- Validated electrochemical and chromatographic quantifications of some antibiotic residues in pharmaceutical industrial waste water. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jan 14
- Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation o...
Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation of ISE assay results. In this study, the electrochemical response of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPLX), trimethoprim (TMP), and norfloxacin (NFLX) was studied by the fabrication of sensitive membrane electrodes belonging to two types of ISEs, which are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Linear response for the membrane electrodes was in the concentration range of 10(-5)-10(-2) mol/L. For the PVC membrane electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 55.1, 56.5, 56.5, and 54.0 mV/decade were achieved over a pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. On the other hand, for GC electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 59.1, 58.2, 57.0, and 58.2 mV/decade were achieved over pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. In addition to assay validation to international industry standards, the fabricated electrodes were also cross-validated relative to conventional separation techniques; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry. The HPLC assay was applied in concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg/mL, for all target analytes. The TLC-densitometry was adopted over a concentration range of 0.3-1.0 μg/band, for AMX, and 0.1-0.9 μg/band, for CPLX, NFLX, and TMP. The proposed techniques were successfully applied for quantification of the selected drugs either in pure form or waste water samples obtained from pharmaceutical plants. The actual waste water samples were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) for pretreatment prior to the application of chromatographic techniques (HPLC and TLC-densitometry). On the other hand, the fabricated electrodes were successfully applied for quantification of the antibiotic residues in actual waste water samples without any pretreatment. This finding assures the suitability of the fabricated ISEs for environmental analysis.
- Platelet-Rich Plasma Application for Acute Tympanic Membrane Perforations. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int Adv Otol 2017 Jan 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Platelet-rich plasma fastens TMP closure; in long term, the eventual outcome is both microscopically and macroscopically same for the control as well as study groups in a rabbit traumatic TMP model. We believe that this study will encourage the clinical use of PRP for acute TMPs and trigger clinical studies in this field.
- Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis During Live Malaria Sporozoite Immunization Induces Long-Lived, Homologous, and Heterologous Protective Immunity Against Sporozoite Challenge. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dis 2017 Jan 01; 215(1):122-130
- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infec...
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice. Using the same models, we now demonstrate that repeated exposures to malaria parasites during TMP-SMX administration induces stage-specific and long-lived pre-erythrocytic protective anti-malarial immunity, mediated primarily by CD8(+) T-cells. Given the HIV infection and malaria coepidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, clinical studies aimed at determining the optimum duration of TMP-SMX prophylaxis in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children must account for the potential anti-infection immunity effect of TMP-SMX prophylaxis.
- Enhanced Activities of Blood Thiamine Diphosphatase and Monophosphatase in Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(1):e0167273
- CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced TDPase and TMPase activities may contribute to the reduction of TDP level in AD patients. The results imply that an imbalance of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation related to thiamine and glucose metabolism may be a potential target for AD prevention and therapy.
- Tetramethylpyrazine ameliorated disuse-induced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy in hindlimb unloading rats through suppression of Ca(2+)/ROS-mediated apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- APAppl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016 Oct 03; :1-11
- The purpose of this study was to examine the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against disuse-induced muscle atrophy. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against disuse-induced muscle atrophy. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HLU, a model of disuse atrophy) or cage controls. The rats were given TMP (60 mg/kg body mass) or vehicle (water) by gavage. Compared with vehicle treatment, TMP significantly attenuated the loss of gastrocnemius muscle mass (-33.56%, P < 0.01), the decrease of cross-sectional area of slow fiber (-10.99%, P < 0.05) and fast fiber (-15.78%, P < 0.01) during HLU. Although TMP failed to further improve recovery of muscle function or fatigability compared with vehicle treatment, it can suppress the higher level of lactate (-22.71%, P < 0.01) induced by HLU. Besides, TMP could effectually reduce the increased protein expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 induced by HLU (-14.52%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, TMP can ameliorate the calcium overload (-54.39%, P < 0.05), the increase of malondialdehyde content (-19.82%, P < 0.05), the decrease of superoxide dismutase activity (21.34%, P < 0.05), and myonuclear apoptosis (-78.22%, P < 0.01) induced by HLU. Moreover, TMP significantly reduced HLU-induced increase of Bax to B-cell lymphoma 2 (-36.36%, P < 0.01) and cytochrome c release (-36.16%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, TMP attenuated HLU-induced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy through suppression of Ca(2+)/reactive oxygen species increase and consequent proteolysis and apoptosis. Therefore, TMP might exhibit therapeutic effect against oxidative stress, cytosolic calcium overload, and mitochondrial damage in disuse-induced muscle atrophy.
- Three-dimensional metal-organic framework derived porous CoP3 concave polyhedrons as superior bifunctional electrocatalysts for the evolution of hydrogen and oxygen. [Journal Article]
- PCPhys Chem Chem Phys 2017 Jan 03
- Developing low-cost and highly-efficient non-precious metal bifunctional electrocatalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an attractively alternat...
Developing low-cost and highly-efficient non-precious metal bifunctional electrocatalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an attractively alternative strategy to solve the environmental pollution problems and energy demands. In this study, metal-organic framework (MOF) derived porous cobalt poly-phosphide (CoP3) concave polyhedrons are prepared and explored as superior bifunctional electrocatalysts for the HER and OER. The prepared MOF derived CoP3 concave polyhedrons show excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the HER and OER in both acidic and alkaline media, with the Tafel slopes of 53 mV dec(-1) and 76 mV dec(-1) and a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at the overpotentials of -78 and 343 mV for the HER and OER, respectively, which are remarkably superior to those of the transition metal phosphides (TMPs) and comparable to those of the commercial precious metal catalysts. In addition, they also offer efficient catalytic activities and durabilities under neutral and basic conditions for the HER. The results of our study may shed light on the direction towards highly efficient bifunctional TMP electrocatalysts with high phosphorous component.
- The comeback of trimethoprim in France. [Review]
- MMMed Mal Infect 2016 Dec 30
- Already used in various countries, trimethoprim (TMP) was withdrawn from the French market in 1990, but should be soon available again. This article reviews the experience of TMP use around the world...
Already used in various countries, trimethoprim (TMP) was withdrawn from the French market in 1990, but should be soon available again. This article reviews the experience of TMP use around the world and its current use in Europe. Label use and guidelines only recommend the use of TMP for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). Compared with co-trimoxazole (Co-T), a combination of TMP and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), TMP has (a) a similar resistance rate among Escherichia coli strains (estimated between 10 and 20% in uncomplicated cystitis), (b) a similar clinical efficacy for cystitis prevention and treatment, (c) a lower toxicity (as severe toxicity adverse effects of Co-T come from its sulfonamide component), (d) limited data for the treatment of pyelonephritis and male UTIs, and (e) an important impact on the microbiota. TMP should thus be indicated in the third-line empirical treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (sparing fluoroquinolones and nitrofurantoin), in the prevention of recurrent acute cystitis when an antibiotic prophylaxis is required (possibly in first line), and in the treatment of documented acute cystitis at risk of complications. Updated data on the epidemiology of resistance to TMP per clinical pictures is now required. The bactericidal effect of TMP should also be confirmed on recent strains (although limited recent data suggests a bactericidia similar to that of Co-T) and its clinical efficacy should be evaluated in pyelonephritis and male UTI.
- Mechanisms of microbial community structure and biofouling shifts under multivalent cations stress in membrane bioreactors. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2016 Dec 19; 327:89-96
- Five lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were continuously operated to investigate the mechanisms and linkages of the microbial community and membrane fouling with trivalent metal cations (Fe(III) ...
Five lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were continuously operated to investigate the mechanisms and linkages of the microbial community and membrane fouling with trivalent metal cations (Fe(III) and Al(III)) and bivalent metal cations (Ca(II) and Mg(II)) shock loads. COD and NH4(+)-N removals showed recovery trends along with treatment process in the presence of metals. Trivalent metal cations reduced trans-membrane pressure (TMP) as well as fouling rate (dTMP/dt) and extended membrane module replacement period by binding activated sludge extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and effluent soluble microbial product (SMP) productions. Illunima sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that metal stress stimulated specific metal-tolerance bacteria in the MBRs. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that EPS and SMP made different contributions to the distribution of microbial community structure in Fe(III) and Al (III) systems, respectively. Under bivalent metal conditions, microbial community shifts and Ca(II) binding bridge worked together to inhibit EPS and SMP, while filamentous bacteria stimulated by Mg(II) that mainly controlled membrane fouling. This study has shown that the comparison of tri- and bivalent metals for membrane fouling control with binding bridge and functional microorganisms can provide a strategy for practical membrane bioreactor applications.
- R-Flurbiprofen Traps Prostaglandins within Cells by Inhibition of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein-4. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2016 Dec 30; 18(1)
- R-flurbiprofen is the non-COX-inhibiting enantiomer of flurbiprofen and is not converted to S-flurbiprofen in human cells. Nevertheless, it reduces extracellular prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in cancer or ...
R-flurbiprofen is the non-COX-inhibiting enantiomer of flurbiprofen and is not converted to S-flurbiprofen in human cells. Nevertheless, it reduces extracellular prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in cancer or immune cell cultures and human extracellular fluid. Here, we show that R-flurbiprofen acts through a dual mechanism: (i) it inhibits the translocation of cPLA2α to the plasma membrane and thereby curtails the availability of arachidonic acid and (ii) R-flurbiprofen traps PGE₂ inside of the cells by inhibiting multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4), which acts as an outward transporter for prostaglandins. Consequently, the effects of R-flurbiprofen were mimicked by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MRP4. Our data show a novel mechanism by which R-flurbiprofen reduces extracellular PGs at physiological concentrations, particularly in cancers with high levels of MRP4, but the mechanism may also contribute to its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties and suggests that it reduces PGs in a site- and context-dependent manner.
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- Machine-learned cluster identification in high-dimensional data. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomed Inform 2016 Dec 28
- CONCLUSIONS: The present analyses emphasized, that generally established classical hierarchical clustering algorithms carry a considerable tendency to produce erroneous results. By contrast, unsupervised machine-learned analysis of cluster structures, applied using the ESOM/U-matrix method, is a viable, unbiased method to identify true clusters in the high-dimensional space of complex data.