- Surgically Treated Primary Spinal Cord Neoplasms in Southeastern Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci Rural Pract 2018 Jan-Mar; 9(1):137-139
- CONCLUSIONS: Meningioma is the most common surgically treated primary spinal cord tumor in our setting. Surgery is associated with good outcome.
- Intradural spinal tumors in adults-update on management and outcome. [Review]
- NRNeurosurg Rev 2018 Feb 17
- Among spinal tumors that occur intradurally, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, ependymomas, and astrocytomas are the most common. While a spinal MRI is the state of the art to diagnose intradural spi...
Among spinal tumors that occur intradurally, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, ependymomas, and astrocytomas are the most common. While a spinal MRI is the state of the art to diagnose intradural spinal tumors, in some cases CT scans, angiography, CSF analyses, and neurophysiological examination can be valuable. The management of these lesions depends not only on the histopathological diagnosis but also on the clinical presentation and the anatomical location, allowing either radical resection as with most extramedullary lesions or less invasive strategies as with intramedullary lesions. Although intramedullary lesions are rare and sometimes difficult to manage, well-planned treatment can achieve excellent outcome without treatment-related deficits. Technical advances in imaging, neuromonitoring, minimally invasive approaches, and radiotherapy have improved the outcome of intradural spinal tumors. However, the outcome in malignant intramedullary tumors remains poor. While surgery is the mainstay treatment for many of these lesions, radiation and chemotherapy are of growing importance in recurrent and multilocular disease. We reviewed the literature on this topic to provide an overview of spinal cord tumors, treatment strategies, and outcomes. Typical cases of extra- and intramedullary tumors are presented to illustrate management options and outcomes.
- Exophytic cerebral hemispheric low grade glioma: An unusual growth pattern of a common central nervous system tumour. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Although extremely rare, cerebral hemispheric grade 2 astrocytomas may have exophytic growth pattern. The exact mechanisms underlying this are not clearly known. More such cases need to be reported so that we can decipher the true nature of these tumors.
- Anti-inflammatory effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic acid in RAW 264.7 macrophages, Bone marrow-derived macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and spinal cord injury. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 16; 8(1):3176
- This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages,...
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The anti-inflammatory effects of TUDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and BMMs were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The pathological changes in lesions of the spinal cord tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining, luxol fast blue/cresyl violet-staining and immunofluorescent staining. TUDCA decreased the LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediator, NO. It also suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, TUDCA decreased prostaglandin E2(PGE2). After SCI, TUDCA supported the recovery of the injury site and suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as iNOS, CD68 and CD86. In addition, TUDCA induced the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, Arg-1. In conclusion, TUDCA inhibits inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and BMMs. TUDCA can be a potential alternative drug for SCI.
- Critical assessment of pediatric neurosurgery patient/parent educational information obtained via the Internet. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Feb 16; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: Google and Bing searches yielded useful educational information, using either mobile or PC platforms. Most information was relevant and accurate; however, the depth and breadth of information was variable. Search results over a 6-month period were moderately stable. Pediatric neurosurgery practices and neurosurgical professional organization websites were inferior (less current, less accurate, less authoritative, and less purposeful) to governmental and encyclopedia-type resources such as Wikipedia. This presents an opportunity for pediatric neurosurgeons to participate in the creation of better online patient/parent educational material.
- Neuroprotective mechanisms of rutin for spinal cord injury through anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation and inhibition of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. [Journal Article]
- NRNeural Regen Res 2018; 13(1):128-134
- Rutin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-tumor and immune regulatory effects. However, the neuroprotective effects of rutin in spinal cord injury are unknown. The p38 mitogen activa...
Rutin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-tumor and immune regulatory effects. However, the neuroprotective effects of rutin in spinal cord injury are unknown. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway is the most important member of the MAPK family that controls inflammation. We assumed that the mechanism of rutin in the repair of spinal cord injury is associated with the inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway. Allen's method was used to establish a rat model of spinal cord injury. The rat model was intraperitoneally injected with rutin (30 mg/kg) for 3 days. After treatment with rutin, Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor function scores increased. Water content, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and interleukin 6 levels, p38 MAPK protein expression and caspase-3 and -9 activities in T8-9spinal cord decreased. Oxidative stress related markers superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels increased in peripheral blood. Rutin exerts neuroprotective effect through anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway.
- Healthcare resource utilisation associated with skeletal-related events in European patients with multiple myeloma: results from a prospective, multinational, observational study. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Haematol 2018 Feb 14
- CONCLUSIONS: All SREs were associated with substantial HRU; therefore, preventing SREs in MM will reduce the economic and resource burden on healthcare systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- High fat diet sensitizes fibromyalgia-like pain behaviors in mice via tumor necrosis factor alpha. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0190861
- Fibromyalgia (FM) and obesity are closely related. However, little is known about how obesity contributes to FM. Importantly, adequate evidence has shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) play...
Fibromyalgia (FM) and obesity are closely related. However, little is known about how obesity contributes to FM. Importantly, adequate evidence has shown that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a critical role in obesity. Thus, we hypothesized that obesity-induced TNF-α release may potentiate FM-associated pain. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of TNF-α in the development of FM-like pain in a mouse model of acid saline injection-induced FM. Consistent with previous reports, we showed that repeated acid saline injections induced bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia, and this effect lasted for at least 4 days after acid saline injections. This phenomenon was associated with increased levels of TNF-α in plasma, muscles, and spinal cord. Furthermore, we found that 24 weeks of high fat diet treatment significantly potentiated acid saline-induced bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia. High fat diet-treated mice exhibited robustly increased levels of TNF-α in plasma, muscles, and spinal cord after acid saline injections compared with low fat diet-treated mice. Additionally, using immunofluorescence staining, we found that the number of TNF-α positive cells in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was increased after acid saline injections, and high fat diet treatment further sensitized this increase. Finally, we reported that acid saline-induced FM-like pain behaviors were abolished in TNFRp55-/- mice, confirming the critical role of TNF-α in the development of FM-like pain. Taken together, our results suggested that high fat diet treatment may sensitize acid saline-induced FM-like pain via increasing TNF-α levels in plasma, muscles, and DRG.
- Dermoid cysts of the conus medullaris: Clinical review, case series and management strategies. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Neurosci 2018 Feb 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Dermoid cysts of the conus medullaris are challenging to treat. Surgical control and restraint are key, especially when patients are young and could potentially fully recover and remain in remission for a period of years.
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- PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Cancer Institute (US): Bethesda (MD)
- This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does n...
This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary ("Date Last Modified") is the date of the most recent change. The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board.