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- Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples of patients with external ocular infection. [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Microbiol 2018; 10(4):215-219
- CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus isolates belonging to SCCmec type IV and pvl gene among patients with ocular infection is very serious; therefore, identify genetic characterization of MRSA isolates for empirical therapy and infection control is very important.
- Whole Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics Analysis of Multi-drug Resistant Environmental Staphylococcus epidermidis ST59. [Journal Article]
- GG3 (Bethesda) 2018 07 02; 8(7):2225-2230
- Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major opportunistic pathogen primarily recovered from device-associated healthcare associated infections (DA-HAIs). Although S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negativ...
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major opportunistic pathogen primarily recovered from device-associated healthcare associated infections (DA-HAIs). Although S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are less virulent than Staphylococcus aureus, these bacteria are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes and resistance-associated mobile genetic elements that can be transferred between staphylococcal species. We report a whole genome sequence of a multidrug resistant S. epidermidis (strain G6_2) representing multilocus sequence type (ST) 59 and isolated from an environmental sampling of a hotel room in London, UK. The genome of S. epidermidis G6_2 comprises of a 2408357 bp chromosome and six plasmids, with an average G+C content of 32%. The strain displayed a multi-drug resistance phenotype which was associated with carriage of 7 antibiotic resistance genes (blaZ, mecA, msrA, mphC, fosB, aacA-aphD, tetK) as well as resistance-conferring mutations in fusA and ileS Antibiotic resistance genes were located on plasmids and chromosome. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that antibiotic resistance gene composition found in G6_2 was partly preserved across the ST59 lineage.
- Small mammals as sentinels of antimicrobial-resistant staphylococci. [Journal Article]
- FMFolia Microbiol (Praha) 2018; 63(5):665-668
- A total of 39 coagulase-negative staphylococci and seven Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from small mammal feces, i.e., the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the yellow-necked m...
A total of 39 coagulase-negative staphylococci and seven Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from small mammal feces, i.e., the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the yellow-necked mouse (A. flavicollis) in two sampling areas, deciduous forest and karst plains. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed five species of coagulase-negative staphylococci: S. sciuri, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, and S. xylosus. All strains were susceptible to tetracycline, linezolid, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Three MRSA strains with the mecA gene were detected. The beta-lactamase gene blaZ was detected in ampicillin-resistant staphylococci and in the high-level resistant strains (oxacillin over 2 mg/L) mecA gene. The mecC gene was not detected by PCR. Erythromycin-resistant staphylococci harbored the ermC gene and/or the efflux gene msrA. There were no detectable dfr genes in trimethoprim-resistant staphylococci and the rifampicin-resistant strains were without mutation in the rpoB gene. In summary, wild small mammals may serve as sentinels of mecA-positive S. aureus with erythromycin resistance genes ermC and efflux msrA. Small mammals appear to be useful indicators of antibiotic resistance.
- Effectiveness of preoperative decolonization with nasal povidone iodine in Chinese patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery: a prospective cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Med Biol Res 2017 Dec 18; 51(2):e6736
- Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nares of patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery increases the potential risk of surgical site infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has...
Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the nares of patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery increases the potential risk of surgical site infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has gained recognition as a pathogen that is no longer only just a hospital-acquired pathogen. Patients positive for MRSA are associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality following infection. MRSA is commonly found in the nares, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) is even more prevalent. Recently, studies have determined that screening for this pathogen prior to surgery and diminishing staphylococcal infections at the surgical site will dramatically reduce surgical site infections. A nasal mupirocin treatment is shown to significantly reduce the colonization of the pathogen. However, this treatment is expensive and is currently not available in China. Thus, in this study, we first sought to determine the prevalence of MSSA/MSRA in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery in northern China, and then, we treated the positive patients with a nasal povidone-iodine swab. Here, we demonstrate a successful reduction in the colonization of S. aureus. We propose that this treatment could serve as a cost-effective means of eradicating this pathogen in patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery, which might reduce the rate of surgical site infections.
- Prevalence of Genotypes That Determine Resistance of Staphylococci to Macrolides and Lincosamides in Serbia. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Public Health 2017; 5:200
- Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS) resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in Staphylococcus infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distr...
Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS) resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in Staphylococcus infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distribution of the MLS resistance genes in community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus isolates. The MLS resistance phenotypes [constitutive resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSb), inducible resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSb), resistance to macrolide/macrolide-streptogramin B (M/MSb), and resistance to lincosamide-streptogramin A/streptogramin B (LSa/b)] were determined by double-disc diffusion method. The presence of the MLS resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA/B, lnuA, lnuB, and lsaA) were determined by end-point polymerase chain reaction in 179 isolates of staphylococci collected during 1-year period at the Center for Microbiology of Public Health Institute in Vranje. The most frequent MLS phenotype among staphylococcal isolates, both community-acquired and hospital-acquired, was iMLSb (33.4%). The second most frequent was M/MSb (17.6%) with statistically significantly higher number of hospital-acquired staphylococcal isolates (p < 0.05). MLS resistance was mostly determined by the presence of msrA/B (35.0%) and ermC (20.8%) genes. Examined phenotypes were mostly determined by the presence of one gene, especially by msrA/B (26.3%) and ermC (14.5%), but 15.6% was determined by a combination of two or more genes. M/MSb phenotype was the most frequently encoded by msrA/B (95.6%) gene, LSa/b phenotype by lnuA (56.3%) gene, and iMLSb phenotype by ermC (29.4%) and ermA (25.5%) genes. Although cMLSb phenotype was mostly determined by the presence of ermC (28.9%), combinations of two or more genes have been present too. This pattern was particularly recorded in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (58.3%) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) (90.9%) isolates with cMLSB phenotype. The msrA/B gene and M/MSb phenotype were statistically significantly higher in hospital-acquired than community-acquired staphylococci strains (p < 0.05). There are no statistically significant differences between staphylococci harboring the rest of MLS resistance genes acquired in community and hospital settings (p > 0.05). The prevalence of iMLSb phenotypes may change over time, so it is necessary to perform periodic survey of MLS resistance phenotypes, particularly where the D-test is not performed routinely.
- Molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples: A three year study in Tehran, Iran. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(8):e0183607
- CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed the existence of VRSA strains in capital of Iran, Tehran. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ST239-SCCmec III/t037 as VRSA strain. These findings support the need for future surveillance studies on VRSA strains to keep the emergence and transmission of these isolates to a minimum.
- Detection of Aminoglycoside and Macrolide Resistance Mechanisms in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. [Journal Article]
- RMRev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2016 Oct-Dec; 120(4):886-91
- CONCLUSIONS: Detection of aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance genes allowed us to establish the concordance between genotypic and phenotypic methods and to correlate the presence of certain resistance genes with the type of circulating strain and the production of virulence factors.
- A rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of the macrolide-streptogramin type B resistance gene msrA in Staphylococcus aureus. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Glob Antimicrob Resist 2016; 7:53-58
- Macrolide-streptogramin type B resistance (the MSB phenotype) is a multidrug resistance phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus conferred by the resistance gene msrA. However, bacteria having the MSB phen...
Macrolide-streptogramin type B resistance (the MSB phenotype) is a multidrug resistance phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus conferred by the resistance gene msrA. However, bacteria having the MSB phenotype are susceptible to lincosamides and 16-membered ring macrolides, which makes profiling resistance genes necessary and urgent for timely and appropriate use of antimicrobials. In this study, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was optimized for prompt detection of the msrA gene. msrA gene sequences were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and primers were designed using the LAMP primer designing software PrimerExplorer v.4, which together recognize seven distinct regions of the msrA gene. The specific LAMP primer set designed in this study could amplify the msrA gene within 25min at an isothermal temperature of 62°C. More importantly, the msrA gene could be detected at a sensitivity as low as 100pg. Furthermore, this optimized LAMP assay provided swift detection of the msrA gene even directly from human specimens. In conclusion, this assay may have great clinical application potential for detection of the msrA gene.
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated From Various Types of Hospital Infections in Pediatrics: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec SCCmec Phenotypes and Antibiotic Resistance Properties. [Journal Article]
- JJJundishapur J Microbiol 2015; 8(11):e11341
- CONCLUSIONS: Regular surveillance of hospital-associated infections and monitoring of the antibiotic sensitivity patterns are required to reduce the prevalence of MRSA. We recommend initial management of children affected by MRSA with imipenem, lincomycin and cephalothin prescriptions.
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- Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolated from wildlife: Identification, molecular characterization and evaluation of resistance profiles with focus on a methicillin-resistant strain. [Journal Article]
- CIComp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016; 44:21-8
- The aim of the study was molecular analysis of coagulase-positive isolates of Staphylococcus bacteria obtained from wild animals and evaluation of their resistance to antimicrobial agents. A total of...
The aim of the study was molecular analysis of coagulase-positive isolates of Staphylococcus bacteria obtained from wild animals and evaluation of their resistance to antimicrobial agents. A total of 76 rectal swabs were taken from wild animals. The species of the Staphylococcus isolates was determined by MALDI TOF MS, susceptibility to antimicrobials was evaluated by phenotypic and molecular methods, epidemiological analysis (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) was also carried out. MRSA isolate was typed by MLST and spa-typing. The animals tested, were carriers (n=38) of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (S. aureus, S. pseudintermedius and S. delphini B). Analyzed isolates were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, which was confirmed by the presence of genes (blaZ, ermA, ermB, msrA, tetK and tetM). A multi-drug resistant and methicillin-resistant isolate of S. aureus was obtained as well (MRSA, ST8, t1635, PVL-positive and ACME-negative). The ADSRRS-fingerprinting method enabled interspecific and intraspecific differentiation of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolates, revealing a certain degree of correlation between the species of the isolate, and the degree of similarity between the isolates. The presence of resistance genes in 13% (5/38) of the isolates obtained from wild animals, including one methicillin-resistant isolate, is relatively small in comparison to the degree of colonization by resistant strains in humans, livestock or pets. Nevertheless, due to the possibility of contact between wild animals, domestic animals and humans, transmission of resistant strains is possible, as suggested by our isolation of a MRSA strain typed as ST8 and specific spa type t1635, which had previously been isolated exclusively from humans.