- Nerve Entrapment in Ankle and Foot: Ultrasound Imaging. [Journal Article]
- SMSemin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22(3):354-363
- Peripheral nerve entrapment of the ankle and foot is relatively uncommon and often underdiagnosed because electrophysiologic studies may not contribute to the diagnosis. Anatomy of the peripheral ner...
Peripheral nerve entrapment of the ankle and foot is relatively uncommon and often underdiagnosed because electrophysiologic studies may not contribute to the diagnosis. Anatomy of the peripheral nerves is variable and complex, and along with a comprehensive physical examination, a thorough understanding of the applied anatomy is essential. Several studies have helped identify specific areas in which nerves are commonly compressed. Identified secondary causes of nerve compression include previous trauma, osteophytes, ganglion cysts, edema, accessory muscles, tenosynovitis, vascular lesions, and a primary nerve tumor. Imaging plays a key role in identifying primary and secondary causes of nerve entrapment, specifically ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging. US is a dynamic imaging modality that is cost effective and offers excellent resolution. Symptoms of nerve entrapment may mimic other common foot and ankle conditions such as plantar fasciitis.
- Accessory Muscles of the Extremities. [Journal Article]
- SMSemin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018; 22(3):275-285
- Accessory muscles and variations are not uncommon at the upper and lower extremity. They are often overlooked because they are asymptomatic and present as incidental findings on imaging. However, the...
Accessory muscles and variations are not uncommon at the upper and lower extremity. They are often overlooked because they are asymptomatic and present as incidental findings on imaging. However, they may present as a soft tissue swelling, thereby mimicking soft tissue tumors. Other symptoms are attributed to impingement on neurovascular structures and to exercise-related pain. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy, systematic imaging analysis, and the awareness of it are the clues to correct identification. On ultrasound, accessory muscles have a similar echotexture as other muscles, whereas the signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is similar to muscle. Because of the intrinsic contrast with the adjacent intermuscular fat, accessory muscles are best depicted on MRI without fat suppression. This article provides a short overview of the anatomy of most prevalent accessory muscles of the upper and lower limb and its potential pathogenic nature.
- Effects of potassium application on potato starch physicochemical properties. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 May 20
- Potato starch serves as an excellent raw material or food additive in the food industry. With the advancement of the potato staple food strategy in China, improving the potato starch yield and qualit...
Potato starch serves as an excellent raw material or food additive in the food industry. With the advancement of the potato staple food strategy in China, improving the potato starch yield and quality has attracted more and more attention. Potassium is an essential nutrient for potato due to its direct effects on the yield and quality of potato tubers. Here, the effects of three different potassium levels on potato starch physicochemical properties were evaluated by field experiments. With increasing potassium application rates, the amylose content, phosphorus content and particle size decreased, thereby resulting in low gelatinization temperature, breakdown and setback viscosity, and high swelling power, relative crystallinity and transparency. Our study indicated that enhanced potassium application improved the resistance to heating and shear stress and decreased the retrogradation of starch, and the application of 270 kg/ha potassium fertilizer could obtain highest tuber and starch production with desirable starch physicochemical properties. The integrated results also provide some novel insights into the management of the fertilizing conditions to obtain native starches with special properties.
- Trpv4 Mediates Hypotonic Inhibition of Central Osmosensory Neurons via Taurine Gliotransmission. [Journal Article]
- CRCell Rep 2018 May 22; 23(8):2245-2253
- The maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis requires bidirectional detection of changes in extracellular fluid osmolality by primary osmosensory neurons (ONs) in the organum vasculosum laminae termin...
The maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis requires bidirectional detection of changes in extracellular fluid osmolality by primary osmosensory neurons (ONs) in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT). Hypertonicity excites ONs in part through the mechanical activation of a variant transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channel (dn-Trpv1). However, the mechanism by which local hypotonicity inhibits ONs in the OVLT remains unknown. Here, we show that hypotonicity can reduce the basal activity of dn-Trpv1 channels and hyperpolarize acutely isolated ONs. Surprisingly, we found that mice lacking dn-Trpv1 maintain normal inhibitory responses to hypotonicity when tested in situ. In the intact setting, hypotonicity inhibits ONs through a non-cell-autonomous mechanism that involves glial release of the glycine receptor agonist taurine through hypotonicity activated anion channels (HAAC) that are activated subsequent to Ca2+ influx through Trpv4 channels. Our study clarifies how Trpv4 channels contribute to the inhibition of OVLT ONs during hypotonicity in situ.
- PI(3,5)P2 Controls Vacuole Potassium Transport to Support Cellular Osmoregulation. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biol Cell 2018 May 23; :mbcE18010015
- Lysosomes are dynamic organelles with critical roles in cellular physiology. The lysosomal signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) is a key regulator that has been implicate...
Lysosomes are dynamic organelles with critical roles in cellular physiology. The lysosomal signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) is a key regulator that has been implicated to control lysosome ion homeostasis, but the scope of ion transporters targeted by PI(3,5)P2 and the purpose of this regulation is not well understood. Through an unbiased screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified loss-of-function mutations in the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and in Vnx1, a vacuolar monovalent cation/proton antiporter, as suppressor mutations that relieve the growth defects and osmotic swelling of vacuoles (lysosomes) in yeast lacking PI(3,5)P2. We observed that depletion of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis in yeast causes a robust accumulation of multiple cations, most notably an ∼85mM increase in the cellular concentration of potassium, a critical ion used by cells to regulate osmolarity. The accumulation of potassium and other cations in PI(3,5)P2-deficient yeast is relieved by mutations that inactivate Vnx1 or inactivate the V-ATPase and by mutations that increase the activity of a vacuolar cation export channel, Yvc1. Collectively, our data demonstrate that PI(3,5)P2 signaling orchestrates vacuole/lysosome cation transport to aid cellular osmoregulation.
- Peritumoral Edema Relative to Meningioma Size Predicts Functional Outcomes after Resection in Older Patients. [Journal Article]
- ONOper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative PTE may represent a significant marker of poor functional outcome risk in older adults and provides a quantitative measurement to incorporate into surgical decision-making.
- Alpha-synuclein Aggregates in Labial Salivary Glands of Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder. [Journal Article]
- SSleep 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Labial minor salivary glands biopsy proved to be a safe and useful procedure to identify pAS in IRBD, and in PD and DLB subjects initially diagnosed with IRBD. The biopsy provides direct histopathological evidence that IRBD represents a synucleinopathy, and that could be useful histological confirmation of synuclein pathology in PD and DLB.
- miR172 downregulates the translation of cleistogamy 1 in barley. [Journal Article]
- ABAnn Bot 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Direct evidence is presented to show that miR172a acts to reduce the abundance of the CLY1 protein, which enables open flowering in barley.
- Release of Taurine and Glutamate contributes to cell volume regulation in human retinal Müller cells: Differences in modulation by calcium. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurophysiol 2018 May 23
- Neuronal activity in the retina generates osmotic gradients that lead to Müller cell swelling, followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response, partially due to the isoosmotic efflux of KCl a...
Neuronal activity in the retina generates osmotic gradients that lead to Müller cell swelling, followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response, partially due to the isoosmotic efflux of KCl and water. However, our previous studies in a human Müller cell line (MIO-M1) demonstrated that an important fraction of RVD may also involve the efflux of organic solutes. We also showed that RVD depends on the swelling-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Here we investigate the contribution of Taurine (Tau) and Glutamate (Glu), the most relevant amino acids in Müller cells, to RVD through the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC), as well as their Ca2+-dependency in MIO-M1 cells. Swelling-induced [3-H]-Tau/[3H]-Glu release was assessed by radiotracer assays and cell volume by fluorescence videomicroscopy. Results showed that cells exhibited an osmosensitive efflux of [3H]-Tau and [3H]-Glu (Tau > Glu) blunted by the VRAC inhibitors DCPIB and CBX, reducing RVD. Only [3H]-Tau efflux was dependent on Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. RVD was unaffected in a Ca2+-free medium, probably due to Ca2+-independent Tau and Glu release, but was reduced by chelating intracellular Ca2+. The inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase reduced [3H]-Glu efflux but also the Ca2+-insensitive [3H]-Tau fraction and decreased RVD, evidencing the relevance of this Ca2+-independent pathway. We propose that VRAC-mediated Tau and Glu release has a relevant role in RVD in Müller cells. The observed disparities in Ca2+ influence on amino acid release support the presence of VRAC isoforms that may differ in substrate selectivity and regulatory mechanisms, with important implications for retinal physiology.
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- The protective effect of Gingko biloba in a rat model of ovarian ischemia/reperfusion injury: Improvement in histological and biochemical parameters. [Journal Article]
- ACAdv Clin Exp Med 2018 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Supplementing GB during a surgical procedure decreases ischemia/reperfusion injury to an ovary in an experimental rat model based on histopathological parameters, tissue malondialdehyde, and plasma pentraxin-3 levels.