- Fenugreek seed extract ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Jul 20
- Background Natural medicinal plants have been the focus of current research for developing neuroprotective agents to be used in the diabetes-linked cognitive dysfunction. Trigonella foenum-graecum se…
Background Natural medicinal plants have been the focus of current research for developing neuroprotective agents to be used in the diabetes-linked cognitive dysfunction. Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (known as fenugreek, methi in Hindi), is a well-known traditional medicinal herb and possesses anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose This study was undertaken to explore the ameliorative effects of T. foenum-graecum seed extract on diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction. Methods Experimental diabetes was induced by administering a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) through intraperitoneal dose. Cognitive function was assessed using a T-maze and the Morris water maze. Lipid peroxidation levels and oxidative stress in the hippocampus was measured. Quantification of hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions was done using cresyl violet stain. Results Diabetic rats demonstrated learning and memory impairment, which was evident from poor performance in behavioral tasks, i.e. T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Learning and memory impairment in diabetic animals is associated with increased blood glucose levels, increased oxidative stress in the hippocampus and decreased number of neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. The diabetic rats administered with T. foenum-graecum showed improved performance in behavioral tasks, and these changes were associated with decreased blood glucose levels, decreased oxidative stress in the hippocampus, and decreased neuronal loss from the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Conclusion In conclusion, administration of T. foenum-graecum seed extract ameliorates diabetes-linked cognitive dysfunction in rats by decreasing blood glucose levels, reducing lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus, and preventing neuronal loss from the hippocampus.
- Repeated evolution of cytochrome P450-mediated spiroketal steroid biosynthesis in plants. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 Jul 19; 10(1):3206
- Diosgenin is a spiroketal steroidal natural product extracted from plants and used as the single most important precursor for the world steroid hormone industry. The sporadic occurrences of diosgenin…
Diosgenin is a spiroketal steroidal natural product extracted from plants and used as the single most important precursor for the world steroid hormone industry. The sporadic occurrences of diosgenin in distantly related plants imply possible independent biosynthetic origins. The characteristic 5,6-spiroketal moiety in diosgenin is reminiscent of the spiroketal moiety present in anthelmintic avermectins isolated from actinomycete bacteria. How plants gained the ability to biosynthesize spiroketal natural products is unknown. Here, we report the diosgenin-biosynthetic pathways in himalayan paris (Paris polyphylla), a monocot medicinal plant with hemostatic and antibacterial properties, and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), an eudicot culinary herb plant commonly used as a galactagogue. Both plants have independently recruited pairs of cytochromes P450 that catalyze oxidative 5,6-spiroketalization of cholesterol to produce diosgenin, with evolutionary progenitors traced to conserved phytohormone metabolism. This study paves the way for engineering the production of diosgenin and derived analogs in heterologous hosts.
- Diosgenin inhibits the expression of NEDD4 in prostate cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Transl Res 2019; 11(6):3461-3471
- Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among men and causes a myriad of health problem for males that are diagnosed with the cancer. Although the 5-year relative survival rate of prosta…
Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among men and causes a myriad of health problem for males that are diagnosed with the cancer. Although the 5-year relative survival rate of prostate cancer patients has been significantly increased due to prostate-specific antigen testing and treatment advances, patients that develop metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer continue to have poor survival rates. Thus, it is critical to discover new therapeutics to treat prostate cancer. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin from Trigonella foenum graecum, which has been previously identified to exert anti-tumor properties. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) is an E3 ligase that degrades multiple different proteins, and plays an oncogenic role in human cancer. In this study, we explore the molecular mechanism by which diosgenin mediates anti-tumor effects in prostate cancer cells. We found that diosgenin treatment led to cell growth inhibition, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Notably, we found that diosgenin inhibited the expression of NEDD4 in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NEDD4 overcame the diosgenin-mediated anti-tumor activity, while downregulation of NEDD4 promoted the diosgenin-induced anti-cancer function in prostate cancer cells. Our findings indicate that diosgenin is a potential new inhibitor of NEDD4 in prostate cancer cells.
- Advances on application of fenugreek seeds as functional foods: Pharmacology, clinical application, products, patents and market. [Journal Article]
- CRCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019 Jul 09; :1-11
- Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is one of the oldest applied medicinal herbs. Significant pharmacological and clinical evidence have highlighted the medicinal application of fenugreek. Explo…
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is one of the oldest applied medicinal herbs. Significant pharmacological and clinical evidence have highlighted the medicinal application of fenugreek. Explore the current knowledge regarding the bioactivity (animal aspects) and clinical application of fenugreek and its bioactive components, as well as the products, markets and patents related to fenugreek. This review highlights the phytochemicals, bioactivity (animal aspects) and clinical application of fenugreek from recent literatures and products, markets and patents from database. Until now, more than 100 phytochemicals have been isolated from fenugreek seeds, mainly including polysaccharides, saponins, alkaloids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Fenugreek extract and its bioactive compounds showed excellent antidiabetic activity and anti-obesity activity in animal and human study. Although the fenugreek seed has been used as TCM raw materials for a long time of period in China, China is lacking the research of fenugreek in both depth and width.
- Trace Metal Accumulation in Trigonella foenum-graecum Irrigated with Wastewater and Human Health Risk of Metal Access Through the Consumption. [Journal Article]
- BEBull Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 Jul 04
- The aim of the present research was to determine the trace metal accumulations in Trigonella foenum-graecum irrigated with three different water regimes (ground water, canal water and sugar mill wate…
The aim of the present research was to determine the trace metal accumulations in Trigonella foenum-graecum irrigated with three different water regimes (ground water, canal water and sugar mill water). Also, transfer factors, pollution load indices, and health risk indices were assessed to evaluate metal transport and accumulation through the food chain. The analysis was conducted by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu model AA-6300) to evaluate the concentration of metals in water, soil and vegetables. Trace metal concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.84 to 1.67, 0.42 to 0.72, 0.45 to 0.85, 2.51 to 9.99, 1.21 to 1.92, 1.82 to 9.98 and 0.64 to 0.91 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn, respectively. The mean metal concentrations in soil samples were determined as 0.25, 0.86, 0.96, 3.37, 0.4, 0.44 and 2.31 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn, respectively. Trace metal accumulations in T. foenum-graecum samples gathered from where soil samples were taken are as follows: The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn ranged from 0.48 to 1.06, 0.11 to 0.35, 0.15 to 0.29, 1.43 to 8.39, 0.39 to 0.54, 2.1 to 3.05 and 0.42 to 0.47 mg/kg, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that the treatments have non-significant effect (p > 0.05) on concentrations of metals in T. foenum-graecum samples collected from three sites for Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Mn and significant effect on Fe and Cd.
- Isolation, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of galactomannan during germination of Trigonella persica (Fabaceae) seed. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 28; 137:286-295
- Galactomannan extracted from Trigonella persica endosperm like to other galactomannans is useful in the medicine and pharmaceutical industry such as drug delivery due to its unique physicochemical pr…
Galactomannan extracted from Trigonella persica endosperm like to other galactomannans is useful in the medicine and pharmaceutical industry such as drug delivery due to its unique physicochemical properties. As soon as germination takes place, the hydrolysis of galactomannan begins and its structure changes. Evaluation of galactomannan content extracted from the germinating seeds (GEGS) and the non-germinated seeds (GENGS) showed that the amount of galactomannan was highest at 24 h after imbibition and was completely consumed approximately 48 h after imbibition. It seems that galactomannan is used for storage reserve synthesis in the cotyledon during germination. Based on the quantitative assessment, FT-IR, macroscopic and microscopic observations, galactomannan of T. persica seeds have high an M/G ratio (approximately 5:1) and this ratio does not alter during germination. Therefore, changes in galactomannan structure (functional group and band) caused that GEGS have different physicochemical properties than GENGS. Based on the results, GENGS with a high M/G ratio may be suitable for drug delivery system due to some properties such as high viscosity and gelling.
- A new diosgenin sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer of para aminobenzoic acid selected by computer-aided design. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Apr 24; 174:552-560
- A novel electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film, based on diosgenin on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), has been synthesized. Based on density functional theory (DFT), para-aminob…
A novel electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film, based on diosgenin on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), has been synthesized. Based on density functional theory (DFT), para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), which is a green substance, was selected from five functional monomers by Gaussian software for MIP production, to be the suitable monomer. The MIP's synthesis conditions were optimized, and the imprinting effect was confirmed by comparing the electrochemical reaction of MIP, with that of non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The calibration curve of diosgenin on MIP/GCE was obtained with a linear range of 0.003 to 0.13 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined to be 8.95 × 10-4 mM and 2.98 × 10-3 mM, respectively. This method exhibited good stability, high sensitivity, and high selectivity for diosgenin. The developed method is the first method reported to be used for the electroanalysis of diosgenin, and it has been successfully applied to the analysis of diosgenin in Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract.
- Reserve Mobilization, Membrane Damage and Solutes Leakage in Fenugreek Imbibed with Urban Treated Wastewater. [Journal Article]
- BEBull Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 Jun 20
- The study aimed to determine the impact of treated domestic wastewater on seed germination, seedling growth and reserve mobilization from Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum L.). Seeds were germinate…
The study aimed to determine the impact of treated domestic wastewater on seed germination, seedling growth and reserve mobilization from Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum L.). Seeds were germinated by soaking in distilled water (H2O) or wastewater treated with various methods: activated sludge processes (T1), facultative lagoons treatment (T2) and dilution. Results show high levels of organic matter (OM), suspended solids (TSS) and nutrients in TWW (T2) than that of TWW (T1). The embryo length and biomass of fenugreek imbibed by TWW were higher in TWW (T2) compared with TWW (T1). There was more reduction in free amino acids and soluble sugar contents in fenugreek treated with TWW (T1) than treated by TWW (T2). Important solutes leakage is recorded by measuring electric conductivity during seed imbibition with TWW. Improving the quality of wastewater by dilution (50%) stimulated germination of seeds and the growth of the tested plant. Moreover, it significantly reduces the solutes leakage and enhanced seed metabolites accumulation.
- Trigonella foenum-graceum seed (Fenugreek) hydroalcoholic extract improved the oxidative stress status in a rat model of diabetes-induced memory impairment. [Journal Article]
- HMHorm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2019 Jun 06
- Background The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Trigonella foenum-graceum have been suggested. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant seeds and metformin against the diabetes-induc…
Background The antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Trigonella foenum-graceum have been suggested. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant seeds and metformin against the diabetes-induced memory impairment were investigated. Materials and methods The rats were treated: (1) control, (2) diabetic (3-6) and diabetic rats treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the plant extract or metformin. The rats were diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg). After the passive avoidance test, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total thiol (SH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the brain. Results In the diabetic group, at 3, 24 and 48 h after receiving a shock, the latency to enter the dark room was lower than for the controls (p < 0.001). All doses of the extract and metformin increased the latencies to enter the dark at 3 and 24 h after the shock treatment (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). Additionally, the two higher doses of the extract and metformin increased the latency at 48 h after the shock (p < 0.05-p < 0.001). Diabetes also elevated MDA and NO metabolites, while it reduced thiol, SOD and CAT in the hippocampal and cortical tissues (p < 0.001). Treatment of the diabetic animals by the highest dose of the extract and also metformin reduced the MDA and NO metabolites, while it improved thiols, SOD and CAT (p < 0.01-p < 0.001). Conclusions Based on our findings, metformin and the hydro-alcoholic extract from the T. foenum-graceum seed prevented memory deficits resulting from diabetes. Preventing oxidative damage in the brain may at least, in part, be responsible for the positive effects of the extract and metformin.
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- LC-MS/MS analysis and network pharmacology of Trigonella foenum-graecum - A plant from Ayurveda against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia with combination synergy. [Journal Article]
- PPhytomedicine 2019 May 29; :152944
- CONCLUSIONS: The network pharmacology analysis strongly suggested the multimode evidences that TFHE largely works on the insulin signalling pathway and mainly based on its antioxidant potential due to its interaction with carbonic anhydrase. Various compounds were found to be interacting with key proteins that activates EGFR/AKT/mTOR signalling cascade which has therapeutic implication in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The combination synergy network analysis based on neighbourhood approach can help us in further understanding mechanism of multi-molecular fixed dose combinations.