- Electro-acupuncture improves psychiatric symptoms, anxiety and depression in methamphetamine addicts during abstinence: A randomized controlled trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(34):e11905
- CONCLUSIONS: Electroacupuncture helps to improve psychiatric symptoms and anxiety and depression in MA addicts during abstinence, and promote rehabilitation of patients.
- A rare case of drug-induced liver injury caused by an epinephrine-autoinjector. [Letter]
- AGActa Gastroenterol Belg 2018 Apr-Jun; 81(2):340-341
- An Anaphylactoid Reaction to Rattlesnake Envenomation in a Pediatric Patient. [Journal Article]
- PEPediatr Emerg Care 2018; 34(6):e109-e110
- Rattlesnake envenomation causes a spectrum of symptoms and signs, many of which closely resemble an anaphylactic reaction. Development of airway compromise after a snake bite to an extremity is unusu...
Rattlesnake envenomation causes a spectrum of symptoms and signs, many of which closely resemble an anaphylactic reaction. Development of airway compromise after a snake bite to an extremity is unusual, but has been previously reported. The majority of such reports detail a history of probable sensitization from previous contact with snakes or snake venom. Few reports exist without such previous contact; no reports are of pediatric cases. Here we present a 14-year-old boy with no history of prior snake exposure who presents with an anaphylactoid reaction after a rattlesnake bite.
- Relationship between the duration of methamphetamine use and psychotic symptoms: A two-year prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- DADrug Alcohol Depend 2018 06 01; 187:363-369
- CONCLUSIONS: Longer periods of MA use predicted a higher risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms. Early prevention of MA use could help reduce the risk of psychosis in MA users.
- Prognostic Utility of Initial Lactate in Patients With Acute Drug Overdose: A Validation Cohort. [Journal Article]
- AEAnn Emerg Med 2018; 72(1):16-23
- CONCLUSIONS: Initial lactate concentration is a useful biomarker for early clinical decisionmaking in ED patients with acute drug overdose. Studies of lactate-tailored management for these patient populations are warranted.
- Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Produces Neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-Induced Dopamine Neurotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2018; 2018:7927568
- Parkinson's disease (PD) was one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with a slow and progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra (SN). Neuroinflammation was i...
Parkinson's disease (PD) was one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases with a slow and progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra (SN). Neuroinflammation was identified to be an important contributor to PD pathogenesis with the hallmark of microglia activation. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) was the main active component extracted from Polygonum multiflorum and held amounts of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, free radical-scavenging, anti-inflammation, and cardioprotective properties. Recent studies demonstrated that TSG exerted neuroprotection from several neurodegenerative disease models. However, the underlying mechanisms were not completely elucidated. In the present study, rat nigral stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) elicited DA neuronal injury was performed to investigate TSG-mediated neuroprotection on DA neurons. In addition, primary rat midbrain neuron-glia cocultures were applied to explore the mechanisms underlying TSG-exerted neuroprotection. Results showed that daily intraperitoneal injection of TSG for 14 consecutive days significantly protected DA neurons from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and suppressed microglia activation. Similar neuroprotection was shown in primary neuron-glia cocultures. In vitro studies further demonstrated that TSG inhibited microglia activation and subsequent release of proinflammatory factors. Moreover, TSG-mediated neuroprotection was closely related with the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Together, TSG protects DA neurons from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity via the inhibition of microglia-elicited neuroinflammation. These findings suggest that TSG might hold potential therapeutic effects on PD.
- Lactulose attenuates METH-induced neurotoxicity by alleviating the impaired autophagy, stabilizing the perturbed antioxidant system and suppressing apoptosis in rat striatum. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2018 Jun 01; 289:107-113
- Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar, which effectively decreases METH-induced neurotoxicity in rat. However, the exact mechanisms need furth...
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar, which effectively decreases METH-induced neurotoxicity in rat. However, the exact mechanisms need further investigation. In this study, 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats received METH (15 mg/kg, 8 intraperitoneal injections, 12-h interval) or saline and received lactulose (5.3 g/kg, oral gavage, 12-h interval) or vehicle 2 days prior to the METH administration. Compared to the control group, in the METH alone group, cytoplasmic vacuolar degeneration in hepatocytes, higher levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and ammonia, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase of superoxide dismutase activity in the blood were observed. Moreover, in rat striatum, expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-relatted factor-2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 were suppressed in the nucleus, although over-expression of Nrf2 were observed in cytoplasm. Over-expressions of BECN1 and LC3-II indicated initiation of autophagy, while overproduction of p62 might suggest deficient autophagic vesicle turnover and impaired autophagy. Furthermore, accumulation of p62 cloud interact with Keap1 and then aggravate cytoplasmic accumulation of Nrf2. Consistently, over-expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 suggested the activation of apoptosis. The pretreatment with lactulose significantly decreased rat hepatic injury, suppressed hyperammonemia and ROS generation, alleviated the impaired autophagy in striatum, rescued the antioxidant system and repressed apoptosis. Taken together, with decreased blood ammonia, lactulose pretreatment reduced METH-induced neurotoxicity through alleviating the impaired autophagy, stabilizing the perturbed antioxidant system and suppressing apoptosis in rat striatum.
- Effects of Mitochondrial Antioxidant SkQ1 on Biochemical and Behavioral Parameters in a Parkinsonism Model in Mice. [Journal Article]
- BBiochemistry (Mosc) 2017; 82(12):1513-1520
- According to one hypothesis, Parkinson's disease pathogenesis is largely caused by dopamine catabolism that is catalyzed on mitochondrial membranes by monoamine oxidase. Reactive oxygen species are f...
According to one hypothesis, Parkinson's disease pathogenesis is largely caused by dopamine catabolism that is catalyzed on mitochondrial membranes by monoamine oxidase. Reactive oxygen species are formed as a byproduct of these reactions, which can lead to mitochondrial damage followed by cell degeneration and death. In this study, we investigated the effects of administration of the mitochondrial antioxidant SkQ1 on biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral parameters in a Parkinson-like condition caused by protoxin MPTP injections in C57BL/6 mice. SkQ1 administration increased dopamine quantity and decreased signs of sensory-motor deficiency as well as destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in mice with the Parkinson-like condition.
- Protective and restorative effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Jitai tablet against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Feb 23; 18(1):76
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that JTT protects against METH-induced neurotoxicity and restores the dopaminergic function, and thus might be a potential treatment for the dopaminergic deficits associated with METH abuse.
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- Ephedrine Alkaloids-Free Ephedra Herb Extract, EFE, Has No Adverse Effects Such as Excitation, Insomnia, and Arrhythmias. [Journal Article]
- BPBiol Pharm Bull 2018; 41(2):247-253
- Ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) has been developed to eliminate the adverse effects caused by ephedrine alkaloid-induced sympathetic hyperactivation. Previously, we reported that ...
Ephedrine alkaloids-free Ephedra Herb extract (EFE) has been developed to eliminate the adverse effects caused by ephedrine alkaloid-induced sympathetic hyperactivation. Previously, we reported that EFE possesses analgesic, anti-influenza, and cancer metastatic inhibitory effects at comparable levels to that of Ephedra Herb extract (EHE). However, it has not yet been demonstrated that EFE is free from the known side effects of EHE, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias. In this study, the incidence of these adverse effects was compared between mice administered EHE and those administered EFE. Increased locomotor activity in an open-field test, reduced immobility times in a forced swim test, and reduced sleep times in a pentobarbital-induced sleep test were observed in EHE-treated mice, when compared to the corresponding values in vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, EFE had no obvious effects in these tests. In electrocardiograms, atrial fibrillation (i.e., irregular heart rhythm, absence of P waves, and appearance of f waves) was observed in the EHE-treated mice. It was suggested that this atrial fibrillation was induced by stimulation of adrenaline β1 receptors, but not by hypokalemia. However, EFE did not affect cardiac electrophysiology. These results suggest that the abovementioned side effects are caused by ephedrine alkaloids in EHE, and that EFE is free from these adverse effects, such as excitation, insomnia, and arrhythmias. Thus, EFE is a promising new botanical drug with few adverse effects.