- Peripheral inflammation accelerates the onset of mechanical hypersensitivity after spinal cord injury and engages TNFα signaling mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 06
- Previously, we showed that noxious stimulation of the tail produces numerous detrimental effects after spinal cord injury (SCI), including an earlier onset and increased magnitude of mechanical hyper...
Previously, we showed that noxious stimulation of the tail produces numerous detrimental effects after spinal cord injury (SCI), including an earlier onset and increased magnitude of mechanical hypersensitivity. Expanding on these observations, this study sought to determine whether localized peripheral inflammation similarly impacts the expression of mechanical hypersensitivity after SCI. Adult rats received a moderate contusion injury at thoracic level (Tl0) or sham surgery, and were administered complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or vehicle in one hind paw 24 hours later. Examination of locomotor recovery (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan [BBB] score) showed no adverse effect of CFA. Mechanical testing with von Frey hairs was done at time-points ranging from 1 hour to 28 days after CFA or vehicle treatment, and rats were sacrificed at 1, 7 or 28 days for cellular assessment. Unlike vehicle-treated SCI rats where mechanical hypersensitivity emerged at 14 days, CFA-treated SCI rats showed mechanical hypersensitivity as early as 1 hour after CFA administration which lasted at least 28 days. CFA-treated sham subjects also showed an early onset of mechanical hypersensitivity, but this was maintained up to 7 days after treatment. Cellular assessments revealed congruent findings. Expression levels of c-fos, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, TNF receptors, and members of TNFα signaling pathway such as caspase 8 and phosphorylated extracellular related kinase (pERK) were preferentially upregulated in the lumbar spinal cord of SCI-CFA rats. Meanwhile, c-jun was significantly increased in both CFA treated groups. Overall, these results together with our previous reports, suggest that peripheral noxious input after SCI facilitates the development of pain by mechanisms that may require TNFα signaling.
- Spontaneous Arrest of Sporadic Spinal Hemangioblastoma Growth after Postoperative Nodular Recurrence: Case Report. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Sep 28; 10(9):e3380
- Hemangioblastomas are rare, slow-growing, highly vascularized tumors of the central nervous system which often occur in the spinal cord. When presenting as sporadic, isolated tumors without Von-Hippe...
Hemangioblastomas are rare, slow-growing, highly vascularized tumors of the central nervous system which often occur in the spinal cord. When presenting as sporadic, isolated tumors without Von-Hippel Lindau disease, they are curable through surgery with a low rate of recurrence. Tumor recurrence in these cases is usually associated with prior subtotal resection. However, to the best of our knowledge, cases of recurrent, sporadic spinal hemangioblastoma have not been reported to spontaneously arrest without intervention or symptoms. We report a patient who underwent an initial complete resection of a cervical spinal hemangioblastoma, a subtotal resection of tumor recurrence four and a half years later, and nine years of neurologic and radiographic stability with no additional interventions.
- The Effects of Icariin on Enhancing Motor Recovery Through Attenuating Pro-inflammatory Factors and Oxidative Stress via Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in the Mice Model of Spinal Cord Injury. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:1617
- Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe medical problem leading to crucial life change. Icariin (ICA) is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum which has neur...
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe medical problem leading to crucial life change. Icariin (ICA) is a natural flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornum which has neuroprotective effects. But little is known about the relationship between ICA and SCI. We hypothesized ICA may enhance motor recovery through attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mice were randomly assigned to sham, SCI, ICA 20 μmol/kg (low dose) and ICA 50 μmol/kg (high dose) groups. And Behavioral, biochemical, molecular biological, immunofluorescent and histological assays were performed. First, ICA enhanced motor recovery greatly at 14, 28, and 42 days and protected spinal cord tissues especially in the high dose group. Meanwhile, ICA decreased the production of interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase at 24 h and 3 days after SCI. The level of mitochondrial reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Na+-K+-ATPase, mitochondrial membrane potential, state III respiration rate and the respiratory control ratio were also significantly increased, while malondialdehyde level and Ca2+ concentration were decreased by ICA. Furthermore, ICA decreased the expression of mitochondrial apoptotic proteins at 3 days after SCI. More importantly, transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Nissl staining implied that ICA at a high dose inhibited the neuronal apoptosis after SCI. Our research indicated that early and continuous treatment of ICA at a high dose significantly enhanced motor recovery after SCI through inhibiting pro-inflammatory factors, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
- Intraspinal dermoid and epidermoid cysts: Long-term outcome and risk factors. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Spinal Cord Med 2018 Dec 05; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: The gold standard treatment for intraspinal tumors is gross total resection, but the operation needs to protect the remaining nerve function as much as possible and follow-up should be focused on patients with a high risk of poor outcome.
- Spinal Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma With a QKI-RAF1 Fusion. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2018 Dec 05
- Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a slow-growing neoplasm that predominantly affects the pediatric and young adult population. This neoplasm has a good prognosis, with a median 10-year survival ...
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a slow-growing neoplasm that predominantly affects the pediatric and young adult population. This neoplasm has a good prognosis, with a median 10-year survival rate of 70%. The majority of tumors are supratentorial and arise in the temporal lobe, while spinal tumors are extremely rare, with only 8 reported cases. Molecular perturbations involving the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway have been described in PXAs. The most common mutation is BRAF V600E in 60%-80% of cases. Other mechanisms activating this pathway in the absence of this mutation are rare and include CRAF (RAF1) fusion genes. We report a PXA case in the cervical spinal cord of a 49-year-old man with slowly progressive coordination difficulties and extremity numbness. The tumor was negative for the V600E mutation, but 2 RNA sequencing platforms detected a QKI-RAF1 fusion (t(6; 3)(q26; p25)), which has not been previously reported in PXAs. This fusion is known to activate MAPK/ERK and PI3K/mTOR signaling. Although first- and second-generation RAF inhibitors are predicted to be ineffective, this fusion may be targetable by the novel RAF inhibitor LY3009120 and to some extent by the MEK inhibitor trametinib. Genetic analysis to screen for MAPK/ERK pathway mutations is warranted on PXAs negative for the V600E mutation.
- [Neuroprotective effect of icariin on spinal cord injury in rats]. [Journal Article]
- ZGZhongguo Gu Shang 2018 Nov 25; 31(11):1054-1060
- CONCLUSIONS: Icariin can inhibit inflammation, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis after spinal cord injury, reduce histopathological damage of spinal cord, improve the motor function, effectively protect spinal cord tissue, and has an obvious neuroprotective effect.
- miRNA-544a Regulates the Inflammation of Spinal Cord Injury by Inhibiting the Expression of NEUROD4. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 04; 51(4):1921-1931
- CONCLUSIONS: The expression of miR-544a was significantly decreased after spinal cord injury. High expression of miR-544a could alleviate the inflammation caused by spinal cord injury and promote the recovery of spinal cord via the inhibition of NEUROD4.
- The Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-compatible Pacemakers in Neurosurgical Patients. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Sep 27; 10(9):e3374
- Artificial implantable pacemakers have long been a challenge to neurosurgeons seeking to perform advanced diagnostic imaging on their patients. Unfortunately, while the use of implantable pacemakers ...
Artificial implantable pacemakers have long been a challenge to neurosurgeons seeking to perform advanced diagnostic imaging on their patients. Unfortunately, while the use of implantable pacemakers has been a life-saving advance for those with cardiac arrhythmias, they also often prevent these patients from undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There have been multiple reported cases of pacemaker failure in the context of MRI use. Recent technological advances, however, have allowed the development of pacemakers that are not affected by the MRI scanner. Similar technology has also been applied to the development of MRI-compatible spinal cord stimulators and other neurostimulation devices. In this paper, we discuss four specific neurosurgical cases where the use of MRI was critical for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. Current non-MRI-compatible pacemakers were exchanged for MRI-compatible pacemaker technology with some associated cost and risk. The diagnostic cranial and spinal MRIs subsequently obtained were critical for forging the ensuing neurosurgical care. Based on these cases, we extrapolate the importance of MRI-compatible pacemakers to society at large and advocate for the use of such devices in all patients going forward.
- Effects of rehabilitation on spontaneous intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia) patient without surgery: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(48):e13414
- CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that early rehabilitation such as physical therapy is an effective treatment for improving function in patients with intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage with or without operation.
New Search Next
- Change in the cross-sectional area of the thecal sac following balloon kyphoplasty for pathological vertebral compression fractures prior to spine stereotactic radiosurgery. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosurg Spine 2018 Oct 01; :1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with preexisting epidural disease and destruction of the posterior vertebral body cortex who are undergoing BKP for pathological fractures, there is an increased risk of further mass effect upon the thecal sac and the potential to alter the SRS treatment planning.