- The Critical Role of Zinc in a New Murine Model of Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) Diarrhea. [Journal Article]
- IIInfect Immun 2018 Apr 16
- Enterotoxigenic E. coli are major causes of traveler's diarrhea as well as endemic diarrhea and stunting in children in developing areas. However a small mammal model has been badly needed to better ...
Enterotoxigenic E. coli are major causes of traveler's diarrhea as well as endemic diarrhea and stunting in children in developing areas. However a small mammal model has been badly needed to better understand and assess mechanisms, vaccines and interventions. We report a murine model of ETEC diarrhea, weight loss and enteropathy, and investigate the role of zinc on the outcomes. LT+ST producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) given to weaned C57BL/6 mice after antibiotic disruption of normal microbiota cause growth impairment, watery diarrhea, heavy stool shedding and mild to moderate intestinal inflammation, the latter worse with zinc deficiency. Zinc treatment promoted growth in zinc deficient infected mice, and subinhibitory zinc reduced expression of ETEC virulence genes cfa1, cexE, sta2 and degP, but not eltA in vitro. Zinc supplementation increased shedding and ileal burden of WT ETEC, but decreased shedding and tissue burden of LTKO ETEC. LTKO ETEC infected mice had delayed disease onset and also had less inflammation by fecal MPO assessment These findings provide a new murine model of ETEC infection that can help elucidate mechanisms of growth, diarrhea and inflammatory responses as well as potential vaccines and interventions.
- Ancylostoma ceylanicum , novel etiological agent for traveler's diarrhea-report of four Japanese patients who returned from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea. [Journal Article]
- TMTrop Med Health 2018; 46:6
- CONCLUSIONS: A .ceylanicumshould be recognized as an important etiologic pathogen of hookworm diseases in travelers to countries in the Southeast Asia and West Pacific Ocean regions.
- A Role for Salivary Peptides in the Innate Defense Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dis 2018 Apr 11; 217(9):1435-1441
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data represent the first report of a salivary component exerting specific antimicrobial activity against an enteric pathogen and suggest that histatin-5 and related peptides might be exploited for prophylactic and/or therapeutic uses. Numerous viruses, bacteria, and fungi traverse the oropharynx to cause disease, so there is considerable opportunity for various salivary components to neutralize these pathogens prior to arrival at their target organ. Identification of additional salivary components with unexpectedly broad antimicrobial spectra should be a priority.
- Antibiotic treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children. [Review]
- FF1000Res 2018; 7:193
- Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for acute diarrhea in children, as rehydration is the key treatment and symptoms resolve generally without specific therapy. Searching for the etiology of gastroen...
Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for acute diarrhea in children, as rehydration is the key treatment and symptoms resolve generally without specific therapy. Searching for the etiology of gastroenteritis is not usually needed; however, it may be necessary if antimicrobial treatment is considered. The latter is left to the physician evaluation in the absence of clear indications. Antimicrobial treatment should be considered in severely sick children, in those who have chronic conditions or specific risk factors or in specific settings. Traveler's diarrhea, prolonged diarrhea, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea may also require antibiotic therapy. Depending on the severity of symptoms or based on risk of spreading, empiric therapy may be started while awaiting the results of microbiological investigations. The choice of antibiotic depends on suspected agents, host conditions, and local epidemiology. In most cases, empiric therapy should be started while awaiting such results. Empiric therapy may be started with oral co-trimoxazole or metronidazole, but in severe cases parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone or ciprofloxacin might be considered.
- Traveler's Diarrhea Recommendations for Solid Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors. [Journal Article]
- TTransplantation 2018; 102(2S Suppl 2):S35-S41
- Vaxchora: The First FDA-Approved Cholera Vaccination in the United States. [Journal Article]
- P TP T 2017; 42(10):638-640
- Vaxchora is the first vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prophylaxis of cholera infection. Cholera, a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection that occurs in the int...
Vaxchora is the first vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prophylaxis of cholera infection. Cholera, a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection that occurs in the intestines and causes severe diarrhea and dehydration, has a low incidence in the U.S., but a high incidence in Africa, Southeast Asia, and other locations around the world. These areas draw travelers from the U.S., so cholera can present in patients who return from visits to these regions. Previous means of prophylaxis included the use of doxycycline for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea, but doxycycline is not specific for cholera. With the approval of Vaxchora, a live attenuated, single-dose, oral suspension vaccine, travelers can now visit these areas with less chance of contracting the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera infections.
- Gastrointestinal Prophylaxis in Sports Medicine. [Journal Article]
- SHSports Health 2018 Mar/Apr; 10(2):152-155
- CONCLUSIONS: Prophylaxis with antibiotics is highly effective; however, physicians should be hesitant to prescribe medication due to the side effects and risks for creating antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Antibiotics may be indicated for high-risk groups, such as those with a baseline disease or travelers who have little flexible time. Since most cases of traveler's diarrhea are caused by food and/or water contamination, all athletes should be educated on the appropriate food and water consumption safety measures prior to travel.
- An uncommon triad. [Case Reports]
- JTJ Travel Med 2017 09 01; 24(5)
- Diagnostics in a Forward Deployed Setting. [Journal Article]
- MMMil Med 2017; 182(S2):11-16
- Current diagnostic methods for enteric pathogens include conventional/traditional microbiology, microscopy, enzyme immunoassay, automated identification platforms, and molecular methods. The choice o...
Current diagnostic methods for enteric pathogens include conventional/traditional microbiology, microscopy, enzyme immunoassay, automated identification platforms, and molecular methods. The choice of diagnostic test in the forward deployed military setting often depends on turnaround time, potential etiologic agents, costs, and laboratory capabilities. The military operational environment presents many challenges that impact the practicality and performance of even robust diagnostic platforms. With recent developments in diagnostic platforms and availability of high-performance multiplex molecular methods to pair with traditional culture and antibiotic susceptibility tests, there are more opportunities to gather information on the etiologic causes and clinical impacts of traveler's diarrhea, both in civilians and in deployed military populations. Nevertheless, further assessment of new test methods is warranted to determine field applicability in forward deployed military settings.
New Search Next
- Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and other diarrheal pathogens isolated from US military personnel deployed to Thailand in 2002-2004: a case-control study. [Journal Article]
- TDTrop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2017; 3:13
- CONCLUSIONS: The significant morbidity and marked fluoroquinolone resistance associated with Campylobacter infections in Thailand are important considerations for clinicians providing counseling on appropriate antibacterial regimens for civilian and military travelers.