- The effectiveness of Cytisine versus Nicotine Replacement Treatment for smoking cessation in the Russian Federation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Drug Policy 2018 Jun 18; 58:121-125
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings appear to support previous trial evidence that cytisine is superior to NRT in helping smokers quit.
- "How do you know those particles are from cigarettes?": An algorithm to help differentiate second-hand tobacco smoke from background sources of household fine particulate matter. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2018 Jun 18; 166:344-347
- CONCLUSIONS: Applying this algorithm to Dylos particle count measurements may help identify the presence of SHS in homes or other indoor environments. Future research should adapt it to detect individual smoking periods within a 24 h or longer measurement period.
- Heterogeneity and the origins of asthma. [Review]
- AAAnn Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Jun 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Asthma is a disease that is often diagnosed in childhood but can present at any age. There is debate in the field as to whether asthma is one disease or several different diseases that include airway inflammation as a key finding. There are risk factors for disease in the environment and thru co-morbidities that likely play significant roles in both the origins of asthma, the development of symptoms, and the response to treatment. These factors are even more important as we look towards the future with the goal of personalized medicine.
- The psychoactive substance of cannabis Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) negatively regulates CFTR in airway cells. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta 2018 Jun 18
- CONCLUSIONS: THC negatively regulates CFTR and this is mediated through the EGFR/ERK axis. This study provides the first evidence that THC present in marijuana reduces the expression and function of CFTR in airway epithelial cells.
- Family History of MI, Smoking, and Risk of Periodontal Disease. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent Res 2018 Jun 01; :22034518782189
- Periodontal disease (PD) shares common risk factors with cardiovascular disease. Our hypothesis was that having a family history of myocardial infarction (FamHxMI) may be a novel risk factor for PD. ...
Periodontal disease (PD) shares common risk factors with cardiovascular disease. Our hypothesis was that having a family history of myocardial infarction (FamHxMI) may be a novel risk factor for PD. Risk assessment based on FamHxMI, conditional on smoking status, was examined given the strong influence of smoking on PD. Exploratory analysis with inflammatory biomarkers and genetic determinants was conducted to understand potential mechanistic links. The Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) is a prospective cohort of US female health care professionals who provided blood samples at baseline in the Women's Health Study, a 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial investigating vitamin E and aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. PD was ascertained via self-report over 12 y of follow-up. Prevalence (3,442 cases), incidence (1,365 cases), and survival analysis of PD were investigated for associations of FamHxMI as well as in strata of FamHxMI by smoking. Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests, multivariate regression, and Cox proportional hazard models were used for the analyses. In the WGHS, women with FamHxMI showed higher risk of ever having PD. A particularly high-risk group of having both FamHxMI and smoking at baseline was highlighted in the prevalence and risk of developing PD. PD risk increased according to the following strata: no FamHxMI and nonsmokers (reference), FamHxMI and nonsmokers (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0 to 1.5), smokers without FamHxMI (HR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.5), and smokers with FamHxMI (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.8). An independent analysis by the dental Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study ( N = 5,552) identified more severe periodontitis cases among participants in the high-risk group (smokers with FamHxMI). Further examination of interactions among inflammatory biomarkers or genetic exploration with FamHxMI did not explain the risk increase of PD associated with FamHxMI in the WGHS. Future efforts based on an integrative-omics approach may facilitate validation of these findings and suggest a mechanistic link between PD and FamHxMI.
- Prevalence and determinants of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in a rural population of central Greece: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- RRRural Remote Health 2018; 18(2):4218
- CONCLUSIONS: There are very few studies studying the characteristics of smoking and tobacco exposure exclusively in rural populations in Greece, such as the present study. Both the high prevalence of smoking and the high levels of exposure to tobacco show a population at increased risk for tobacco-related disease. These call for immediate action to reduce smoking prevalence, help smokers quit and protect the health of non-smokers. The present study's conclusions provide the basis for designing local prevention programs and the baseline for monitoring of future trends in the area.
- Nutritional status and muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory diseases: stable phase versus acute exacerbations. [Review]
- JTJ Thorac Dis 2018; 10(Suppl 12):S1332-S1354
- Nutritional abnormalities are frequent in different chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis (CF), interstitial fibrosis and ...
Nutritional abnormalities are frequent in different chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis (CF), interstitial fibrosis and lung cancer, having important clinical consequences. However, nutritional abnormalities often remained underdiagnosed due to the relative lack of awareness of health professionals. Therefore, systematic anthropometry or even better, assessment of body composition, should be performed in all patients with chronic respiratory conditions, especially following exacerbation periods when malnutrition becomes more accentuated. Nutritional abnormalities very often include the loss of muscle mass, which is an important factor for the occurrence of muscle dysfunction. The latter can be easily detected with the specific assessment of muscle strength and endurance, and also negatively influences patients' quality of life and prognosis. Both nutritional abnormalities and muscle dysfunction result from the interaction of several factors, including tobacco smoking, low physical activity-sedentarism, systemic inflammation and the imbalance between energy supply and requirements, which essentially lead to a negative balance between protein breakdown and synthesis. Therapeutic approaches include improvements in lifestyle, nutritional supplementation and training. Anabolic drugs may be administered in some cases.
- Analyzing EGFR mutations and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2018; 16(1):362-370
- Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important gene in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. However, there is controversy regarding the association between EGFR mutations and survival tim...
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important gene in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. However, there is controversy regarding the association between EGFR mutations and survival time of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, tissue specimens and clinical data were collected from 219 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who had not undergone prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy. EGFR mutations were detected using a fluorescence polymerase chain reaction method, and the association between EGFR mutations and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. Overall survival (OS) curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the influence of clinicopathological characteristics on OS was analyzed using the Cox regression model. The EGFR mutation rate was 50.7%, and the most common mutations were the L858R substitution mutation in exon 21 (L858R; 54.9%) and the deletion mutation in exon 19 (19-Del; 36%). The presence of EGFR mutations varied significantly with sex, smoking history, T stage, vascular invasion and adenocarcinoma subtypes (P<0.05). The survival time was significantly longer for female, young (<60 years-old), non-smokers or patients exhibiting EGFR mutations (G719X, 19-Del, L858R and L861Q). The survival time was also significantly longer for patients with a 19-Del mutation, early stage tumors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeted therapy-treated patients, for those not exhibiting nerve or vascular invasion, and for those without disease recurrence (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor pathological Tumor-Node-Metastasis (pTNM) stage, nerve invasion, vascular invasion, EGFR mutation and the 19-Del mutation were independent predictors (P<0.05). Therefore, tumor pTNM stage, nerve invasion, vascular invasion and EGFR mutation status, particularly that of 19-Del, were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
- Small-Cell Carcinoma Transformation of Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma after Osimertinib Treatment: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Oncol 2018 May-Aug; 11(2):323-329
- There are various mechanisms underlying the resistance of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). We herein report a case of pulmon...
There are various mechanisms underlying the resistance of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). We herein report a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion and T790M) that acquired resistance to osimertinib treatment because of transformation into small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). A 67-year-old ex-smoking woman was diagnosed with left upper lobe adenocarcinoma of clinical stage IIIA (cT2bN2M0). She was treated with chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin and vinorelbine plus radiation), gefitinib, cisplatin, and pemetrexed followed by pemetrexed maintenance therapy and erlotinib. Since a sample extracted from the metastatic lung tumor taken obtained via a transbronchial lung biopsy was found to be positive for the T790M mutation at the time of disease progression during erlotinib treatment, she received osimertinib treatment for 15 months until progressive disease. She developed resistance to osimertinib due to the histologic transformation to SCLC. Although the standard chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide for SCLC was administered, she died due to metastatic liver failure.
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- Association between tobacco smoking and drug-resistant tuberculosis. [Review]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:873-887
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for DR-TB.