- Traveler's Diarrhea Recommendations for Solid Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors. [Journal Article]
- TTransplantation 2018; 102(2S Suppl 2):S35-S41
- Differences in tetracycline-resistance determinants carriage among Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are not related to different plasmid Inc-type carriage. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Jan 04
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of the tet(A) and tet(B) genes differs between S. sonnei and S. flexneri. Also, the prevalence of plasmid incompatibility groups in S. flexneri and S. sonnei differs. Nonetheless no relationship was found between the two phenomena.
- Vaxchora: The First FDA-Approved Cholera Vaccination in the United States. [Journal Article]
- P TP T 2017; 42(10):638-640
- Vaxchora is the first vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prophylaxis of cholera infection. Cholera, a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection that occurs in the int...
Vaxchora is the first vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prophylaxis of cholera infection. Cholera, a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection that occurs in the intestines and causes severe diarrhea and dehydration, has a low incidence in the U.S., but a high incidence in Africa, Southeast Asia, and other locations around the world. These areas draw travelers from the U.S., so cholera can present in patients who return from visits to these regions. Previous means of prophylaxis included the use of doxycycline for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea, but doxycycline is not specific for cholera. With the approval of Vaxchora, a live attenuated, single-dose, oral suspension vaccine, travelers can now visit these areas with less chance of contracting the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera infections.
- Gastrointestinal Prophylaxis in Sports Medicine. [Journal Article]
- SHSports Health 2017 Sep 01; :1941738117732733
- CONCLUSIONS: Prophylaxis with antibiotics is highly effective; however, physicians should be hesitant to prescribe medication due to the side effects and risks for creating antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Antibiotics may be indicated for high-risk groups, such as those with a baseline disease or travelers who have little flexible time. Since most cases of traveler's diarrhea are caused by food and/or water contamination, all athletes should be educated on the appropriate food and water consumption safety measures prior to travel.
- An uncommon triad. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Travel Med 2017 09 01; 24(5)
- Diagnostics in a Forward Deployed Setting. [Journal Article]
- MMMil Med 2017; 182(S2):11-16
- Current diagnostic methods for enteric pathogens include conventional/traditional microbiology, microscopy, enzyme immunoassay, automated identification platforms, and molecular methods. The choice o...
Current diagnostic methods for enteric pathogens include conventional/traditional microbiology, microscopy, enzyme immunoassay, automated identification platforms, and molecular methods. The choice of diagnostic test in the forward deployed military setting often depends on turnaround time, potential etiologic agents, costs, and laboratory capabilities. The military operational environment presents many challenges that impact the practicality and performance of even robust diagnostic platforms. With recent developments in diagnostic platforms and availability of high-performance multiplex molecular methods to pair with traditional culture and antibiotic susceptibility tests, there are more opportunities to gather information on the etiologic causes and clinical impacts of traveler's diarrhea, both in civilians and in deployed military populations. Nevertheless, further assessment of new test methods is warranted to determine field applicability in forward deployed military settings.
- Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and other diarrheal pathogens isolated from US military personnel deployed to Thailand in 2002-2004: a case-control study. [Journal Article]
- TDTrop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2017; 3:13
- CONCLUSIONS: The significant morbidity and marked fluoroquinolone resistance associated with Campylobacter infections in Thailand are important considerations for clinicians providing counseling on appropriate antibacterial regimens for civilian and military travelers.
- Incidence of Campylobacter concisus and C. ureolyticus in traveler's diarrhea cases and asymptomatic controls in Nepal and Thailand. [Journal Article]
- GPGut Pathog 2017; 9:47
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that C. concisus potentially is a pathogen associated with TD in Nepal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. concisus and C. ureolyticus detected from traveler's diarrhea cases from travelers to Nepal and Thailand.
- MMX(®) technology and its applications in gastrointestinal diseases. [Review]
- TATherap Adv Gastroenterol 2017; 10(7):545-552
- The Multimatrix(®) (MMX(®)) preparation MMX(®) is a recently obtained drug formulation developed to facilitate release of high concentrations of active drugs into the colon, with a homogeneous distri...
The Multimatrix(®) (MMX(®)) preparation MMX(®) is a recently obtained drug formulation developed to facilitate release of high concentrations of active drugs into the colon, with a homogeneous distribution along all colonic segments, particularly the most distal ones; the distal colonic tracts, indeed, are the most difficult to reach in significant amounts when a drug is given orally. The MMX(®) formulation is characterized by a lipophilic matrix dispersed in a hydrophilic structure. Indeed, in the last few years, MMX(®) technology has been widely used in the development of various drugs for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious gastrointestinal diseases localized in the colon. In particular, MMX(®) mesalamine, budesonide and parnaparin formulations have been investigated in patients with ulcerative colitis, and the first two have reached worldwide registration for the treatment of this disease. Moreover, MMX(®)-rifamycin is being positively tested in the treatment of colonic bacterial infections, including traveler's diarrhea. MMX(®) technology is, thus, proving to be a very effective formulation for the treatment of various colonic diseases. This effectiveness has been related not only to specific colonic delivery, but also to its ability to act in a once-daily dosage, thus favouring patients' adherence to prescribed schedules of treatment. The effective delivery of the active molecule to the site of need in the colon is also associated with very low systemic absorption and very low rates of adverse events (AEs). In this paper, we have reviewed all clinical trials performed with an MMX(®)-bound drug and all possible real-life reports, in order to give an overall evaluation of MMX(®).
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- Rifamycin SV MMX for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. [Review]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2017; 18(12):1269-1277
- Rifamycin SV MMX®, a non-absorbable rifamycin antibiotic formulated using the multi-matrix system, was designed to exhibit its pharmacological action on the distal small intestine and colon. Its clin...
Rifamycin SV MMX®, a non-absorbable rifamycin antibiotic formulated using the multi-matrix system, was designed to exhibit its pharmacological action on the distal small intestine and colon. Its clinical efficacy and safety profile in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea were evaluated in several clinical studies. Areas covered: This review summarizes all available evidence regarding clinical trials of the efficacy and safety profile of rifamycin SV MMX for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Expert opinion: Rifamycin SV MMX demonstrated an excellent pharmacokinetic profile with decreased systemic toxicity similar to rifaximin. In phase II and phase III clinical trials, concerns have been raised regarding the medicine's efficacy in terms of the time to last unformed stool and cure rate compared to current recommended antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and invasive pathogens. The significance of the increase in MICs after the use of rifamycin SV MMX warrants further examination.