- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activity so that the victim becomes unresponsive, with...
As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activity so that the victim becomes unresponsive, with no normal breathing and no signs of circulation. If corrective measures are not taken rapidly, this condition progresses to sudden death. Cardiac arrest should be used to signify an event as described above, that is reversed, usually by CPR and/or defibrillation or cardioversion, or cardiac pacing. Sudden cardiac death should not be used to describe events that are not fatal." Each year more than 400,000 Americans succumb to sudden cardiac death. Those suffering from cardiac arrest may or may not have previously diagnosed heart disease. The cause of cardiac arrest varies by population and age, most commonly occurring in those with a previous diagnosis of heart disease. Most of all cardiac deaths are sudden and usually unexpected, which has proven to be uniformly fatal in the past. However, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and advances within emergency medical services (EMS) have proven life-saving interventions. Despite this, approximately 10% of those suffering from cardiac arrest leave the hospital alive, most of which are neurologically impaired.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and poses as one of the most modifiable risk factors towards preventing human disease. More than 400,000 individuals die ...
Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and poses as one of the most modifiable risk factors towards preventing human disease. More than 400,000 individuals die prematurely each year in the United States from cigarette use. This represents almost one of every 5 deaths in the United States. The major diseases caused by cigarette smoking include premature atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, aortic aneurysms, chronic airway obstruction, malignancies, and sudden infant death syndrome. It is a preventable risk factor that can be modified through counseling and pharmacotherapy to decrease the burden of disease caused by smoking impacting the human population.
- Tracking Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation: A Novel Approach. [Journal Article]
- BPBlood Purif 2018 Dec 06; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the potential utility of ScvO2 and eUBBF to track the hemodynamic response to AVF maturation. To what extent these insights translate into shortening of the time between AVF creation and successful cannulation warrants further investigations.
- A systematic review of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in childhood. [Review]
- EBEpilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 03; 90:99-106
- CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the etiology of pediatric SUDEP. Current best practice to prevent pediatric SUDEP is to optimize the management of epilepsy. A national SUDEP registry would provide invaluable high-quality data and insights into modifiable risk factors, genetic predispositions, and novel prevention strategies.
- Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers - United States, 1988-2014. [Journal Article]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Dec 07; 67(48):1342-1346
- Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products can cause sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections, ear infections, and asthma attacks in infants and children, and coronary hea...
Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products can cause sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections, ear infections, and asthma attacks in infants and children, and coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer in adult nonsmokers (1). There is no risk-free level of secondhand smoke exposure (2). CDC analyzed questionnaire and laboratory data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess patterns of secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. nonsmokers. The prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. nonsmokers declined substantially during 1988-2014, from 87.5% to 25.2%. However, no change in exposure occurred between 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, and an estimated one in four nonsmokers, or approximately 58 million persons, were still exposed to secondhand smoke during 2013-2014. Moreover, marked disparities persisted across population groups. Exposure prevalence was highest among nonsmokers aged 3-11 years (37.9%), non-Hispanic blacks (50.3%), and those who were living in poverty (47.9%), in rental housing (38.6%), or with someone who smoked inside the home (73.0%), or among persons who had less than a high school education (30.7%). Comprehensive smoke-free laws and policies for workplaces and public places and smoke-free rules for homes and vehicles can further reduce secondhand smoke exposure among all nonsmokers.
- Pediatric Office Delivery of Smoking Cessation Assistance for Breast-Feeding Mothers. [Journal Article]
- NTNicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 06
- CONCLUSIONS: Breast-feeding mothers were less likely to be current smokers and more likely to have recently quit smoking. Among mothers who continue to smoke and breast feed, the CEASE intervention enhances delivery of smoking cessation assistance.
- Engineered Heart Slice Model of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy using Plakophilin-2 Mutant Myocytes. [Journal Article]
- TETissue Eng Part A 2018 Dec 06
- Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC), a cause of sudden cardiac death among young and otherwise healthy individuals, is a heritable disease that can be modeled in vitro using patient-specific cardiac m...
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC), a cause of sudden cardiac death among young and otherwise healthy individuals, is a heritable disease that can be modeled in vitro using patient-specific cardiac myocytes (CMs) from induced pluripotent stem cells. An understanding of underlying disease mechanisms, particularly in the early concealed stages, could lead to new diagnosis and treatment strategies. However, multicellular syncytial models are needed to understand how genetically-encoded mutations of the desmosomes that interconnect cells lead to aberrant electrical conduction and arrhythmias. Here, engineered heart slices (EHS) were created by seeding human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs from an AC patient with a plakophilin-2 (PKP2) mutation onto intact slices of decellularized myocardium and then compared to age-matched AC CMs cultured as monolayers. After 2 weeks of culture, EHS developed into a confluent, multilayered syncytia that exhibited spontaneous, coordinated beating and could be electrically paced at cycle lengths ranging from 2000ms to 500ms. AC CMs cultured as EHS displayed highly aligned, dense, and ordered sarcomeric structures, with gene expression analyses revealing increased maturation. Additionally, AC-relevant genes were affected by CM culture in EHS, with a substantial increase in PPARG and a decrease in SCN5A when compared to monolayers. Functionally, AC EHS exhibited similar conduction velocities, shorter action potentials, and a slower and steadier spontaneous beat rate compared with monolayers. Reentrant arrhythmias could also be induced in AC EHS by S1-S2 pacing. Our findings suggest that the EHS microenvironment enhances the phenotype of AC CMs in culture while allowing for functional studies of an appropriately aligned syncytium of AC-CMs. Results reported here demonstrate the benefits of studying AC using EHS, a tissue construct that allows syncytial culture and the incorporation of matrix cues.
- Safety of Sports for Young Patients With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators. [Journal Article]
- CACirc Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2018; 11(11):e006305
- CONCLUSIONS: Although shocks related to competition/practice are not uncommon, there were no serious adverse sequelae. Lead malfunction rates were similar to previously reported in unselected pediatric ICD populations.
- Cardiac Involvement in Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy and Related Management Strategies. [Journal Article]
- IHInt Heart J 2018 Dec 05
- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a group of hereditary muscular dystrophy syndrome caused by deficiency of genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins. Patients having EDMD show the triad of ...
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a group of hereditary muscular dystrophy syndrome caused by deficiency of genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins. Patients having EDMD show the triad of muscle dystrophy, joint contracture, and cardiac disease. In almost all patients, cardiac involvement is prevalent and is the most severe aspect of EDMD. Cardiac disease is predominantly shown by conduction defects, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and atrial standstill. Sudden death and heart failure because of left ventricular dysfunction are important causes of mortality, particularly in those patients that have the LMNA mutation. Medical treatment of EDMD is limited to addressing symptoms and ambulation support; moreover, pacemaker implantation is necessary when there are severe conduction defects and bradycardia occurs. Note that automated defibrillation devices may be considered for those patients who have a high risk of sudden death, rate, or rhythm control. Also, anticoagulation should be initiated in those patients who have atrial fibrillation/flutter. Thus, for optimal management, a multidisciplinary approach is required.
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- CAP2 mutation leads to impaired actin dynamics and associates with supraventricular tachycardia and dilated cardiomyopathy. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Genet 2018 Dec 05
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a recessive deleterious mutation in CAP2 and its association with DCM in humans. The clinical phenotype recapitulates the damaging effects on the heart observed in Cap2 knockout mice including DCM and cardiac conduction disease, but not the other effects on growth, viability, wound healing and eye development. Our data underscore the importance of the proper kinetics of actin polymerization for normal function of the human heart.