- Differentiated human airway organoids to assess infectivity of emerging influenza virus. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Jun 11
- Novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus and pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus cause human infections, while avian H7N2 and swine H1N1 virus mainly infect birds and pigs, respectively. There is ...
Novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus and pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus cause human infections, while avian H7N2 and swine H1N1 virus mainly infect birds and pigs, respectively. There is no robust in vitro model for assessing the infectivity of emerging viruses in humans. Based on a recently established method, we generated long-term expanding 3D human airway organoids which accommodate four types of airway epithelial cells: ciliated, goblet, club, and basal cells. We report differentiation conditions which increase ciliated cell numbers to a nearly physiological level with synchronously beating cilia readily discernible in every organoid. In addition, the differentiation conditions induce elevated levels of serine proteases, which are essential for productive infection of human influenza viruses and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses. We also established improved 2D monolayer culture conditions for the differentiated airway organoids. To demonstrate the ability of differentiated airway organoids to identify human-infective virus, 3D and 2D differentiated airway organoids are applied to evaluate two pairs of viruses with known distinct infectivity in humans, H7N9/Ah versus H7N2 and H1N1pdm versus an H1N1 strain isolated from swine (H1N1sw). The human-infective H7N9/Ah virus replicated more robustly than the poorly human-infective H7N2 virus; the highly human-infective H1N1pdm virus replicated to a higher titer than the counterpart H1N1sw. Collectively, we developed differentiated human airway organoids which can morphologically and functionally simulate human airway epithelium. These differentiated airway organoids can be applied for rapid assessment of the infectivity of emerging respiratory viruses to human.
- Orally Efficacious Broad-Spectrum Ribonucleoside Analog Inhibitor of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Viruses. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Jun 11
- Morbidity and mortality resulting from influenza-like disease are a threat especially for older adults. To improve case management, next-generation broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics are urgently ...
Morbidity and mortality resulting from influenza-like disease are a threat especially for older adults. To improve case management, next-generation broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics are urgently needed that are efficacious against major drivers of influenza-like disease including influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Using a dual-pathogen high throughput screening protocol for influenza A virus (IAV) and RSV inhibitors, we have identified N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC) as a potent inhibitor of RSV, influenza B viruses and IAVs of human, avian, and swine origin. Biochemical in vitro polymerase assays and viral RNA sequencing revealed that the ribonucleotide analog is incorporated into nascent viral RNAs in place of cytidine, increasing the frequency of viral mutagenesis. Viral passaging in cell culture in the presence of inhibitor did not induce robust resistance. Pharmacokinetic profiling demonstrated dose-dependent oral bioavailability of 36-56%, sustained levels of the active 5'-triphosphate anabolite in primary human airway cells and mouse lung tissue, and good tolerability after extended dosing at 800 mg/kg/day. The compound was orally efficacious against RSV and both seasonal and highly pathogenic avian IAV in mouse models, reducing lung virus loads and alleviating disease biomarkers. Oral dosing reduced IAV burden in a guinea pig transmission model and suppressed virus spread to uninfected contact animals through direct transmission. Based on its broad-spectrum efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties, NHC a promising candidate for future clinical development as a treatment option for influenza-like diseases.
- Comparison of Porcine Airway and Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines for the Susceptibility and Expression of Pattern Recognition Receptors upon Influenza Virus Infection. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2018 06 07; 10(6)
- Influenza viruses infect the epithelial cells of the swine respiratory tract. Cell lines derived from the respiratory tract of pigs could serve as an excellent in vitro model for studying the pathoge...
Influenza viruses infect the epithelial cells of the swine respiratory tract. Cell lines derived from the respiratory tract of pigs could serve as an excellent in vitro model for studying the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. In this study, we examined the replication of influenza viruses in the MK1-OSU cell line, which was clonally derived from pig airway epithelium. MK1-OSU cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin proteins and displayed several sugar moieties on the cell membrane. These cells also expressed both Sial2-3Gal and Sial2-6Gal receptors and were susceptible to swine influenza A, but not to human B and C viruses. Interestingly, these cells were also permissive to infection by influenza D virus that utilized 9-O-acetylated glycans. To study the differences in the expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon influenza virus infection in the respiratory and digestive tract, we compared the protein expression of various PRRs in MK1-OSU cells with that in the SD-PJEC cell line, a clonally derived cell line from the porcine jejunal epithelium. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) receptors showed decreased expression in influenza A infected MK1-OSU cells, while only TLR-7 expression decreased in SD-PJEC cells. Further research is warranted to study the mechanism behind the virus-mediated suppression of these proteins. Overall, this study shows that the porcine respiratory epithelial cell line, MK1-OSU, could serve as an in-vitro model for studying the pathogenesis and innate immune responses to porcine influenza viruses.
- Divergent human origin influenza viruses detected in Australian swine populations. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Jun 06
- Global swine populations infected with influenza A viruses pose a persistent pandemic risk. With the exception of a few countries, our understanding of the genetic diversity of swine influenza viruse...
Global swine populations infected with influenza A viruses pose a persistent pandemic risk. With the exception of a few countries, our understanding of the genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses is limited, hampering control measures and pandemic risk assessment. Here we report the genomic characteristics and evolutionary history of influenza A viruses isolated in Australia during 2012-2016 from two geographically isolated swine populations in the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Phylogenetic analysis with an expansive human and swine influenza virus dataset comprising >40,000 sequences sampled globally, revealed evidence of the pervasive introduction and long-term establishment of gene segments derived from several human influenza viruses of past seasons, including H1N1/1977, H1N1/1995, H3N2/1968, H3N2/2003, and H1N1pdm09, and a genotype that contained gene segments derived from the past three pandemics (1968, re-emerged 1977 and 2009). Of the six human-derived gene lineages only one comprising two viruses isolated in Queensland during 2012 was closely related to swine viruses detected from other regions, indicating a previously undetected circulation of Australian swine lineages for approximately 3-44 years. Although the date of introduction of these lineages into Australian swine populations could not be accurately ascertained, we found evidence of sustained transmission of two lineages in swine during 2012-2016. The continued detection of human-origin influenza virus lineages in swine over several decades with little or unpredictable antigenic drift indicates that isolated swine populations can act as 'antigenic archives' of human influenza, raising the risk of re-emergence in humans when sufficient susceptible populations arise.IMPORTANCE We described the evolutionary origins and antigenic properties of influenza A viruses isolated from two separate Australian swine populations during 2012-2016, showing that these viruses were distinct to each other and to those isolated from swine globally. Whole genome sequencing of virus isolates revealed a high genotypic diversity that had been generated exclusively through the introduction and establishment of human influenza viruses that circulated in past seasons. We detected six reassortants with gene segments derived from human H1N1/H1N1pdm09 and various human H3N2 viruses that circulated at various periods since 1968. We also found that these swine viruses were not related to swine viruses collected elsewhere indicating independent circulation. The detection of unique lineages and genotypes in Australia suggests that isolated swine populations that are sufficiently large can sustain influenza for extensive periods, we showed direct evidence of a sustained transmission for at least 4 years between 2012-2016.
- Subtyping of Swine Influenza Viruses Using a High-Throughput Real-Time PCR Platform. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2018; 8:165
- Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are important human and animal pathogens with high impact on human and animal health. In Denmark, a passive surveillance program for IAV in pigs has been performed since 20...
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are important human and animal pathogens with high impact on human and animal health. In Denmark, a passive surveillance program for IAV in pigs has been performed since 2011, where screening tests and subsequent subtyping are performed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). A disadvantage of the current subtyping system is that several assays are needed to cover the wide range of circulating subtypes, which makes the system expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a high-throughput method, which could improve surveillance of swine influenza viruses (swIAVs) and lower the costs of virus subtyping. Twelve qPCR assays specific for various hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene lineages relevant for swIAV and six assays specific for the internal genes of IAV were developed and optimized for the high-throughput qPCR platform BioMark (Fluidigm). The qPCR assays were validated and optimized to run under the same reaction conditions using a 48.48 dynamic array (48.48DA). The sensitivity and specificity was assessed by testing virus isolates and field samples with known subtypes. The results revealed a performance of the swIAV 48.48DA similar to conventional real-time analysis, and furthermore, the specificity of swIAV 48.48DA was very high and without cross reactions between the assays. This high-throughput system provides a cost-effective alternative for subtyping of swIAVs.
- Emergence and Evolution of Novel Reassortant Influenza A Viruses in Canines in Southern China. [Journal Article]
- MBIOMBio 2018 Jun 05; 9(3)
- The capacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to host jump from animal reservoir species to humans presents an ongoing pandemic threat. Birds and swine are considered major reservoirs of viral genetic d...
The capacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to host jump from animal reservoir species to humans presents an ongoing pandemic threat. Birds and swine are considered major reservoirs of viral genetic diversity, whereas equines and canines have historically been restricted to one or two stable IAV lineages with no transmission to humans. Here, by sequencing the complete genomes of 16 IAVs obtained from canines in southern China (Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region [Guangxi]) in 2013 to 2015, we demonstrate that the evolution of canine influenza viruses (CIVs) in Asian dogs is increasingly complex, presenting a potential threat to humans. First, two reassortant H1N1 virus genotypes were introduced independently from swine into canines in Guangxi, including one genotype associated with a zoonotic infection. The genomes contain segments from three lineages that circulate in swine in China: North American triple reassortant H3N2, Eurasian avian-like H1N1, and pandemic H1N1. Furthermore, the swine-origin H1N1 viruses have transmitted onward in canines and reassorted with the CIV-H3N2 viruses that circulate endemically in Asian dogs, producing three novel reassortant CIV genotypes (H1N1r, H1N2r, and H3N2r [r stands for reassortant]). CIVs from this study were collected primarily from pet dogs presenting with respiratory symptoms at veterinary clinics, but dogs in Guangxi are also raised for meat, and street dogs roam freely, creating a more complex ecosystem for CIV transmission. Further surveillance is greatly needed to understand the full genetic diversity of CIV in southern China, the nature of viral emergence and persistence in the region's diverse canine populations, and the zoonotic risk as the viruses continue to evolve.IMPORTANCE Mammals have emerged as critically underrecognized sources of influenza virus diversity, including pigs that were the source of the 2009 pandemic and bats and bovines that harbor highly divergent viral lineages. Here, we identify two reassortant IAVs that recently host switched from swine to canines in southern China, including one virus with known zoonotic potential. Three additional genotypes were generated via reassortment events in canine hosts, demonstrating the capacity of dogs to serve as "mixing vessels." The continued expansion of IAV diversity in canines with high human contact rates requires enhanced surveillance and ongoing evaluation of emerging pandemic threats.
- Pathogenesis and transmission of genetically diverse swine-origin H3N2v influenza A viruses from multiple lineages isolated in the United States, 2011-2016. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 May 30
- While several swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant (H3N2v) viruses isolated from humans prior to 2011 have been previously characterized for their virulence and transmissibility in ferrets, recent g...
While several swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant (H3N2v) viruses isolated from humans prior to 2011 have been previously characterized for their virulence and transmissibility in ferrets, recent genetic and antigenic divergence of H3N2v viruses warrants an updated assessment of their pandemic potential. Here, four contemporary H3N2v viruses isolated during 2011-2016 were evaluated for their replicative ability in both in vitro and in vivo mammalian models, as well as their transmissibility among ferrets. We found that all four H3N2v viruses possessed similar or enhanced replication capacity in a human bronchial epithelium cell line (Calu-3) compared to a human seasonal influenza virus, suggestive of strong fitness in human respiratory tract cells. The majority of H3N2v viruses examined in our study were mildly virulent in mice and capable of replicating in mouse lungs with different degrees of efficiency. In ferrets, all four H3N2v viruses caused moderate morbidity and exhibited comparable titers in the upper respiratory tract, but only 2 of the 4 viruses replicated in the lower respiratory tract in this model. Furthermore, despite efficient transmission among cohoused ferrets, recently isolated H3N2v viruses displayed considerable variance in their ability to transmit by respiratory droplets. The lack of a full understanding of the molecular correlates of virulence and transmission underscores the need for close genotypic and phenotypic monitoring of H3N2v viruses and the importance of continued surveillance to improve pandemic preparedness.Importance: Swine-origin influenza viruses of the H3N2 subtype, with the HA and NA derived from historic human seasonal influenza viruses, continue to cross species barriers and cause human infections, posing an indelible threat to public health. To help us better understand the potential risk associated with swine-origin H3N2v viruses that emerged in the U.S between 2011-2016 influenza seasons, we use both in vitro and in vivo models to characterize the ability of these viruses to replicate, caused disease, and transmit in mammalian hosts. The efficient respiratory droplet transmission exhibited by some of the H3N2v viruses in the ferret model combined with the existing evidence of low immunity against such viruses in young children and older adults highlights their pandemic potential. Extensive surveillance and risk assessment of H3N2v viruses should continue to be an essential component of our pandemic preparedness strategy.
- Lessons learned from the 2009-2010 H1N1 outbreak for the management of the 2013 silent polio outbreak. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 May 29; 18(1):241
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of learning processes within health care organizations during outbreaks and may contribute to better performance and higher immunization rates.
- Early prenatal exposure to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection and child psychomotor development at 6 months - A population-based cohort study. [Journal Article]
- EHEarly Hum Dev 2018 May 23; 122:1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: Modest associations were found between maternal influenza A (H1N1) pdm infection during gestational weeks 0-8 and psychomotor development at 6 months.
New Search Next
- Induction of influenza-specific local CD8 T-cells in the respiratory tract after aerosol delivery of vaccine antigen or virus in the Babraham inbred pig. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2018; 14(5):e1007017
- There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is ...
There is increasing evidence that induction of local immune responses is a key component of effective vaccines. For respiratory pathogens, for example tuberculosis and influenza, aerosol delivery is being actively explored as a method to administer vaccine antigens. Current animal models used to study respiratory pathogens suffer from anatomical disparity with humans. The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume. It may also be an important vector in the birds to human infection cycle. A major drawback of the current pig model is the inability to analyze antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, which are critical to respiratory immunity. Here we address this knowledge gap using an established in-bred pig model with a high degree of genetic identity between individuals, including the MHC (Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)) locus. We developed a toolset that included long-term in vitro pig T-cell culture and cloning and identification of novel immunodominant influenza-derived T-cell epitopes. We also generated structures of the two SLA class I molecules found in these animals presenting the immunodominant epitopes. These structures allowed definition of the primary anchor points for epitopes in the SLA binding groove and established SLA binding motifs that were used to successfully predict other influenza-derived peptide sequences capable of stimulating T-cells. Peptide-SLA tetramers were constructed and used to track influenza-specific T-cells ex vivo in blood, the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Aerosol immunization with attenuated single cycle influenza viruses (S-FLU) induced large numbers of CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved NP peptides in the respiratory tract. Collectively, these data substantially increase the utility of pigs as an effective model for studying protective local cellular immunity against respiratory pathogens.