- WT1-expressing interneurons regulate left-right alternation during mammalian locomotor activity. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci 2018 May 22
- The basic pattern of activity underlying stepping in mammals is generated by a neural network located in the caudal spinal cord. Within this network the specific circuitry coordinating left-right alt...
The basic pattern of activity underlying stepping in mammals is generated by a neural network located in the caudal spinal cord. Within this network the specific circuitry coordinating left-right alternation has been shown to involve several groups of molecularly-defined interneurons. Here we characterize a population of spinal neurons that express the Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) gene and investigate their role during locomotor activity in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that WT1-expressing cells are located in the ventromedial region of the spinal cord of mice and are also present in the human spinal cord. In the mouse these cells are inhibitory, project axons to the contralateral spinal cord, terminate in close proximity to other commissural interneuron subtypes, and are essential for appropriate left-right alternation during locomotion. In addition to identifying WT1-expressing interneurons as a key component of the locomotor circuitry, this study provides insight into the manner in which several populations of molecularly-defined interneurons are interconnected in order to generate coordinated motor activity on either side of the body during stepping.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTIn this study we characterize WT1-expressing spinal interneurons in mice and demonstrate that they are commissurally projecting and inhibitory. Silencing of this neuronal population during a locomotor task results in a complete breakdown of left-right alternation while flexor-extensor alternation was not significantly affected. Axons of WT1 neurons are shown to terminate nearby commissural interneurons which coordinate motoneuron activity during locomotion, and presumably regulate their activity. Finally, the WT1 gene is shown to be present in the spinal cord of humans raising the possibility of functional homology between these species. This study not only identifies a key component of the locomotor circuitry but also begins to unravel the connectivity amongst the growing number of molecularly-defined interneurons that comprise this neural network.
- Novel TNF receptor-1 inhibitors identified as potential therapeutic candidates for traumatic brain injury. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroinflammation 2018 May 22; 15(1):154
- CONCLUSIONS: Using sleep as a bio-indicator of TNF-R-dependent neuroinflammation, we identified C7 and SGT11 as potential therapeutic candidates for TBI.
- [NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF MANGIFERIN ON ACUTE SPINAL CORD INJURY IN RATS AND ITS MECHANISM]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2016 Aug 08; 30(8):1019-1025
- CONCLUSIONS: Mangiferin has neuroprotective effects on acute SCI in rats by alleviating edema of spinal cord, inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation response, and regulating the Bcl-2 and Bax pathway.
- Microsurgical Resection of Spinal Cord Hemangioblastoma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. [Journal Article]
- ONOper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 May 18
- This video demonstrates microsurgical resection of spinal cord hemangioblastoma. Hemangioblastomas are rare, benign, highly vascularized tumors classified as grade I according to World Health Organiz...
This video demonstrates microsurgical resection of spinal cord hemangioblastoma. Hemangioblastomas are rare, benign, highly vascularized tumors classified as grade I according to World Health Organization classification systems. About 3% of all intramedullary tumors are hemangioblastomas.1,2 Spinal cord hemangioblastomas are either sporadic3,4 or manifestations of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease in 20% to 45% of patients.5,6 A 30-year-old male presented with sudden onset urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancing intramedullary tumor with adjacent cyst in T11, and syringomyelia extending to C1. Surgical resection followed rules that apply to resection of arteriovascular malformations: coagulation of arterial feeders precedes the coagulation of the draining vein, which is preserved until the end of surgery.2,4,5,7,8 First, posterior midline myelotomy was performed and the tumor cyst was drained in order to develop a dissection plane. Following this, we continuously separated dorsal nerve roots from the tumor nodule using microsurgical technique. The key step in tumor resection is devascularization of the tumor, achievable in 2 ways.2,7,9-13 The circumferential detachment of the normal pia from the tumor pia is crucial in developing a plane of dissection. The coagulation and division of arterial feeders while preserving the drainage vein further devascularizes the tumor. Once the tumor mural nodule was detached from the spinal cord, the drainage vein was coagulated last and the tumor was removed. The patient fully recovered from his incontinence and was neurologically intact. Screening for VHL disease was negative. Written consent was obtained directly from the patient.
- Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Spinal Cord in a Child: Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- PNPediatr Neurosurg 2018 May 22; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: We reviewed the literature on all children with spinal cord AT/RT. The review showed that the cervical region is the most common location of origin, especially in younger children. Reported cases were treated with a combination of surgery, systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, and a survival time of 18 months represented the best outcome. Overall mean survival time was 10 months.
- Valproic acid attenuates traumatic spinal cord injury-induced inflammation via STAT1 and NF-κB pathway dependent of HDAC3. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroinflammation 2018 May 18; 15(1):150
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the VPA treatment attenuated the inflammatory response by modulating microglia polarization through STAT1-mediated acetylation of the NF-κB pathway, dependent of HDAC3 activity. These effects led to neuroprotective effects following SCI.
- Thickening Ligamentum Flavum Mimicking Tumor in the Epidural Space of the Cervical Spine. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Neurotrauma 2018; 14(1):43-46
- In patients with tumors and spinal cord lesions, inflammation and tissue infection can result in mass effect detection on imaging. As a result, surgical biopsy procedures are often performed on the l...
In patients with tumors and spinal cord lesions, inflammation and tissue infection can result in mass effect detection on imaging. As a result, surgical biopsy procedures are often performed on the lesions. We report a rare case in which the thickening ligamentum flavum (LF) appeared to be a tumor in the epidural space of the cervical spine based on imaging findings. A 52-year-old man visited our outpatient clinic with severe shoulder pain and radicular pain in his right arm that had developed gradually after a traffic accident two months earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an extradural mass at the cervicothoracic junction level. Suspecting a tumor, spinal decompression surgery was performed and a biopsy of the mass was obtained. At the time of surgery, the LF was thick and compressed the spinal cord. After successful removal of the LF, the spinal cord appeared normal. Histopathological examination confirmed the mass as the LF. The patient was discharged without pain or weakness two weeks postoperatively. This case demonstrated that when the LF of the cervicothoracic junction is thickened, it may be misdiagnosed as a cervical spine tumor compressing the spinal cord.
- Combinatory effect of mesenchymal stromal cells transplantation and quercetin after spinal cord injury in rat. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(9):2876-2887
- CONCLUSIONS: We showed that HUMSCs transplantation in combination with Qu was a potential strategy for reducing secondary damage and promoting functional recovery following SCI.
- Hybrid surgery-radiosurgery therapy for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression: A prospective evaluation using patient-reported outcomes. [Journal Article]
- NPNeurooncol Pract 2018; 5(2):104-113
- CONCLUSIONS: Validated PRO instruments showed that in patients with MESCC, hybrid therapy with separation surgery and radiosurgery results in a significant decrease in pain severity and symptom interference. These prospective data confirm the benefit of hybrid therapy for treatment of MESCC and should facilitate referral of patients with MESCC for surgical evaluation.
New Search Next
- [Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates hyperalgesia and reduces cytokines in rats with post-herpetic neuralgia via activating autophagy]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2017; 33(2):155-8
- CONCLUSIONS: Hydrogen-rich saline attenuated PWT and inhibited the release of cytokines TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6 in rats with PHN via activating autophagy.