- 6-Hydroxydopamine induces autophagic flux dysfunction by impairing transcription factor EB activation and lysosomal function in dopaminergic neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2018; 283:58-68
- Autophagy deregulation has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the role of autophagy in neuronal survival remains controversial. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the time-c...
Autophagy deregulation has been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the role of autophagy in neuronal survival remains controversial. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the time-course of autophagy-related markers in 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rat models and assessed its effect on the state of autophagic flux both in vivo and in vitro. We observed an early activation of autophagy followed by autophagic flux impairment, which was confirmed with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine in vivo and Ad-GFP-mCherry-LC3-infected SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. In addition, 6-OHDA not only remarkably reduced the expression level of lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1), but also impaired the hydrolase activities of lysosomal proteases. Transcription factor EB (TFEB), a key transcription factor controlling lysosome biogenesis, was also significantly downregulated by 6-OHDA and its nuclear translocation was inhibited as well, which could account for the impaired lysosomal function. Promoting lysosome biogenesis through TFEB overexpression could protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. The above findings demonstrated that autophagic flux dysfunction was closely associated with 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and highlighted the importance of functional lysosomes and homeostatic autophagic flux in developing therapeutic agents for PD.
- BDNF over-expression induces striatal serotonin fiber sprouting and increases the susceptibility to l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2017; 297:73-81
- In addition to its role in neuronal survival, the brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to influence serotonin transmission and synaptic plasticity, events strongly implicated in the appear...
In addition to its role in neuronal survival, the brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to influence serotonin transmission and synaptic plasticity, events strongly implicated in the appearance of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a motor complication occurring in parkinsonian patients after long-term treatment with the dopamine precursor. In order to evaluate a possible influence of BDNF in the appearance of LID, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats received a striatal injection of different concentrations of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector over-expressing either BDNF or GFP, as control vector. Eight weeks later, animals started to receive a daily treatment with l-DOPA (4-6mg/kg plus benserazide 4-6mg/kg, s.c.) or saline, and dyskinesias, as well as l-DOPA-induced rotations, were evaluated at several time-points. Moreover, molecular changes in striatal D1 receptor-dependent cAMP/PKA and ERK/mTORC signaling pathways, as well as, sprouting of striatal serotonin axons, were measured. Results showed that the AAV-BDNF vector injection induced striatal over-expression of BDNF, as well as striatal and pallidal serotonin axon hyperinnervation. Moreover, rats that over-expressed BDNF were more prone to develop LID and l-DOPA-induced rotations, compared to the GFP-treated control group. Finally, rats that over-expressed BDNF showed increased levels of striatal D1R-dependent signaling phospho-proteins in response to l-DOPA administration. This study suggests that BDNF over-expression, by inducing changes in pre-synaptic serotonin axonal trophism, is able to exacerbate maladaptive responses to l-DOPA administration.
- Massive diltiazem and metoprolol overdose rescued with extracorporeal life support. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Emerg Med 2017; 35(10):1581.e3-1581.e5
- The management of overdoses of cardioactive medications in the emergency department can be challenging. The reversal of severe toxicity from one or more types of cardioactive medication may fail maxi...
The management of overdoses of cardioactive medications in the emergency department can be challenging. The reversal of severe toxicity from one or more types of cardioactive medication may fail maximal medical therapies and require extreme invasive measures such as transvenous cardiac pacing and extracorporeal life support. We present a case of massive diltiazem and metoprolol overdose refractory to maximal medical therapy, including intravenous calcium, glucagon, vasopressors, high dose insulin, and lipid emulsion. The patient experienced refractory bradydysrhythmia that responded only to transvenous pacing. Extracorporeal life support was initiated and resulted in successful organ perfusion and complete recovery of the patient. This case highlights the potential utility of extracorporeal life support in cases of severe toxicity due to multiple cardioactive medications.
- Altered somatosensory cortex neuronal activity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesias. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2017; 294:19-31
- Several findings support the concept that sensorimotor integration is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in levodopa-induced dyskinesias. In this study, we explored the neuronal firing activit...
Several findings support the concept that sensorimotor integration is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in levodopa-induced dyskinesias. In this study, we explored the neuronal firing activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1FL-Ctx), along with its interaction with oscillatory activity of the primary motor cortex (MCtx) in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) and levodopa-primed dyskinetic (HP-LID) rats as compared to controls under urethane (1.4g/kg, i.p.) anesthesia. Further, gene expression patterns of distinct markers for inhibitory GABAergic neurons were analyzed in both cortical regions. While firing frequency and burst activity of S1FL-Ctx inhibitory interneurons were reduced in HP and HP-LID rats, measures of irregularity were enhanced in pyramidal cells. Further, enhanced coherence of distinct frequency bands of the theta/alpha, high-beta, and gamma frequency, together with enhanced synchronization of putative pyramidal cells and interneurons with MCtx oscillatory activity were observed. While GABA level was similar, gene expression levels of interneuron and GABAergic markers in S1FL-Ctx and MCtx of HP-LID rats differed to some extent. Our study shows that in a rat model of PD with dyskinesias, neuronal activity in putative interneurons was reduced, which was accompanied by high beta and gamma coherence between S1FL-Ctx and MCtx, together with changes in gene expression, indicating maladaptive neuroplasticity after long term levodopa treatment.
- Human COMT over-expression confers a heightened susceptibility to dyskinesia in mice. [Journal Article]
- NDNeurobiol Dis 2017; 102:133-139
- Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades dopamine and its precursor l-DOPA and plays a critical role in regulating synaptic dopamine actions. We investigated the effects of heightened levels of C...
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades dopamine and its precursor l-DOPA and plays a critical role in regulating synaptic dopamine actions. We investigated the effects of heightened levels of COMT on dopamine-regulated motor behaviors and molecular alterations in a mouse model of dyskinesia. Transgenic mice overexpressing human COMT (TG) and their wildtype (WT) littermates received unilateral 6-OHDA lesions in the dorsal striatum and were treated chronically with l-DOPA for two weeks. l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia was exacerbated in TG mice without altering l-DOPA motor efficacy as determined by contralateral rotations or motor coordination. Inductions of FosB and phospho-acetylated histone 3 (molecular correlates of dyskinesia) were potentiated in the lesioned striatum of TG mice compared with their WT littermates. The TG mice had lower basal levels of dopamine in the striatum. In mice with lesions, l-DOPA induces a greater increase in the dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine in the lesioned striatum of dyskinetic TG mice than in WT mice. The levels of serotonin and its metabolite were similar in TG and WT mice. Our results demonstrate that human COMT overexpression confers a heightened susceptibility to l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and alters molecular and neurochemical responses in the lesioned striatum of mice.
- Moderate traumatic brain injury increases the vulnerability to neurotoxicity induced by systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine in mice. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res 2017 May 15; 1663:78-86
- Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the...
Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by TBI, changes in BBB permeability following brain injury could facilitate the access of xenobiotics into the brain. To test this hypothesis, here we evaluated whether TBI would increase the susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to the systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a classic neurotoxin used to trigger a PD-like phenotype in mice, but that in normal conditions is unable to cross the BBB. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to a moderate TBI using a free weight-drop device and, 5h later, they were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 6-OHDA (100mg/kg). Afterwards, during a period of 4weeks, the mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests, including the neurological severity score (NSS), the open field and the rotarod. Animals from the TBI plus 6-OHDA group displayed significant motor and neurological impairments that were improved by acute l-DOPA administration (25mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the observation of the motor deficits correlates with (i) a significant decrease in the tyrosine hydroxylase levels mainly in the rostral striatum and (ii) a significant increase in the levels of striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels. On the whole, the present findings demonstrate that a previous moderate TBI event increases the susceptibility to motor, neurological and neurochemical alterations induced by systemic administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-OHDA in mice.
- Dysregulation of BET proteins in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. [Journal Article]
- NDNeurobiol Dis 2017; 102:125-132
- Levodopa (L-DOPA) remains the most effective pharmacological treatment for Parkinson Disease (PD) but its use is limited by the development of debilitating drug-related side effects, particularly L-D...
Levodopa (L-DOPA) remains the most effective pharmacological treatment for Parkinson Disease (PD) but its use is limited by the development of debilitating drug-related side effects, particularly L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). LID is a consequence of long-term L-DOPA use, and in model systems is characterized by a "priming effect", whereby initial administrations of L-DOPA trigger a sensitized biochemical and transcriptional response upon subsequent dopaminergic stimulation. Preliminary studies into the mechanisms underlying this cellular memory have indicated an important role for epigenetic change but many of the downstream mechanisms remain unknown. The family of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins, which bind acetylated histones, play a critical effector role in the regulation of transcription. BET proteins have been implicated in several forms of neural plasticity, but their potential relevance to LID remains unexplored. Using the 6-OHDA rodent model of LID, we show that dyskinesia development induces alterations in BET protein expression along with enhanced occupation of sites at the promoter and enhancer regions of genes dysregulated during dyskinesia development. When BET function was blocked using the pharmacologic inhibitor JQ1, LID was prevented. In addition, we found that JQ1 treatment blocked the transcriptional upregulation of several immediate-early genes known to participate in the pathogenesis of dyskinesia. Together, these results demonstrate an essential role for BET protein activity as an epigenetic "reader" of the altered histone acetylation required for LID development and suggest that modulation of BET protein function is a potential therapeutic avenue for the prevention or reversal of LID in PD.
- URB597 reduces biochemical, behavioral and morphological alterations in two neurotoxic models in rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2017; 88:745-753
- CONCLUSIONS: The modulatory actions exerted by URB597 in both toxic models support its potential against toxic conditions implying motor and neurochemical alterations linked to energy depletion, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Although most of these effects could be attributable to its action on FAAH and further AEA accumulation, in light of our present findings other properties are suggested.
- The 5-alpha reductase inhibitor finasteride reduces dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurol 2017; 291:1-7
- Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a disabling motor complication occurring in Parkinson's disease patients (PD) after long-term l-DOPA treatment. Although its etiology remains unclear, there is ac...
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a disabling motor complication occurring in Parkinson's disease patients (PD) after long-term l-DOPA treatment. Although its etiology remains unclear, there is accumulating evidence that LID relies on an excessive dopamine receptor transmission, particularly at the downstream signaling of D1 receptors. We previously reported that the pharmacological blockade of 5-alpha reductase (5AR), the rate limiting enzyme in neurosteroids synthesis, rescued a number of behavioral aberrations induced by D1 receptor-selective and non-selective agonists, without inducing extrapyramidal symptoms. Thus, the present study was designed to verify whether the 5AR inhibitor finasteride (FIN) may counteract the dyskinesias induced by dopaminergic agonists in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. First, we assessed the acute and chronic effect of different doses of FIN (30-60mg/kg) on LID, in male 6-OHDA-lesioned dyskinetic rats. Thereafter, to fully characterize the therapeutic potential of FIN on LID and its impact on l-DOPA efficacy, we assessed abnormal involuntary movements and forelimb use in hemiparkinsonian male rats chronically injected with FIN (30-60mg/kg/24days) either prior to- or concomitant with l-DOPA administration. In addition, to investigate whether the impact of FIN on LID may be ascribed to a modulation of the D1- or D2/D3-receptor function, dyskinesias were assessed in l-DOPA-primed 6-OHDA-lesioned rats that received FIN in combination with selective direct dopaminergic agonists. Finally, we set to investigate whether FIN may produce similar effect in female hemiparkinsonian rats, as seen in males. The results indicated that FIN administrations significantly dampened LID in all tested treatment regimens, without interfering with the ability of l-DOPA to ameliorate forelimb use in the stepping test. The antidyskinetic effect appears to be due to modulation of both D1- and D2/D3-receptor function, as FIN also reduced abnormal involuntary movements induced by the selective D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the D2/D3 receptor agonist ropinirole. Significant dampening of LID was also observed in female rats, although only at the higher tested dose. Clinical investigations are warranted to assess whether similar protection from dyskinesia is seen in PD patients.
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- Adult clonidine overdose: prolonged bradycardia and central nervous system depression, but not severe toxicity. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Toxicol (Phila) 2017; 55(3):187-192
- CONCLUSIONS: Clonidine causes persistent but not life-threatening clinical effects. Most patients develop mild central nervous system depression and bradycardia. Naloxone was not associated with improved outcomes.