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Unbound Medicine.
(Swine flu)
4,026 results
  • JMM Profile: Swine influenza A virus: a neglected virus with pandemic potential. [Journal Article]
    J Med Microbiol. 2023 Jan; 72(1)Mollett BC, Everett HE, … Banyard AC
  • Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of swine caused by swine influenza A virus (SwIAV). The ability of SwIAV to spread bidirectionally from animals to humans (zoonotic), and from humans to animals (reverse zoonotic), drives coinfection that can result in gene segment exchange and elevates the risk of generating viruses with pandemic potential. Compared to human-origin influenza A viru…
  • Oseltamivir-resistant h1n1 influenza virus: Case report. [Case Reports]
    J Pak Med Assoc. 2022 Oct; 72(10):2112-2113.Kayani MD
  • Swine flu is mainly caused by influenza virus strain H1N1. This strain of influenza has been found to cause seasonal flu. Animals are common source of influenza virus, in particular, pigs. Transmissions from animals to humans are reported on several occasions worldwide. These cases are usually mild to moderate in nature and are usually not fatal. Here we describe the case of a healthy woman from …
  • Prehospital Cardiac Arrest should be considered when evaluating Covid-19 mortality in the United States. [Journal Article]
    Methods Inf Med. 2023 Jan 18 [Online ahead of print]Williams N
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prehospital EMS data should be considered when evaluating the severity of Covid-19 because prehospital cardiac arrest known to EMS was the strongest predictor on average across indices. Key Words Random Forest Covid-19 Public Health Statistical methods Syndromic Surveillance 1.Introduction Creating long term, multi-source, national surveillance data services for emerging disease response is a complex topic which Covid-19 has given new importance1-5. Public health emergencies seldom leave surplus time or resources to stand up novel methods and respond; further essentializing (specific) disease preparedness6-8. More often than not epidemic response is managed using preexisting data services, often legacy data series from yesteryear's epidemics9-11. Epidemic preparedness in the United States is generally weak; and the Covid-19 response is largely drawn from preexisting pan-flu emergency plans12,13. During a public health emergency, the clinical knowledge needed to respond is developed by case surveillance drawn from preexisting data series. Covid-19 has presented an unusual opportunity to evaluate agreement across surveillance efforts within the United States. The ability to detect clinical findings from surveillance nets and epidemiology methods which were not necessarily designed to detect them in meaningful ways is high priority for the future management of emerging infectious diseases. Strikingly the difference in Covid-19 mortality for SARS impacted countries (China, South Korea, Australia) vs. the United States may come down to what emergency response plan was last implemented (SARS vs. Swine Flu) and the fitness of surveillance (case specific vs general population) rather than deeper cultural, economic, or racial differences, as have been proposed in popular media14-20. 2.Objectives In this study public health surveillance data is processed using a machine learning approach to discover the relative agreement of a surveillance event series when predicting surveillance event series. Towards objectives this study seeks to assess the agreement between event series and contrast the value of traditional surveillance methods (death certificates, influenza and respiratory infection claims volumes) with non-traditional sources such as national Emergency Medical Services (EMS) call volume data in the Covid-19 era in the United States. 3.Methods 3.1 Statistic of Interest Variable importance is the statistic of interest in this study. Variable importance means that when predicting the dependent variable, an independent variable which is of comparatively higher predictive value (association) than another is of higher (predictive) use value. When considering high variable importance with weekly event series data, series which help the machine learning models learn, predict or guess the correct dependent weekly event series could be co-occurring or mutually observed events. The high variable importance scores from different sources suggests that series are observing the same real world event across surveillance efforts as they support prediction better than noise and other candidate series (other independent variables). Of special interest are 'high variable importance, independent variables' from a different data source than the dependent variable. High same source variables are most likely high in value because they are similarly distributed across study weeks to their parent-sister series and in turn are not necessarily interesting. A series of events can be said to have 'agreement value' if it has high statistical agreement with other series from a different source. Low statistical agreement suggests 'out of era' events, or events which are not driven by the same causes as other series considered here. Towards noise and disagreement, influenza and respiratory infection claims volumes are considered below with Covid-19 claims volumes. Claims volumes are traditionally used in influenza surveillance. As a test of the efficacy of the models described here, Covid-19 volumes should be able to 'out perform' influenza volumes as the Covid-19 era is largely understood to be influenza sparse. In this way respiratory and influenza events could be understood as a control arm as well as a model output of independent interest.
  • Utility of Human In Vitro Data in Risk Assessments of Influenza A Virus Using the Ferret Model. [Journal Article]
    J Virol. 2023 Jan 31; 97(1):e0153622.Creager HM, Kieran TJ, … Belser JA
  • As influenza A viruses (IAV) continue to cross species barriers and cause human infection, the establishment of risk assessment rubrics has improved pandemic preparedness efforts. In vivo pathogenicity and transmissibility evaluations in the ferret model represent a critical component of this work. As the relative contribution of in vitro experimentation to these rubrics has not been closely exam…
  • Human Immunity and Susceptibility to Influenza A(H3) Viruses of Avian, Equine, and Swine Origin. [Journal Article]
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2023 01; 29(1):98-109.Vandoorn E, Stadejek W, … Van Reeth K
  • Influenza A viruses (IAVs) of subtype H3 that infect humans are antigenically divergent from those of birds, horses, and swine. Human immunity against these viruses might be limited, implying potential pandemic risk. To determine human risk, we selected 4 avian, 1 equine, and 3 swine IAVs representing major H3 lineages. We tested serum collected during 2017-2018 from 286 persons in Belgium for he…
  • Effect of BIO-PLYTM, a Platelet-Rich Plasma Derived Biologic on PRRSV-2-Infected Macrophages. [Journal Article]
    Viruses. 2022 11 28; 14(12)Frias-De-Diego A, Gilbertie JM, … Crisci E
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the one of the most devastating diseases impacting the swine industry worldwide. Control and prevention methods rely on biosafety measures and vaccination. As an RNA virus with a high rate of mutation, vaccines are only partially effective against circulating and newly emerging strains. To reduce the burden of this disease, research on alter…
  • Seroprevalence of Influenza A Virus in Dromedaries in North-Western Nigeria. [Journal Article]
    Pathogens. 2022 Dec 05; 11(12)Adamu AM, Furlong M, … Adegboye OA
  • Although influenza A virus is endemic in wild waterfowl, domestic poultry, swine, humans, bats, cetaceans, dogs, and horses, there is a paucity of data on the potential role of camels in zoonotic transmission of the virus. To estimate the seroprevalence of the influenza A virus in camel populations, four local government areas of Nigeria that share an international border with the Niger Republic …
  • Evolutionary and temporal dynamics of emerging influenza D virus in Europe (2009-22). [Journal Article]
    Virus Evol. 2022; 8(2):veac081.Gaudino M, Chiapponi C, … Snoeck CJ
  • Influenza D virus (IDV) is an emerging influenza virus that was isolated for the first time in 2011 in the USA from swine with respiratory illness. Since then, IDV has been detected worldwide in different animal species, and it was also reported in humans. Molecular epidemiological studies revealed the circulation of two major clades, named D/OK and D/660. Additional divergent clades have been de…
  • Synergistic HA and NS mutations enhanced the virulence of a mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A virus. [Journal Article]
    Vet Microbiol. 2023 Jan; 276:109615.Zhu M, He J, … Chen Y
  • H1N1 reassortants between the swine Eurasian avian-like (EA) and H1N1 2009 pandemic (H1N1 pdm/09) viruses have been circulating stably in pig populations for more than ten years, and they may have contributed to increased human infections. Whether these H1N1 viruses acquire adaptive mutations to increase their pathogenicity towards a new host is unknown. To address this problem, mouse-adapted (MA…
  • Evolution and Introductions of Influenza A Virus H1N1 in a Farrow-to-Finish Farm in Guatemala. [Journal Article]
    Microbiol Spectr. 2022 Dec 07 [Online ahead of print]Ortiz L, Geiger G, … Perez DR
  • Commercial swine farms provide unique systems for interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses (FLUAVs) at the animal-human interface. Bidirectional transmission of FLUAVs between pigs and humans plays a significant role in the generation of novel strains that become established in the new host population. Active FLUAV surveillance was conducted for 2 years on a commercial pig farm in Souther…
  • Generation of an Attenuated Chimeric Bat Influenza A Virus Live-Vaccine Prototype. [Journal Article]
    Microbiol Spectr. 2022 12 21; 10(6):e0142422.Ran W, Schön J, … Giese S
  • Recurring epizootic influenza A virus (IAV) infections in domestic livestock such as swine and poultry are associated with a substantial economic burden and pose a constant threat to human health. Therefore, universally applicable and safe animal vaccines are urgently needed. We recently demonstrated that a reassortment-incompatible chimeric bat H17N10 virus harboring the A/swan/Germany/R65/2006 …
  • A Review of Effects of Pandemic on the Patients of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Review]
    Cureus. 2022 Oct; 14(10):e30628.Gokhale MV, Chakole S
  • In today's world, physical as well as mental health both play a crucial role. However, various pandemics have had adverse effects not only on the physical but mental and social health too. With the various preventive measures introduced to handle various pandemics, it becomes more critical to understand how the preventive measures affect the lives of patients suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive D…
  • Unintended health benefits of adopting preventive behaviors during a virus outbreak. [Journal Article]
    Health Econ. 2023 Feb; 32(2):324-342.Hong SC, Lee E, Oh S
  • This study investigates whether changes in risk perception play a critical role in improving of preventive behaviors and health outcomes by examining the 2009 H1N1 influenza (or swine flu) pandemic in Korea. We employ a difference-in-differences estimation strategy by comparing the differential effects of the H1N1 outbreak on the confirmed cases of diseases which can be prevented by preventive be…
  • Variant influenza: connecting the missing dots. [Journal Article]
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2022 12; 20(12):1567-1585.Chavda V, Bezbaruah R, … Apostolopoulos V
  • In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a new pandemic, the 2009 swine influenza pandemic (swine flu). The symptoms of the swine flu pandemic causing strain were comparable to most of the symptoms noted by seasonal influenza.
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