- Stilbene compound trans-3,4,5,4´-tetramethoxystilbene, a potential anticancer drug, regulates constitutive androstane receptor (Car) target genes, but does not possess proliferative activity in mouse liver. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2019 Jun 03
- The constitutive androstane receptor(CAR) activation is connected with mitogenic effects leading to liver hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in rodents. CAR activators, including phenobarbital, are consid…
The constitutive androstane receptor(CAR) activation is connected with mitogenic effects leading to liver hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in rodents. CAR activators, including phenobarbital, are considered rodent non-genotoxic carcinogens. Recently, trans-3,4,5,4´-tetramethoxystilbene(TMS), a potential anticancer drug (DMU-212), have been shown to alleviate N-nitrosodiethylamine/phenobarbital-induced liver carcinogenesis. We studied whether TMS inhibits mouse Car to protect from the PB-induced tumorigenesis. Unexpectedly, we identified TMS as a murine CAR agonist in reporter gene experiments, in mouse hepatocytes, and in C57BL/6 mice in vivo. TMS up-regulated Car target genes Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29 and Cyp2c55 mRNAs, but down-regulated expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. TMS did not change or down-regulate genes involved in liver proliferation or apoptosis such as Mki67, Foxm1, Myc, Mcl1, Pcna, Bcl2, or Mdm2, which were up-regulated by another Car ligand TCPOBOP. TMS did not increase liver weight and had no significant effect on Ki67 and Pcna labeling indices in mouse liver in vivo. In murine hepatic AML12 cells, we confirmed a Car-independent proapoptotic effect of TMS. We conclude that TMS is a Car ligand with limited effects on hepatocyte proliferation, likely due to promoting apoptosis in mouse hepatic cells, while controlling Car target genes involved in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism.
- Teriflunomide Is an Indirect Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activator Interacting With Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Signaling. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:993
- The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor involved mainly in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism regulation. CAR is activated directly by its ligands via the ligand binding do…
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor involved mainly in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism regulation. CAR is activated directly by its ligands via the ligand binding domain (LBD) or indirectly by inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling. We found that leflunomide (LEF) and its main metabolite teriflunomide (TER), both used for autoimmune diseases treatment, induce the prototype CAR target gene CYP2B6 in primary human hepatocytes. As TER was discovered to be an EGF receptor antagonist, we sought to determine if TER is an indirect activator of CAR. In primary human hepatocytes and in differentiated HepaRG cells, we found that LEF and TER up-regulate CAR target genes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNAs and enzymatic activities. TER stimulated CAR+A mutant translocation into the nucleus but neither LEF nor TER activated the CAR LBD, CAR3 variant or pregnane X receptor (PXR) in gene reporter assays. Interestingly, TER significantly up-regulated CAR mRNA expression, a result which could be a consequence of both EGF receptor and ELK-1 transcription factor inhibition by TER or by TER-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), an upstream hormonal regulator of CAR. We can conclude that TER is a novel indirect CAR activator which through EGF inhibition and GR activation controls both detoxification and some intermediary metabolism genes.