- Significant Improvement in Blood Pressure Levels Among Older Adults With Hypertension in Rural South Africa. [Journal Article]Hypertension. 2023 Feb 08 [Online ahead of print]H
- CONCLUSIONS: The hypertension prevalence and incidence are plateauing in this aging cohort. There was a statistically and clinically significant decline in mean blood pressure and a substantial increase in individuals with controlled hypertension on medication. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors did not decrease over time, suggesting that the blood pressure decrease is likely due to increased medication access and adherence, promoted by local health systems.
- Correlates of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the general adult population of China: systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]J Viral Hepat. 2023 Feb 08 [Online ahead of print]JV
- Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue in China. Understanding factors associated with chronic HBV is important to enable targeted screening and education and to improve early diagnosis and prevention of disease progression. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify and describe correlates of chronic HBV among Chinese adults. Searches …
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue in China. Understanding factors associated with chronic HBV is important to enable targeted screening and education and to improve early diagnosis and prevention of disease progression. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify and describe correlates of chronic HBV among Chinese adults. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and grey literature up to 25 June 2020. Eligible papers included observational studies in adults of the general population in China that reported factors associated with chronic HBV, measured by Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Meta-analysis was performed using fixed-effect models of HBsAg prevalence among factors, and of adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for chronic HBV associated with each factor. Overall 39 articles were included, covering 22 factors, including a range of sociodemographic, behavioural and medical factors. In meta-analysis of eligible studies, a range of factors were significantly associated with higher HBsAg prevalence, including middle age, male sex, being married, rural residence, lower education, smoking, having a HBsAg positive household contact, family history of HBV, history of surgery or blood transfusion. The adjusted ORs varied, from 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.18) for smoking to 5.13 (95% CI 4.99-5.26) for having a HBsAg positive household contact. In Chinese adults, a range of factors are associated with chronic HBV infection, which may help inform targeted screening in the general population.
- Polypharmacy Interactions Impacting Methacholine Challenge Testing for Asthma Assessment in Older People. [Journal Article]Sr Care Pharm. 2023 Jan 01; 38(1):29-40.SC
- Objective To investigate potential reasons for unusually high incidence of negative Methacholine Challenge Tests (MCT), following standardized MCT medication-hold protocol, in older people with physician-diagnosed asthma. Design An analysis of a longitudinal observational parent study of asthma. Setting Community-dwelling participants were evaluated in an outpatient clinic and at home. Participan…
Objective To investigate potential reasons for unusually high incidence of negative Methacholine Challenge Tests (MCT), following standardized MCT medication-hold protocol, in older people with physician-diagnosed asthma. Design An analysis of a longitudinal observational parent study of asthma. Setting Community-dwelling participants were evaluated in an outpatient clinic and at home. Participants Screening inclusion criteria for the parent study included 60 years of age or older, physician diagnosis of asthma, and a positive response to at least one of six asthma screening questions. Participants were enrolled in the study if they also demonstrate either: (1) a postbronchodilator administration response showing an increase of at least 12% and 200 mL in forced expiratory volume or an increase of at least 12% and 200 mL in forced vital capacity, or (2) an MCT result of PC20 ≤ 16 mg/mL (indicating bronchial hyper-responsiveness, MCT positive). Exclusion criteria included diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, residing in a long-term care facility, more than 20 pack/ year smoking history or a history of smoking within the previous five years, inability to perform pulmonary function testing maneuvers, and a Prognostic Index score of greater than 10. Interventions Analysis of participant data for non-medication- and medication-exposure factors for association with negative MCT results. Results Anticholinergic burden and statin use were positively associated with negative MCT. Conclusion Medications not accounted for in medication-hold protocols, and concurrently in use, may impact clinical tests and outcomes.
- Physical and mental health status of former smokers and non-smokers patients with bipolar disorder. [Journal Article]Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2023 Feb 07 [Online ahead of print]AP
- CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was associated with high morbidity level. Strikingly, as in the general population, quitting smoking seemed associated with their return to the never-smokers' levels. Our findings strongly highlight the need to spread strategies to treat tobacco addiction in the BD population.
- Awareness and knowledge of risk factors associated with oral cancer among military personnel in Nigeria. [Journal Article]Niger J Clin Pract. 2023 Jan; 26(1):73-80.NJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Oral cancer awareness is low among soldiers in the Nigerian Armed Forces, and strategies to increase awareness should be developed.
- COTPA implementation status: An observational study in South Indian city. [Journal Article]Indian J Med Res. 2022 Sep; 156(3):508-515.IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The overall compliance with COTPA was found to be very low in urban Puducherry. In order to ensure proper implementation of the laws, effective enforcement with periodic monitoring of various sections of COTPA are needed.
- Pain, Sleep Disturbance and Smoking Among Patients with Covid-19 Presenting to the Emergency Department. [Journal Article]Florence Nightingale J Nurs. 2023 Feb; 31(1):48-55.FN
- CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of the present study, pain, smoking, and sleep disorders in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were affected by socio-demographic characteristics.
- Predictors of Oncologic Outcome in Patients Receiving Phase I Investigational Therapy for Recurrent or Metastatic Cervical Cancer. [Journal Article]J Immunother Precis Oncol. 2023 Feb; 6(1):10-18.JI
- CONCLUSIONS: Bone metastasis and absolute lymphocyte count below normal range at phase I study entry portend poor survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer.
- Cross-Sectional Study of Serum Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D3 Levels Amongst Corporate Employees. [Journal Article]Cureus. 2023 Feb; 15(2):e34642.C
- Background In today's busy world, health is often neglected especially among full-time workers. Consequently, lifestyle disorders such as vitamin deficiencies are increasing, perhaps because of inadequate nutrition and lack of sunlight due to long hours working indoors. These deficiencies can lead to various short-term and long-term complications. Objective To estimate serum levels of vitamin B12…
Background In today's busy world, health is often neglected especially among full-time workers. Consequently, lifestyle disorders such as vitamin deficiencies are increasing, perhaps because of inadequate nutrition and lack of sunlight due to long hours working indoors. These deficiencies can lead to various short-term and long-term complications. Objective To estimate serum levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 among vegetarian employees. Methods and materials A questionnaire about dietary and exercise habits was administered to participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and provided informed written consent. Participants also were asked about drug and supplement intake, history of smoking and alcohol, specific symptoms of vitamin B12 and D3 deficiency, and sociodemographic status. Blood samples were collected to estimate serum B12 and D3 levels. Results The results indicated that 14.00% of participants were vitamin B12 deficient and 82.00% were D3 deficient. Differences by gender were not statistically significant; vitamin B12 deficiency was identified in 10.00% of women and 14.44% of men, and vitamin D3 deficiency occurred in 100.00% of the women and 80.00% of men. Among 71 participants aged 35-45 years, 15.49% and 91.55% were deficient in B12 and D3, respectively; among 25 participants aged 46-55, 12.00% and 64.00% were deficient in B12 and D3, respectively; among four participants older than 55, no vitamin B12 deficiency was observed, but 25.00% were deficient in vitamin D3 (p=0.00002). Nearly all (96.15%) participants who reported never exercising were found to be vitamin D3 deficient, compared to 77.02% of those who exercised (OR=0.13, p=0.043). No significant association was found between alcohol consumption and vitamin B12 (p=1) or D3 (p=0.713) deficiency. Conclusions The results revealed a prevalence of both vitamin B12 and D3 deficiencies among corporate employees who identified as vegetarians. Increased awareness, dietary modifications, conscious physical activity, and most importantly, attention to one's health may help improve vitamin sufficiency. Women over age 45 should pay particular attention due to their increased risk of vitamin D3 deficiency. Further research is needed to assess nutrition profiles among other populations to better understand vitamin deficiencies and design adequate preventive measures.
- Characteristics of Lung Function and Prevalence of Airflow Obstruction Among Individuals Aged 18-74 Years - Beijing, China, 2017-2018. [Journal Article]China CDC Wkly. 2022 Dec 23; 4(51):1148-1153.CC
- Airflow obstruction is the hallmark of many chronic respiratory diseases and may indicate the potential for the development of other progressive diseases. There are currently no representative studies of lung function in Beijing. An up-to-date estimation of the characteristics of lung function and airflow obstruction is thus needed.
Airflow obstruction is the hallmark of many chronic respiratory diseases and may indicate the potential for the development of other progressive diseases. There are currently no representative studies of lung function in Beijing. An up-to-date estimation of the characteristics of lung function and airflow obstruction is thus needed.
- Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Substance Abuse, Alcohol Intake, and Smoking Among Male High School Students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]Cureus. 2023 Jan; 15(1):e33457.C
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of smoking, alcohol intake, and drug use were high. Students began smoking, drinking alcohol, and using abused drugs at an early age, which were influenced by friends, peers, or their siblings. Some students purchase these substances by themselves while some got them from friends, especially alcohol. These practices affected their performance at school. Although many students were aware of the harmful effects of smoking, alcohol intake, and substance abuse, some students had opposing perspectives. Therefore, health authorities need to educate these students and institute structural and emotional support for students who are in these vices to mitigate misuse, long-term use, and addiction.
- Assessment of Oral Lesions With Tobacco Usage: A Cross-Sectional Clinicopathological Study in Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, India. [Journal Article]Cureus. 2023 Jan; 15(1):e33428.C
- Background Tobacco usage in the form of smoking or chewing has increased the risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral cancer. These deleterious habits are also related to changes in dentition and the oral mucosa. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate the oral changes associated with tobacco usage among residents of Sri Ganganagar. Materials and methods This study was condu…
Background Tobacco usage in the form of smoking or chewing has increased the risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral cancer. These deleterious habits are also related to changes in dentition and the oral mucosa. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate the oral changes associated with tobacco usage among residents of Sri Ganganagar. Materials and methods This study was conducted among the residents of Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, India, using stratified cluster random sampling, prestructured questionnaires, and detailed oral examination. A total of 100 patients with a previous history of tobacco usage were enrolled in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age- and gender-matched controls were also evaluated to correlate the findings. Clinical details were documented, including the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, Community Periodontal Index (CPI), loss of attachment, dental findings, and oral mucosal changes. Suspicious lesions were stained with toluidine blue, and a biopsy was performed for histopathological evaluation. The tabulated results were statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY, USA) for significance. Results Attrition, abrasion, and erosion of teeth were more frequent in tobacco users than in controls. Smoker's palate, tobacco pouch keratosis, and leukoplakia were commonly noted mucosal lesions. The mean values of the parameters of the DMFT score (3.560), CPI score (2.190), and loss of attachment score (0.542) were higher among tobacco users, and it was statistically significant (P value < 0.05). Out of 100 patients, 17 had suspicious lesions. It included seven cases of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), two cases of tobacco pouch keratosis, and eight cases of leukoplakia. Toluidine blue staining and biopsy were performed. Histopathological examination of suspicious lesions revealed hyperkeratosis, various grades of epithelial dysplasia, and differing inflammatory responses. Out of 17 biopsied cases, there were two cases of hyperkeratosis with severe epithelial dysplasia, four cases of hyperkeratosis with moderate epithelial dysplasia, two cases of hyperkeratosis with mild dysplasia, two cases of superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma, five cases of advanced OSMF, and two cases of moderately advanced OSMF. Conclusion Tobacco usage produces visible changes in dentition and latent alterations in the oral mucosa. Suspicious lesions should always be referred for histopathological examination to identify oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer so that prompt treatment could be initiated. Patient education is mandatory to avoid the usage of tobacco in any form.
- A novel model for predicting prolonged stay of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a 13-year (2010-2022) multicenter retrospective case-control study. [Journal Article]J Transl Med. 2023 Feb 07; 21(1):91.JT
- CONCLUSIONS: In sum, the proposed model could predict the possible prolonged LOS of inpatients with T2DM and help the clinicians to improve efficiency in bed management.
- Clinical characteristics and risk factors of ovarian reserve decreases in women with Crohn's disease: a case-control study. [Journal Article]J Ovarian Res. 2023 Feb 07; 16(1):34.JO
- CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian reserve is lower in CD women than in healthy women. Age, CD activity and medication of thalidomide are risk factors that can aggravate the decline of ovarian reserve.
- Improving the representativeness of the tribal behavioral risk factor surveillance system through data integration. [Journal Article]BMC Public Health. 2023 Feb 07; 23(1):273.BP
- CONCLUSIONS: Data integration procedures, including calibration and sequential mass imputation methods, hold promise for improving the representativeness of the TBRFSS.
- Endovascular treatment of aorto-iliac occlusive disease with TASC II C and D lesions: 10 year's experience of clinical technique. [Journal Article]BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2023 Feb 07; 23(1):71.BC
- CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular treatment of AIOD patients with TASC-II C and D lesions might be safe and have a high rate of middle-term and long-term primary patency.
- The association of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with the risk of insomnia in the adult population. [Journal Article]BMC Nutr. 2023 Feb 07; 9(1):28.BN
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that greater adherence to dietary pattern with high GL could be increased the odds of insomnia in Iranian adults.
- Longitudinal association between adiposity changes and lung function deterioration. [Journal Article]Respir Res. 2023 Feb 07; 24(1):44.RR
- CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity was associated with the long-term impairment of lung function. Central obesity was the main driver of lung function impairment in the middle-aged general Asian population, regardless of fat mass changes.
- Factors associated with childhood pneumonia and care seeking practices in Nepal: further analysis of 2019 Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. [Journal Article]BMC Public Health. 2023 Feb 07; 23(1):264.BP
- CONCLUSIONS: Pneumonia is still a public health problem in low-income countries. Public health program and treatment services should be targeted to younger children, careful attention should be given to underweight children, and awareness and nutrition related activities should be focused on rural areas. Addressing inequity in access to and utilization of treatment of childhood illnesses should be prioritized.
- Developing a mortality risk prediction model using data of 3663 hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study in an Egyptian University Hospital. [Journal Article]BMC Pulm Med. 2023 Feb 07; 23(1):57.BP
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with the identified mortality risk factors are to be prioritized for preventive and rapid treatment measures. With the provided prediction models, clinicians can calculate mortality probability for their patients. Presenting multiple and very generic models can enable clinicians to choose the one containing the parameters available in their specific clinical setting, and also to test the applicability of such models in a non-COVID-19 respiratory infection.
- Tobacco smoke exposure, the lower airways microbiome and outcomes of ventilated children. [Journal Article]Pediatr Res. 2023 Feb 07 [Online ahead of print]PR
- CONCLUSIONS: Among critically ill children requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation, tobacco smoke exposure is associated with decreased richness and Shannon diversity and change in microbial communities.
- Prenatal Maternal Risk Factors Contributing to Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies. [Journal Article]Ann Dermatol. 2023 Feb; 35(1):11-22.AD
- CONCLUSIONS: Conclusively, both genetic and environmental factors play a pivotal role in early manifestation of AD. The better managing the environmental factors during gestational phase to the least can help curtail the prevalence of AD in children.
- Prevalence and clinical predictors of spasticity after intracerebral hemorrhage. [Journal Article]Brain Behav. 2023 Feb 07 [Online ahead of print]BB
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ICH lesion locations are at least partly associated with post-stroke spasticity rather than the latter simply being a physiological reaction to ICH itself. The predictors for spasticity after ICH were age, NIHSS scores, past medical history, and ICH lesion sites.
- Falsely elevated thyroid hormone levels associated with fibrin interference in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy. [Journal Article]Ann Clin Biochem. 2023 Feb 07 [Online ahead of print]AC
- CONCLUSIONS: We report two patients receiving warfarin with falsely elevated thyroid hormone levels caused by fibrin interference resembling central hyperthyroidism for the first time. Our retrospective study suggests that the medication status of oral anticoagulants should be considered when evaluating thyroid function tests.
- [Status and related factors on knowledge, attitude and practice of adults environmental health in four cities in 2021]. [Journal Article]Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2023 Jan; 52(1):95-99.WS
- CONCLUSIONS: The number of ways to acquire environmental health knowledge, total annual family income, education level, age and smoking status are all related factors of the adults environmental knowledge-attitude-practice level in four cities in 2021.
- Predictors of Complication Severity Following Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: Smoking Rate, Diabetes, and Osteotomy Increase Risk of Severe Adverse Events. [Journal Article]Int J Spine Surg. 2023 Feb 07 [Online ahead of print]IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Specific predictors of adverse events following ASD-corrective surgery varied for complications of different severities. Multivariate modeling showed smoking rate, osteotomy, diabetes, anterior lumbar interbody fusion, and higher operative time, among other factors, as predictive of severe complications, as classified by the Clavien-Dindo Cc system. These factors can help in the identification of high-risk patients and, consequently, improve preoperative patient counseling.
- Association between tobacco product use and asthma among US adults from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study waves 2-4. [Journal Article]BMJ Open Respir Res. 2023 Feb; 10(1)BO
- CONCLUSIONS: Although cigarette use was associated with worse asthma control, there were no longitudinal associations between combustible tobacco or e-cigarette use and new onset or worsening asthma in these preliminary analyses. Research on tobacco and asthma should exclude COPD and adjust for smoking history and other smoke exposures.
- Extended dual antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention in clinically important patient subgroups: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]CMAJ Open. 2023 Jan-Feb; 11(1):E118-E130.CO
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a previous MI with ACS at presentation, without diabetes, or aged younger than 75 years may derive the most benefit from extended DAPT. These findings support the need for careful selection of patients who may benefit most from extended DAPT.
- Governmental public health in Taiwan. [Journal Article]Salud Publica Mex. 2022 Nov 23; 64(6, nov-dic):593-598.SP
- A healthy and safe public health environment is a fundamental responsibility of government; achieving it requires collaboration across multiple sectors. Public health services include, for example, vaccination and quarantine for infectious diseases; health promotion, such as anti-smoking campaigns for noncommunicable diseases; and health insurance for universal health coverage. All these services…
A healthy and safe public health environment is a fundamental responsibility of government; achieving it requires collaboration across multiple sectors. Public health services include, for example, vaccination and quarantine for infectious diseases; health promotion, such as anti-smoking campaigns for noncommunicable diseases; and health insurance for universal health coverage. All these services require intersectoral actions in which the government must play a fundamental role, either partially or totally. The Taiwanese outlook on governmental public health infrastructure and professionalization of public health is given in this paper. It also describes the national governmental public health measures that were employed during the Covid-19 pandemic and discusses the challenges ahead for the country's governmental public health. Governmental public health is essential and should not be affected by changes in political forms or socioeconomic development. Instead, effective governmental public health will promote these developments while protecting citizens' right to health.
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- What Factors are Associated With Conversion to Knee Arthroplasty After Subchondroplasty? [Journal Article]Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2023 Feb 07 [Online ahead of print]CO
- CONCLUSIONS: Currently, we recommend a detailed, informed discussion of the risks versus benefits with patients who are considering a subchondroplasty procedure, particularly patients aged 50 years and older and those with Grade 4 chondral lesions. Future randomized trials, including those that compare the subchondroplasty procedure with arthroscopy alone or nonoperative management options, are still needed to confirm the efficacy and role of the subchondroplasty procedure in patients with knee osteoarthritis, because only such prospective studies can determine the success of the procedure.