counseling about the disease and screening service are mandatory to address their knowledge gap and to improve women's attitude towards screening service.