- Update: Influenza Activity in the United States During the 2017-18 Season and Composition of the 2018-19 Influenza Vaccine. [Journal Article]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jun 08; 67(22):634-642
- The United States 2017-18 influenza season (October 1, 2017-May 19, 2018) was a high severity season with high levels of outpatient clinic and emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (...
The United States 2017-18 influenza season (October 1, 2017-May 19, 2018) was a high severity season with high levels of outpatient clinic and emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI), high influenza-related hospitalization rates, and elevated and geographically widespread influenza activity across the country for an extended period. Nationally, ILI activity began increasing in November, reaching an extended period of high activity during January-February, and remaining elevated through March. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominated through February and were predominant overall for the season; influenza B viruses predominated from March onward. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity* during October 1, 2017-May 19, 2018.†.
- Update: ACIP Recommendations for the Use of Quadrivalent Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV4) - United States, 2018-19 Influenza Season. [Practice Guideline]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jun 08; 67(22):643-645
- Intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was initially licensed in the United States in 2003 as a trivalent formulation (LAIV3) (FluMist, MedImmune, LLC). Quadrivalent live ...
Intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was initially licensed in the United States in 2003 as a trivalent formulation (LAIV3) (FluMist, MedImmune, LLC). Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) (FluMist Quadrivalent, MedImmune) has been licensed in the United States since 2012 and was first available during the 2013-14 influenza season, replacing LAIV3. During the 2016-17 and 2017-18 influenza seasons, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that LAIV4 not be used because of concerns about low effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-like viruses circulating in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons (1,2). On February 21, 2018, ACIP recommended that LAIV4 be an option for influenza vaccination of persons for whom it is appropriate for the 2018-19 season (3). This document provides an overview of the information discussed in the decision-making process leading to this recommendation. A description of methodology and data reviewed will be included in the background materials that will supplement the 2018-19 ACIP Influenza Recommendations, which will replace the 2017-18 ACIP influenza statement (2), and which will also contain guidance for the use of LAIV4.
- Emergence of Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Virus from an Adult Case in Fujian Province, China. [Letter]
- VSVirol Sin 2018 May 24
- Sheng Jiang San, a traditional multi-herb formulation, exerts anti-influenza effects in vitro and in vivo via neuraminidase inhibition and immune regulation. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Complement Altern Med 2018 May 08; 18(1):150
- CONCLUSIONS: Thus, SJS is a useful formulation for treating influenza virus infection.
- Three amino acid substitutions in the NS1 protein change the virus replication of H5N1 influenza virus in human cells. [Journal Article]
- VVirology 2018; 519:64-73
- Influenza A viruses have sophisticated strategies to promote their own replication. Here, we found that three H5N1 influenza viruses display different replication patterns in human A549 and macrophag...
Influenza A viruses have sophisticated strategies to promote their own replication. Here, we found that three H5N1 influenza viruses display different replication patterns in human A549 and macrophage cells. The HN01 virus displayed poor replication compared to HN021 and JS01. In addition, the HN01 virus was unable to counteract the interferon response and block general gene expression. This capability was restored by three amino acid substitutions on the NS1 protein: K55E, K66E, and C133F, resulting in recovered binding to CPSF30 and decreased interferon response activity. Furthermore, a recombinant HN01 virus expressing either NS1-C133F or the triple mutation replicate with higher titers in human A549 cells and macrophages compared to the parent virus. These three amino acid mutations reveal a new pathway to alter H5N1 virus replication.
- Inhibition of H1N1 influenza virus-induced apoptosis by functionalized selenium nanoparticles with amantadine through ROS-mediated AKT signaling pathways. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Nanomedicine 2018; 13:2005-2016
- CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Se@AM is a potentially efficient antiviral pharmaceutical agent for H1N1 influenza virus.
- Adaptive evolution during the establishment of European avian-like H1N1 influenza A virus in swine. [Journal Article]
- EAEvol Appl 2018; 11(4):534-546
- An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginni...
An H1N1 subtype influenza A virus with all eight gene segments derived from wild birds (including mallards), ducks and chickens, caused severe disease outbreaks in swine populations in Europe beginning in 1979 and successfully adapted to form the European avian-like swine (EA-swine) influenza lineage. Genes of the EA-swine lineage that are clearly segregated from its closest avian relatives continue to circulate in swine populations globally and represent a unique opportunity to study the adaptive process of an avian-to-mammalian cross-species transmission. Here, we used a relaxed molecular clock model to test whether the EA-swine virus originated through the introduction of a single avian ancestor as an entire genome, followed by an analysis of host-specific selection pressures among different gene segments. Our data indicated independent introduction of gene segments via transmission of avian viruses into swine followed by reassortment events that occurred at least 1-4 years prior to the EA-swine outbreak. All EA-swine gene segments exhibit greater selection pressure than avian viruses, reflecting both adaptive pressures and relaxed selective constraints that are associated with host switching. Notably, we identified key amino acid mutations in the viral surface proteins (H1 and N1) that play a role in adaptation to new hosts. Following the establishment of EA-swine lineage, we observed an increased frequency of intrasubtype reassortment of segments compared to the earlier strains that has been associated with adaptive amino acid replacements, disease severity and vaccine escape. Taken together, our study provides key insights into the adaptive changes in viral genomes following the transmission of avian influenza viruses to swine and the early establishment of the EA-swine lineage.
- Spatial-Temporal Lineage Restrictions of Embryonic p63+ Progenitors Establish Distinct Stem Cell Pools in Adult Airways. [Journal Article]
- DCDev Cell 2018 03 26; 44(6):752-761.e4
- Basal cells (BCs) are p63-expressing multipotent progenitors of skin, tracheoesophageal and urinary tracts. p63 is abundant in developing airways; however, it remains largely unclear how embryonic p6...
Basal cells (BCs) are p63-expressing multipotent progenitors of skin, tracheoesophageal and urinary tracts. p63 is abundant in developing airways; however, it remains largely unclear how embryonic p63+ cells contribute to the developing and postnatal respiratory tract epithelium, and ultimately how they relate to adult BCs. Using lineage-tracing and functional approaches in vivo, we show that p63+ cells arising from the lung primordium are initially multipotent progenitors of airway and alveolar lineages but later become restricted proximally to generate the tracheal adult stem cell pool. In intrapulmonary airways, these cells are maintained immature to adulthood in bronchi, establishing a rare p63+Krt5- progenitor cell population that responds to H1N1 virus-induced severe injury. Intriguingly, this pool includes a CC10 lineage-labeled p63+Krt5- cell subpopulation required for a full H1N1-response. These data elucidate key aspects in the establishment of regionally distinct adult stem cell pools in the respiratory system, potentially with relevance to other organs.
- Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018–2019 northern hemisphere influenza season. [Journal Article]
- WEWkly Epidemiol Rec 2018 Mar 23; 93(12):133-41
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- Comparison of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(12):e0194
- The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data...
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data of 18 cases of H7N9 and 26 cases of H1N1 with ARDS were collected and compared in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from March 2014 to December 2016.Patients with H7N9 had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score (P < .05) and lung injury score (P < .05). The rates of coexisting diabetes mellitus, hyperpyrexia, and bloody sputum production were significantly higher in the H7N9 group than in the H1N1 group (P < .05). The H7N9 group had a longer duration of viral shedding from the onset of illness (P < .05) and from the initiation of antiviral therapy (P < .05) to a negative viral test result than the H1N1 group. Patients with H7N9 had higher rates of invasive mechanical ventilation; serious complications, including alimentary tract hemorrhage, pneumothorax or septum emphysema, hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS); and hospital mortality (P < .05). At the 6th month of follow-up, the rates of bronchiectasia, reticular opacities, fibrous stripes, and patchy opacities on chest computed tomography (CT) were significantly higher in the H7N9 group than in the H1N1 group (P < .05). Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, H7N9 influenza viral infection was associated with a higher risk of the presence of severe ARDS than H1N1 influenza viral infection (odds ratio 8.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-44.94; P < .05).Compared to patients with H1N1, patients with H7N9 complicated by ARDS had much more severe disease. During long-term follow-up, more changes in pulmonary fibrosis were observed in patients with H7N9 than in patients with H1N1 during the convalescent stage.