- Traveler's Diarrhea, vision abnormalities and unsteady gait in a young woman. [Journal Article]
- ZGZ Gastroenterol 2017; 55(4):379-382
- We report on the course of disease in a young woman, originally admitted with suspected refractory infectious tropical traveler's diarrhea. However, symptoms did not resolve upon either symptomatic o...
We report on the course of disease in a young woman, originally admitted with suspected refractory infectious tropical traveler's diarrhea. However, symptoms did not resolve upon either symptomatic or subsequent antibiotic therapy. When neurologic deterioration was observed, imaging studies revealed a dramatic series of thromboembolic events, including intracranial hemorrhage caused by extensive sinus vein thrombosis as well as thrombi of the right cardiac ventricle. Colonic mucosal biopsy samples finally led to the histologic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. Having excluded thrombophilia or any other disease potentially related to a prothrombotic state, we interpreted the thromboembolic events as secondary to the primary manifestation of the underlying inflammatory bowel disease.The increased risk of thromboembolic complications-especially deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism-in inflammatory bowel disease is well documented in the literature. However, sinus vein thrombosis and cardiac thrombi represent a remarkable dimension of this risk and a rare course of coagulopathy secondary to an acute flare of ulcerative colitis. Still, there is a lack of awareness of this risk, resulting in poor implementation of preventive measures modifying risk factors and allowing for pharmacological prophylaxis. We therefore emphasize that-in line with the 2014 German S3 Guideline-thromboprophylaxis in the setting of an acute flare of inflammatory bowel disease is mandatory and should not be restricted because of safety concerns.
- Preparing for International Travel and Global Medical Care. [Review]
- EMEmerg Med Clin North Am 2017; 35(2):465-484
- Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment...
Thorough pretravel preparation and medical consultation can mitigate avoidable health and safety risks. A comprehensive pretravel medical consultation should include an individualized risk assessment, immunization review, and discussion of arthropod protective measures, malaria prophylaxis, traveler's diarrhea, and injury prevention. Travel with children and jet lag reduction require additional planning and prevention strategies; travel and evacuation insurance may prove essential when traveling to less resourced countries. Consideration should also be given to other high-risk travel scenarios, including the provision of health care overseas, adventure and extreme sports, water environments and diving, high altitude, and terrorism/unstable political situations.
- [Consensus paper treatment of acute traveler's diarrhea. Practice recommendation for travel advice]. [Journal Article]
- MFMMW Fortschr Med 2017; 159(Suppl 4):4-11
- CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of acute uncomplicated traveler's diarrhea - more than 90 % of all cases - the secretion inhibitor racecadotril is considered first choice, based on our evaluation criteria. The previously usual practice of recommending the antimotility drug loperamide as first choice should be reconsidered, in favor of the recent active ingredient racecadotril. Antibiotics should be used only in complicated cases. A large number of travelers who generally demand antibiotic therapy should be disabused of their expectations. Other therapeutic measures that are currently available for the treatment of acute diarrhea while traveling play a subordinate role.
- Antivirulence Properties of Probiotics in Combating Microbial Pathogenesis. [Journal Article]
- AAAdv Appl Microbiol 2017; 98:1-29
- Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probio...
Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. Health benefits of probiotics include prevention of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea, atopic eczema, dental carries, colorectal cancers, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The cumulative body of scientific evidence that demonstrates the beneficial effects of probiotics on health and disease prevention has made probiotics increasingly important as a part of human nutrition and led to a surge in the demand for probiotics in clinical applications and as functional foods. The ability of probiotics to promote health is attributed to the various beneficial effects exerted by these microorganisms on the host. These include lactose metabolism and food digestion, production of antimicrobial peptides and control of enteric infections, anticarcinogenic properties, immunologic enhancement, enhancement of short-chain fatty acid production, antiatherogenic and cholesterol-lowering attributes, regulatory role in allergy, protection against vaginal or urinary tract infections, increased nutritional value, maintenance of epithelial integrity and barrier, stimulation of repair mechanism in cells, and maintenance and reestablishment of well-balanced indigenous intestinal and respiratory microbial communities. Most of these attributes primarily focus on the effect of probiotic supplementation on the host. Hence, in most cases, it can be concluded that the ability of a probiotic to protect the host from infection is an indirect result of promoting overall health and well-being. However, probiotics also exert a direct effect on invading microorganisms. The direct modes of action resulting in the elimination of pathogens include inhibition of pathogen replication by producing antimicrobial substances like bacteriocins, competition for limiting resources in the host, antitoxin effect, inhibition of virulence, antiadhesive and antiinvasive effects, and competitive exclusion by competition for binding sites or stimulation of epithelial barrier function. Although much has been documented about the ability of probiotics to promote host health, there is limited discussion on the above mentioned effects of probiotics on pathogens. Being in an era of antibiotic resistance, a better understanding of this complex probiotic-pathogen interaction is critical for development of effective strategies to control infections. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the ability of probiotics to directly modulate the infectious nature of pathogens and the underlying mechanisms that mediate these effects.
- Impact of CD4+ T Cell Responses on Clinical Outcome following Oral Administration of Wild-Type Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Humans. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(1):e0005291
- Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a non-invasive enteric pathogen of considerable public health importance, being one of the most common attributable causes of diarrheal illness in infants a...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a non-invasive enteric pathogen of considerable public health importance, being one of the most common attributable causes of diarrheal illness in infants and young children in developing countries and the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. To enhance study-to-study consistency of our experimental challenge model of ETEC in volunteers, and to allow concomitant multi-site trials to evaluate anti-ETEC immunoprophylactic products, hundreds of vials, each containing a standardized inoculum of virulent wild-type (wt) ETEC strain H10407 (serotype O78:H11 expressing colonization factor antigen I and heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins), were prepared under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and frozen. Following thawing, the contents of each vial can be used (diluted as necessary) to prepare consistent challenge inoculum, even at different study sites. A preliminary human experimental challenge study using this cGMP inoculum was conducted on a research isolation ward and the clinical and cell-mediated immune responses evaluated. Of the 6 healthy adult volunteers challenged 83% (5/6) developed diarrhea and 50% developed moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD). Moderate and severe diarrhea were defined as passage of ≥ 1 liter or ≥ 3 liters of diarrheal stool respectively. We compared the CD4+ T cell responses of volunteers who developed MSD against those who did not and identified significant differences in ETEC-specific cytokine production and gut homing potential. We furthermore demonstrated that increased expression of the gut-homing molecule integrin α4β7 by peripheral T follicular helper cells (pTfh) correlated with decreased stool volume and increased ETEC-specific IgA B memory cell (BM) development. Collectively, despite small numbers of volunteers, our results indicate a potential role for CD4+ T cells, in particular pTfh, in modulating disease outcome following exposure to wt ETEC in a volunteer experimental challenge model.
- Foodborne enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: from gut pathogenesis to new preventive strategies involving probiotics. [Journal Article]
- FMFuture Microbiol 2017; 12:73-93
- Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of traveler's diarrhea and infant mortality in developing countries. Given the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide, there is an urgent ne...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of traveler's diarrhea and infant mortality in developing countries. Given the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of new preventive strategies. Among them, a promising approach is the use of probiotics. Although many studies, mostly performed under piglet digestive conditions, have shown the beneficial effects of probiotics on ETEC by interfering with their survival, virulence or adhesion to mucosa, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This review describes ETEC pathogenesis, its modulation by human gastrointestinal cues as well as novel preventive strategies with a particular emphasis on probiotics. The potential of in vitro models simulating human digestion in elucidating probiotic mode of action will be discussed.
- The Pretravel Consultation. [Journal Article]
- AFAm Fam Physician 2016 Oct 15; 94(8):620-627
- Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler's anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection m...
Key components of the pretravel consultation include intake questions regarding the traveler's anticipated itinerary and medical history; immunizations; malaria prophylaxis; and personal protection measures against arthropod bites, traveler's diarrhea, and injury. Most vaccinations that are appropriate for international travelers are included in the routine domestic immunization schedule; only a few travel-specific vaccines must also be discussed. The most common vaccine-preventable illnesses in international travelers are influenza and hepatitis A. Malaria prophylaxis should be offered to travelers to endemic regions. Personal protection measures, such as applying an effective insect repellent to exposed skin and permethrin to clothing and using a permethrin-impregnated bed net, should be advised for travelers to the tropics. Clinicians should offer an antibiotic prescription that travelers can take with them in case of traveler's diarrhea. Additional topics to address during the pretravel consultation include the risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes and travel-specific risks such as altitude sickness, safe sex practices, and emergency medical evacuation insurance.
- Benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazine-dione CFTR inhibitor (R)-BPO-27 for antisecretory therapy of diarrheas caused by bacterial enterotoxins. [Journal Article]
- FJFASEB J 2017; 31(2):751-760
- Secretory diarrheas caused by bacterial enterotoxins, including cholera and traveler's diarrhea, remain a major global health problem. Inappropriate activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane co...
Secretory diarrheas caused by bacterial enterotoxins, including cholera and traveler's diarrhea, remain a major global health problem. Inappropriate activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel occurs in these diarrheas. We previously reported that the benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione (R)-BPO-27 inhibits CFTR chloride conductance with low-nanomolar potency. Here, we demonstrate using experimental mouse models and human enterocyte cultures the potential utility of (R)-BPO-27 for treatment of secretory diarrheas caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins. (R)-BPO-27 fully blocked CFTR chloride conductance in epithelial cell cultures and intestine after cAMP agonists, cholera toxin, or heat-stable enterotoxin of E. coli (STa toxin), with IC50 down to ∼5 nM. (R)-BPO-27 prevented cholera toxin and STa toxin-induced fluid accumulation in small intestinal loops, with IC50 down to 0.1 mg/kg. (R)-BPO-27 did not impair intestinal fluid absorption or inhibit other major intestinal transporters. Pharmacokinetics in mice showed >90% oral bioavailability with sustained therapeutic serum levels for >4 h without the significant toxicity seen with 7-d administration at 5 mg/kg/d. As evidence to support efficacy in human diarrheas, (R)-BPO-27 blocked fluid secretion in primary cultures of enteroids from human small intestine and anion current in enteroid monolayers. These studies support the potential utility of (R)-BPO-27 for therapy of CFTR-mediated secretory diarrheas.-Cil, O., Phuan, P.-W., Gillespie, A. M., Lee, S., Tradtrantip, L., Yin, J., Tse, M., Zachos, N. C., Lin, R., Donowitz, M., Verkman, A. S. Benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazine-dione CFTR inhibitor (R)-BPO-27 for antisecretory therapy of diarrheas caused by bacterial enterotoxins.
- Multiplex-Touchdown PCR to Simultaneously Detect Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the Major Causes of Traveler's Diarrhea. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Parasitol 2016; 54(5):631-636
- This study aimed to develop a multiplex-touchdown PCR method to simultaneously detect 3 species of protozoan parasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the...
This study aimed to develop a multiplex-touchdown PCR method to simultaneously detect 3 species of protozoan parasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the major causes of traveler's diarrhea and are resistant to standard antimicrobial treatments. The target genes included the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, Glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) for C. cayetanensis. The sizes of the amplified fragments were 555, 188, and 400 bps, respectively. The multiplex-touchdown PCR protocol using a primer mixture simultaneously detected protozoa in human stools, and the amplified gene was detected in >1×10(3) oocysts for C. parvum, >1×10(4) cysts for G. lamblia, and >1 copy of the 18S rRNA gene for C. cayetanensis. Taken together, our protocol convincingly demonstrated the ability to simultaneously detect C. parvum, G. lamblia, and C. cayetanenesis in stool samples.
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- Aseptic abscess syndrome associated with traveler's diarrhea after a trip to Malaysia. [Journal Article]
- IIDCases 2016; 6:23-5
- The first, to our knowledge, case of the aseptic abscesses syndrome as a complication of traveler's diarrhea after a trip to Malaysia is presented. The patient failed to respond to several antimicrob...
The first, to our knowledge, case of the aseptic abscesses syndrome as a complication of traveler's diarrhea after a trip to Malaysia is presented. The patient failed to respond to several antimicrobials. The diagnosis was histologically confirmed and the patient only responded to immunomodulatory therapy with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Travel physicians should be aware of this entity reviewed herein in the context of traveler's diarrhea.