- A rapid caliber change in the inferior vena cava during multiphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography may signal an acute anaphylactic reaction to nonionic contrast medium. [Journal Article]
- RCRadiol Case Rep 2018; 13(5):970-974
- Severe anaphylactic reactions to an intravenous nonionic iodine contrast medium (NICM) are uncommon but can result in permanent morbidity or death if not managed appropriately. An anaphylactic reacti...
Severe anaphylactic reactions to an intravenous nonionic iodine contrast medium (NICM) are uncommon but can result in permanent morbidity or death if not managed appropriately. An anaphylactic reaction to an NICM typically manifests as clinical symptoms that include an itchy nose, sneezing, and skin redness. To our knowledge, a rapid change in the caliber of the inferior vena cava (IVC) during multiphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) has not been reported. Here, we report the computed tomographic findings in three cases of hypovolemic shock caused by an anaphylactic reaction to an NICM. We suspect that a decrease in caliber of the IVC during multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT may be a predictor of an allergic-like reaction to an NICM. Patients in whom physicians and radiographers detect a rapid caliber change in the IVC during multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT should be managed carefully.
- Primary healthcare physicians' adherence to acute lower back pain referral guidelines in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- SMSaudi Med J 2018; 39(8):838-841
- To assess the primary healthcare physicians' adherence to referral guidelines for acute low back pain and if there is any association with experience level. Methods: A cross-sectional study held in ...
To assess the primary healthcare physicians' adherence to referral guidelines for acute low back pain and if there is any association with experience level. Methods: A cross-sectional study held in Tertiary care hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Questionnaires were distributed in-person between October 2017 and January 2018 among 100 primary healthcare physicians, with a 79% response rate. Results: The distribution between male to female was 43%-57%. Twenty-five percent of physicians encounter 1-5 patients weekly, while 28% encounter more than 15 patients. The physicians included had a higher than expected adherence to referral guidelines with percentages ranging between 63-94% referral rates for back pain related red flags. A trend was noted where there was an increase in referral decisions with increased experience when encountering red flags. More experienced physicians were more likely to refer when encountering; pain worse after prolonged sitting, limited mobility, and pain worse while coughing or sneezing (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: Primary healthcare physicians working in one health system in Riyadh had a higher than expected adherence to referral guidelines for back pain related red flags.
- Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis: It's Effect on the Immune System and Clinical Symptoms. [Journal Article]
- OAOpen Access Maced J Med Sci 2018 Jul 20; 6(7):1248-1252
- CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous Immunotherapy for specific allergens decreases clinical symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis and induces tolerance in T lymphocytes, especially by increasing T regulatory cells cytokines, TGF beta and IL10.
- Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of allergic rhinitis in children: a meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Med Res 2018 Aug 07; :300060518786905
- This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treating allergic rhinitis in children. We reviewed relevant studies retrieved from the following databases...
This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treating allergic rhinitis in children. We reviewed relevant studies retrieved from the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Cqvip Database, and the Wanfang Database. The analysis was conducted by Cochrane software Revman 5.3. Nineteen randomized, controlled trials were included. Meta-analysis showed that CHM had advantages in the efficacy rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-4.76), recurrence rate (OR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.18-0.49), scores of symptoms, such as sneezing (mean difference [MD] -1.24; 95% CI, -2.33 to -0.14), running nose (MD -1.32; 95% CI, -2.58 to -0.05), and nasal congestion (MD -0.70; 95% CI, -1.05 to -0.36), but not nasal itching (MD -1.37; 95% CI, -3.96 to 1.22), compared with controls. CHM could also effectively decrease immunoglobulin E levels (MD -46.01, 95% CI, -57.53 to -34.48). The current evidence suggests that CHM is more effective in treating allergic rhinitis in children compared with controls. CHM may also decrease the recurrence and level of immunoglobulin E, and improve symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, and nasal congestion, compared with controls.
- Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis is Not Induced by Korean Red Ginseng Mixture in Guinea Pigs. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Res 2018; 34(3):183-189
- Currently, injuries to customers due to health functional foods are annually increasing. To evaluate the antigenicity of Korean red ginseng mixture (KRGM), we tested for systemic anaphylactic shock a...
Currently, injuries to customers due to health functional foods are annually increasing. To evaluate the antigenicity of Korean red ginseng mixture (KRGM), we tested for systemic anaphylactic shock and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in guinea pigs. Based on a comparison of measured body weights, there were no changes in body weight for the KRGM treatment group compared with the control group. In the ovalbumin treated group, however, there was a statistically significant decrease in body weight. For the active systemic anaphylaxis test, after the induction, there were no symptoms that suggested anaphylactic shock in the control and KRGM treatment group. In the ovalbumin treated group, there were symptoms that suggested severe anaphylaxis, and those symptoms included restlessness, piloerection, tremor, rubbing or licking the nose, sneezing, coughing, hyperpnea, dyspnea, staggering gait, jumping, gasping and writhing, convulsion, side position and Cheyne-stokes respiration. All animals died within thirty minutes in the ovalbumin treated group. For the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test in guinea pigs sensitized to KRGM, each anti-serum was diluted in a stepwise manner. This was followed by an intravenous injection of a mixture of KRGM and Evans blue. The results of the test showed that all the responses were negative in the control and the low-dose and high-dose administration groups. However, in the ovalbumin treated group, all the responses were positive. Based on the above results, there were no anaphylactic responses for up to 12 times the amount of human intake of KRGM in Hartley Guinea-pigs. The results suggest that KRGM is safe as measured by the systemic and local antigenicity in guinea pigs.
- Evaluation of clinical outcome and risk factors for failure of single-incision mid-urethral short tape procedure (Solyx™ tape) for stress urinary incontinence. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Minim Invasive Gynecol 2018 Jul 21
- CONCLUSIONS: The Solyx SIS is an effective and safe treatment option for women with USI showing high objective and subjective cure rates with low incidence of complications at 1-year post-treatment. The identified independent risk factors for failure are related to poor urethral function and previous pelvic reconstructive surgery.
- Evaluation of Montelukast for the Treatment of Children With Japanese Cedar Pollinosis Using an Artificial Exposure Chamber (OHIO Chamber). [Journal Article]
- ARAllergy Rhinol (Providence) 2018 Jan-Dec; 9:2152656718783599
- CONCLUSIONS: Although montelukast was well tolerated, this study did not demonstrate a treatment difference between active drug and placebo in Japanese children exposed to JC pollen in the OHIO Chamber.Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01852812.
- Internal neurolysis of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve for the treatment of equine trigeminal mediated headshaking syndrome. [Journal Article]
- CVCan Vet J 2018; 59(7):763-769
- A 5-year-old Hannovarian warmblood gelding was presented for recurrent headshaking exacerbated with exercise. The horse displayed clinical signs of repetitive vertical head movements, face rubbing on...
A 5-year-old Hannovarian warmblood gelding was presented for recurrent headshaking exacerbated with exercise. The horse displayed clinical signs of repetitive vertical head movements, face rubbing on the forelimbs and on the ground, repetitive sneezing, and striking the muzzle with his forelimbs. The clinical signs resulted in a horse that could not be ridden and was dangerous. Clinical signs were most persistent in direct sunlight, but occurred with excitement, exercise, or bridling indoors. A diagnosis of equine trigeminal mediated headshaking syndrome was made. Surgical treatment was performed with a supraorbital approach to the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve as it exits the round foramen, where an internal neurolysis (nerve combing) was conducted on both the left and right nerves. Severe headshaking behavior resolved after surgery. The horse displayed face rubbing of the muzzle which began 96 hours after surgery and resolved over 12 days with corticosteroid and vitamin E therapy. The horse became pasture sound and the clinical signs had resolved in the presence of sunlight, but repetitive vertical head movements persisted under saddle which left the horse unpleasant to ride.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) are immune responses that are exaggerated or inappropriate against an antigen or allergen. Coombs and Gell classified hypersensitivity reactions into four forms. Type ...
Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) are immune responses that are exaggerated or inappropriate against an antigen or allergen. Coombs and Gell classified hypersensitivity reactions into four forms. Type I, type II, and type III hypersensitivity reactions are known as immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) because occur within 24 hours. Antibodies including IgE, IgM, and IgG mediate them. Type I or Anaphylactic Response Anaphylactic Responseis mediated by IgE antibodies that are produced by the immune system in response to environmental proteins (allergens) such as pollens, animal danders or dust mites. These antibodies (IgE) bind to mast cells and basophils, which contain histamine granules that are released in the reaction and cause inflammation. Type I hypersensitivity reactions can be seen in bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, food allergy, allergic conjunctivitis, and anaphylactic shock. Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency because can lead to an acute, life-threatening respiratory failure. It is an IgE-mediated process. It is the most severe form of an allergic reaction, where mast cells suddenly release a large amount of histamine and later on leukotrienes. In severe cases intense bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, cyanosis, hypotension, and shock are present. Allergic bronchial asthma Allergic bronchial asthma is an atopic disease, characterized by bronchospasm. It may also be a chronic inflammatory disease. In its etiology, and environmental factors along with a genetic background play an important role. The diagnosis is dependent on history and examination. In allergic bronchial asthma, IgE is elevated, and sputum eosinophilia is common. Epidemiologically, a positive skin prick test or specific IgE are risk factors for asthma. Allergic rhinitis Allergic rhinitis is another atopic disease where histamine and leukotrienes are responsible for rhinorrhea, sneezing and nasal obstruction. Allergens are similar to those found in bronchial asthma. Nasal polyps may be seen in chronic rhinitis. Allergic conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis presents with rhinitis and is IgE-mediated. Itching and eye problems including watering, redness, and swelling always occur. Food allergy One must differentiate food allergy (IgE-mediated) from food intolerance that can be cause for a variety of etiology including malabsorption and celiac disease. It is more frequent in children as seen in cow's milk allergy. Food allergy symptoms mostly affect the respiratory tract, the skin, and the gut. Skin prick tests are helpful to test for food allergens that can trigger severe reactions, e.g., peanuts, eggs, fish, and milk. Atopic eczema Atopic eczema is an IgE-mediated disease that affects the skin and has an immunopathogenesis very similar to that of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, which are present in more than half of the diseased. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) may reveal the specificity of the IgE antibody involved but has little help in management. Drug allergy Drugs may cause allergic reactions by any mechanism of hypersensitivity. For example, penicillin may cause anaphylaxis, which is IgE-mediated but must responses be trivial. Penicillin cross-reacts with other semisynthetic penicillins including monobactams and carbapenems and may also cross-react with other antibiotics such as cephalosporins. Type II or Cytotoxic-Mediated Response IgG and IgM mediate cytotoxic-mediated response against cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins. The immunoglobulins involved in this type of reaction damages cells by activating the complement system or by phagocytosis. Type II hypersensitivity reactions can be seen in immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and autoimmune neutropenia. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) ITP is an autoimmune disorder that occurs at any age. Phagocytes destroy sensitized platelets in the peripheral blood. Clinically, it manifests by thrombocytopenia with shortened platelet survival and increased marrow megakaryocytes. Sudden onset of petechiae and bleeding from the gums, nose, bowel, and urinary tract occurs. Bleeding can accompany infections, drug reactions, malignancy and other autoimmune disorders such as thyroid disease and SLE. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) There are two types of immune hemolytic anemia: IgG-mediated (warm AIHA) and IgM-mediated (cold AIHA). The warm type may be idiopathic autoimmune or secondary to other diseases such as malignancy affecting the lymphoid tissues. The cold type may be idiopathic or secondary to infections such as Epstein-Barr virus. The primary clinical sign of the two is jaundice. The laboratory diagnosis is made by a positive Coombs test, which identifies immunoglobulins and C3 on red blood cells. Autoimmune neutropenia Autoimmune neutropenia may be present with bacterial and fungal infections, or it may occur alone or with autoimmune diseases (SLE, RA, autoimmune hepatitis), infections and lymphoma. Bone marrow examination is needed if neutropenia is severe. For associated autoimmune disorders, an autoimmune antibody panel is necessary (ANA, ENA, and dsDNA). Hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis) The maternal immune system suffers an initial sensitization to the fetal Rh+ red blood cells during birth, when the placenta tears away. The first child escapes disease but the mother, now sensitized, will be capable of causing a hemolytic reaction against a second Rh+ fetus, which develops anemia and jaundice once the maternal IgG crosses the placenta. Myasthenia gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors that interfere with the neuromuscular transmission. It is characterized by extreme muscular fatigue, double vision, bilateral ptosis, deconjugate eye movements, difficulty swallowing, and weakness in upper arms. Babies born to myasthenic mothers can have transient muscle weakness due to pathogenic IgG antibodies that cross the placenta. Goodpasture syndrome Goodpasture syndrome is a type II hypersensitivity reaction characterized by the presence of nephritis in association with lung hemorrhage. In most patients, it is caused by cross-reactive autoantigens that are present in the basement membranes of the lung and kidney. A number of patients with this problem exhibit antibodies to collagen type IV, which is an important component of basement membranes. Pemphigus Pemphigus causes a severe blistering disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes. The sera of patients with pemphigus have antibodies against desmoglein-1 and desmoglein-3, which are components of desmosomes, which form junctions between epidermal cells. Pemphigus is strongly linked to HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0402), which is a molecule that presents one of the autoantigens involved in the immunopathogenesis of this disease (desmoglein-3). Type III or Immunocomplex Reactions These are also mediated by IgM and IgG antibodies that react with soluble antigens forming antigen-antibody complexes. The complement system becomes activated and releases chemotactic agents that attract neutrophils and cause inflammation and tissue damage as seen in vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Type III hypersensitivity reactions can classically be seen in serum sickness and Arthus reaction. Serum sickness Serum sickness can be induced with massive injections of foreign antigen. Circulating immune complexes infiltrate the blood vessel walls and tissues, causing an increased vascular permeability and leading to inflammatory processes such as vasculitis and arthritis. It was a complication of anti-serum prepared in animals to which some individuals produced antibodies to the foreign protein. It was also experienced in the treatment with antibiotics such as penicillin. Arthus reaction Arthus reaction is a local reaction seen when a small quantity of antigens is injected into the skin repeatedly until detectable levels of antibodies (IgG) are present. If the same antigen is inoculated, immune complexes develop at the mentioned local site and in the endothelium of small vessels. This reaction is characterized by the presence of marked edema and hemorrhage, depending on the administered dose of the foreign antigen.
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- Unilateral Rhinorrhea and Sneezing After Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Under Intravenous Propofol Sedation With Supplemental Oxygen Administered via a Nasal Cannula: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- PA A Pract 2018 Jul 16
- We present a rarely described complication of unilateral rhinorrhea and sneezing in a patient who received intravenous sedation with propofol and supplemental oxygen via a nasal cannula during upper ...
We present a rarely described complication of unilateral rhinorrhea and sneezing in a patient who received intravenous sedation with propofol and supplemental oxygen via a nasal cannula during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The literature is reviewed and a mechanism is proposed. Mechanical irritation of the nasal mucosa is felt to be the trigger. Suggestions to avoid and to treat are offered.