- Sequential Colonization of Periodontal Pathogens in Induction of Periodontal Disease and Atherosclerosis in LDLRnull Mice. [Journal Article]
- PDPathog Dis 2017 Jan 18
- Periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology and have been epidemiologically associated. The purpose is to...
Periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology and have been epidemiologically associated. The purpose is to examine whether periodontal bacteria that infect the periodontium, can also infect vascular tissues and enhance pre-existing early aortic atherosclerotic lesions in LDLR(null) mice. Mice were orally infected with intermediate bacterial colonizer Fusobacterium nucleatum for the first 12 weeks followed by late bacterial colonizers (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia) for the remaining 12 weeks mimicking the human oral microbiota ecological colonization. Genomic DNA from all four bacterial was detected in gingival plaque by PCR, consistently demonstrating infection of mouse gingival surfaces. Infected mice had significant levels of IgG and IgM antibodies, alveolar bone resorption, and showed apical migration of junctional epithelium revealing the induction of PD. These results support the ability of oral bacteria to cause PD in mice. Detection of bacterial genomic DNA in systemic organs indicates hematogenous dissemination from the gingival pockets. Bacterial infection did not alter serum lipid fractions or serum amyloid A levels and did not induce aortic atherosclerotic plaque. This is the first study examining the causal role of periodontal bacteria in induction of ASVD in LDLR(null) mice.
- Rectinema cohabitans gen. nov., sp. nov., a rod-shaped spirochete isolated from an anaerobic naphthalene-degrading enrichment culture. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017 Jan 18
- The anaerobic, non-motile strain HMT was isolated from the naphthalene-degrading, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture N47. Since 20 years, strain HMT has been a stable member of culture N47 although ...
The anaerobic, non-motile strain HMT was isolated from the naphthalene-degrading, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture N47. Since 20 years, strain HMT has been a stable member of culture N47 although it is neither able to degrade naphthalene nor to reduce sulfate in pure culture. The highest similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain HMT (89%) is with a cultivated member of the family Spirochaetaceae, Treponema caldarium sp. strain H1T (DSM 7334T), an obligately anaerobic, thermophilic spirochete isolated from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA. In contrast to this strain and the majority of described spirochete species, strain HMT showed a rod-shaped morphology. Growth occurred between 12 to 50 °C (optimum 37 °C) but the isolate was not able to grow at 60 °C. The strain fermented various sugars including D-glucose, D-fructose, lactose, and sucrose. Addition of 0.1% (w/v) yeast extract or 0.1% (w/v) tryptone to the culture medium was essential for growth and could neither be replaced by the tested vitamin solutions nor by 0.1% (w/v) peptone or 0.1% (w/v) casamino acids. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 51.5 mol%. The major fatty acids are C14:0, C18:1ω13c, C16:1ω9t, C16:1ω11c, and C16:1ω9c. Based on the unique morphology and the phylogenetic distance from the closest cultivated relative, a novel genus and species, Rectinema cohabitans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is strain HMT (=DSM 100378T =JCM 30982T).
- Effects of periodontal treatment on primary sjȫgren's syndrome symptoms. [Journal Article]
- BOBraz Oral Res 2017 Jan 16; 31(0):e8
- The aim of this longitudinal prospective study was to evaluate the effects of periodontal treatment on the clinical, microbiological and immunological periodontal parameters, and on the systemic acti...
The aim of this longitudinal prospective study was to evaluate the effects of periodontal treatment on the clinical, microbiological and immunological periodontal parameters, and on the systemic activity (ESSDAI) and subjective (ESSPRI) indexes in patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS). Twenty-eight female patients were divided into four groups: pSS patients with or without chronic periodontitis (SCP, SC, respectively), and systemically healthy patients with or without chronic periodontitis (CP, C, respectively). Periodontal clinical examination and immunological and microbiological sample collection were performed at baseline, 30 and 90 days after nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT). Levels of interleukin IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were evaluated by ELISA, as well as the expression of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, (Aa) Tannerella forsythia (Tf), and Treponema denticola (Td), by qPCR. Systemic activity and pSS symptoms were evaluated by ESSDAI and ESSPRI. NSPT resulted in improved periodontal clinical parameters in both SCP and CP groups (p>0.05). Pg, Aa, and Tf levels decreased after NSPT only in CP patients (p<0.05). Significantly greater levels of IL-10 in GCF were verified in both SCP and CP groups (p<0.05). SCP patients showed increased salivary flow rates and decreased ESSPRI scores after NSPT. In conclusion, NSPT in pSS patients resulted in improved clinical and immunological parameters, with no significant effects on microbiological status. pSS patients also showed increased salivary flow and lower ESSPRI scores after therapy. Therefore, it can be suggested that NSPT may improve the quality of life of pSS patients.
- A double-edged sword: does highly active antiretroviral therapy contribute to syphilis incidence by impairing immunity to Treponema pallidum? [Review]
- STSex Transm Infect 2017 Jan 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Since rising syphilis incidence appears to have outpaced gonorrhoea and chlamydia, predominantly affecting HIV-1 positive MSM, behavioural factors alone may be insufficient to explain the unique, sharp increase in syphilis incidence. HAART agents have the potential to alter the innate and acquired immune responses in ways that may enhance susceptibility to T. pallidum. This raises the possibility that therapeutic and preventative HAART may inadvertently increase the incidence of syphilis, a situation that would have significant and global public health implications. We propose that additional studies investigating the interplay between HAART and enhanced T. pallidum susceptibility are needed. If our hypothesis is correct, HAART should be combined with enhanced patient management including frequent monitoring for pathogens such as T. pallidum.
- Butyrate production under aerobic growth conditions by engineered Escherichia coli. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biosci Bioeng 2017 Jan 11
- Butyrate is an important industrial platform chemical. Although several groups have reported butyrate production under oxygen-limited conditions by a native producer, Clostridium tyrobutylicum, and b...
Butyrate is an important industrial platform chemical. Although several groups have reported butyrate production under oxygen-limited conditions by a native producer, Clostridium tyrobutylicum, and by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, efforts to produce butyrate under aerobic growth conditions have met limited success. Here, we constructed a novel butyrate synthetic pathway that functions under aerobic growth conditions in E. coli, by modifying the 1-butanol synthetic pathway reported previously. The pathway consists of phaA (acetyltransferase) and phaB (NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) from Ralstonia eutropha, phaJ ((R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase) from Aeromonas caviae, ter (trans-enoyl-CoA reductase) from Treponema denticola, and endogenous thioesterase(s) of E. coli. To evaluate the potential of this pathway for butyrate production, culture conditions, including pH, oxygen supply, and concentration of inorganic nitrogen sources, were optimized in a mini-jar fermentor. Under the optimal conditions, butyrate was produced at a concentration of up to 140 mM (12.3 g/L in terms of butyric acid) after 54 h of fed-batch culture.
- Serum microRNA profiles in patients with syphilis. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Jan 12
- Syphilis is an acute and chronic inflammatory disorder caused by the non-cultivatable spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum).(1,2) T. pallidum does not produce any known toxic pr...
Syphilis is an acute and chronic inflammatory disorder caused by the non-cultivatable spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum).(1,2) T. pallidum does not produce any known toxic proteins; therefore, most of the symptoms and tissue damage related to syphilis are caused by activation of the host's inflammatory and immune responses,(3) thus suggesting that host genetics play an important role in regulating the progression of syphilis infection. MiRNAs are a class of 19- to 24-nt noncoding RNAs that influence many biological systems, including development, cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and the immune response;(4-6) they also play crucial roles during microbial infection.(7) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Secretable Small RNAs via Outer Membrane Vesicles in Periodontal Pathogens. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent Res 2017 Jan 01; :22034516685071
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. However, bacterial RNAs comparable in size to eukaryotic miRNAs (18-22 nucleotides) have received little atten...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be major regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. However, bacterial RNAs comparable in size to eukaryotic miRNAs (18-22 nucleotides) have received little attention. Recently, a novel class of small RNAs similar in size to miRNAs (miRNA-size, small RNAs or msRNAs) have also been found in several bacteria. Like miRNAs, msRNAs are approximately 15 to 25 nucleotides in length, and their precursors are predicted to form a hairpin loop secondary structure. Here, we identified msRNAs in the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola. We examined these msRNAs using a deep sequencing method and characterized dozens of msRNAs through bioinformatic analysis. Highly expressed msRNAs were selected for further validation. The findings suggest that this class of small RNAs is well conserved across the domains of life. Indeed, msRNAs secreted via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were detected. The ability of bacterial OMVs to deliver RNAs into eukaryotic cells was also observed. These msRNAs in OMVs allowed us to identify their potential human immune-related target genes. Furthermore, we found that exogenous msRNAs could suppress expression of certain cytokines in Jurkat T cells. We propose msRNAs may function as novel bacterial signaling molecules that mediate bacteria-to-human interactions. Furthermore, this study may provide fresh insight into bacterial pathogenic mechanisms of periodontal diseases.
- Evaluating the Contribution of Gut Microbiota to the Variation of Porcine Fatness with the Cecum and Fecal Samples. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2016; 7:2108
- Microbial community in gastrointestinal tract participates in the development of the obesity as well as quite a few metabolic diseases in human. However, there are few studies about the relationship ...
Microbial community in gastrointestinal tract participates in the development of the obesity as well as quite a few metabolic diseases in human. However, there are few studies about the relationship between gut microbiota and porcine fatness. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform 16S rRNA gene analysis in 256 cecum luminal samples from Erhualian pigs and 244 stools from Bamaxiang pigs, and adopted a two-part model statistical method to evaluate the association of gut microbes with porcine fatness. As the results, we identified a total of 6 and 108 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and 9 and 10 bacterial taxa which showed significant associations with fatness traits in the stool and cecum samples, respectively. Cross-validation analysis indicated that gut microbiome showed the largest effect on abdominal adipose by explaining 2.73% phenotypic variance of abdominal fat weight. Significantly more fatness-associated OTUs were identified in the cecum samples than that in the stools, suggesting that cecum luminal samples were better used for identification of fatness-associated microbes than stools. The fatness-associated OTUs were mainly annotated to Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotella, Treponema, and Bacteroides. These microbes have been reported to produce short-chain fatty acids by fermenting dietary indigested polysaccharide and pectin. The short-chain fatty acids can regulate host body energy homeostasis, protect host from inflammation and inhibit fat mass development. Our findings suggested that the gut microbiome may be an important factor modulating fatness in pigs.
- [Nonviral sexually transmitted infections-epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, therapy : Part 3: Treponemes, Gardnerella and trichomonads]. [Review]
- HHautarzt 2017 Jan 05
- In Germany, the reported syphilis prevalence has increased continuously since 2010, with a total of 6834 syphilis cases being reported in 2015. The largest increase of reported syphilis occurred in m...
In Germany, the reported syphilis prevalence has increased continuously since 2010, with a total of 6834 syphilis cases being reported in 2015. The largest increase of reported syphilis occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM). The antibiotic agent of choice for treatment of syphilis is still penicillin. There are no penicillin-resistant Treponema pallidum strains. Alternatives are ceftriaxone and doxycycline. In Germany, azithromycin is not approved for treatment of syphilis; however, therapy failures are increasingly reported. Bacterial vaginosis is accompanied by vaginal discharge. The vaginal secretion exhibits an increased pH value higher than 4.5. Clinical symptoms are pruritus, burning, and the characteristic amine odor. The probability for bacterial vaginosis is highest in women with higher numbers of sexual partners, unmarried women, early first sexual intercourse, in commercial female sex workers, and those women who regularly apply vaginal douches. The main pathogen of bacterial vaginosis is Gardnerella vaginalis. For oral therapy metronidazole is given, alternatively clindamycin; the latter should be applied additionally as topical agent. Trichomoniasis is considered as the nonviral sexually transmitted infection with the highest prevalence worldwide. Other than direct microscopic detection of the protozoa (trophozoites) in vaginal secretion or urine, PCR has been approved as the diagnostic method with the highest sensitivity. Oral metronidazole represents the therapy of choice in trichomoniasis.
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- Evaluation of Bacteriological Profile in the Apical Root Segment of the Patients with Primary Apical Periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Contemp Dent Pract 2017 Jan 01; 18(1):44-48
- CONCLUSIONS: Microbial flora of the apical segment of the root with necrotized pulp tissue comprises a vast variety of pathogenic bacteria.For better prognosis of the treatment of such cases, adequate knowledge of the microbial flora of the root, especially the apical portion is necessary.