- Loss of BMI1 in mature olfactory sensory neurons leads to increased olfactory basal cell proliferation. [Journal Article]Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2019IF
- CONCLUSIONS: The olfactory neuroepithelium employs multiple mechanisms to maintain epithelial homeostasis. Our findings provide evidence that in a mouse model of BMI1 deletion, the overall integrity and function of the olfactory neuroepithelium are not compromised, despite increased neuronal turnover, reflecting a remarkable reparative capacity to sustain a critical sensory system.
- Aspergillus fumigatus induction of IL-33 expression in chronic rhinosinusitis is PAR2-dependent. [Journal Article]Laryngoscope 2019L
- CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that serine protease activity of A. fumigatus is capable of inducing IL-33 expression in CRSwNP SNECs via PAR2, a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of CRSwNP.
- Acute N-Acetylcysteine Administration Ameliorates Loss of Olfactory Neurons Following Experimental Injury In Vivo. [Journal Article]Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2019AR
- The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the peripheral organ for the sense of smell, housing primary sensory neurons that project axons from the nose to the brain. Due to the presence of a basal stem cell niche, the adult mammalian OE is a dynamic tissue capable of replacing neurons following their loss. Nonetheless, certain conditions, such as blunt head trauma, can result in persistent olfactory loss,…
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the peripheral organ for the sense of smell, housing primary sensory neurons that project axons from the nose to the brain. Due to the presence of a basal stem cell niche, the adult mammalian OE is a dynamic tissue capable of replacing neurons following their loss. Nonetheless, certain conditions, such as blunt head trauma, can result in persistent olfactory loss, thought to be due to shearing of olfactory nerve filaments at the skull base, degeneration, and failures in proper regeneration/reinnervation. The identification of new treatment strategies aimed at preventing degeneration of olfactory neurons is, therefore, needed. In considering potential therapies, we have focused on N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione substrate shown to be neuroprotective, with a record of safe clinical use. Here, we have tested the use of NAC in an animal model of olfactory degeneration. Administered acutely, we found that NAC (100 mg/kg, twice daily) resulted in a reduction of olfactory neuronal loss from the OE of the nose following surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb. At 1 week postlesion, we identified 54 ± 8.1 mature neurons per 0.5 mm epithelium in NAC-treated animals vs. 28 ± 4.2 in vehicle-treated controls (P = 0.02). Furthermore, in an olfactory cell culture model, we have identified significant alterations in the expression of several genes involved in oxidative stress pathways following NAC exposure. Our results provide evidence supporting the potential therapeutic utility for NAC acutely following head trauma-induced olfactory loss. Anat Rec, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Control of speech and voice in cochlear implant patients. [Review]Laryngoscope 2019; 129(9):2158-2163L
- CONCLUSIONS: Cochlear implants provide valuable insights into the role of hearing in vocal production. Although implants improve vocal production for most patients, there remains considerable room for future study and therapeutic improvement. Laryngoscope, 129:2158-2163, 2019.
- T-Helper 2 Lymphocyte Immunophenotype Is Associated With Iatrogenic Laryngotracheal Stenosis. [Journal Article]Laryngoscope 2019; 129(1):177-186L
- CONCLUSIONS: CD3/CD4 + T-helper lymphocytes and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-4 are associated with iLTS. The association of a TH 2 immunophenotype with iLTS is consistent with findings in other fibroinflammatory disorders. The murine results reveal that the inflammatory infiltrate precedes the development of fibrosis. However, human iLTS specimens with well-developed fibrosis also contain a marked chronic inflammatory infiltrate, suggesting that the continued release of IL-4 by T-helper lymphocytes may continue to propagate iLTS.
- Decision aid prototype for treatment of pediatric sleep disordered breathing: A randomized pilot study. [Randomized Controlled Trial]Laryngoscope 2019; 129(1):229-234L
- CONCLUSIONS: The DA was feasible but used differently among surgeons. The need to improve SDM techniques was suggested by both surgeons and parents. Future studies training otolaryngologists on effective SDM techniques and how to appropriately utilize decision aids may improve SDM for pediatric OSA.
- Trends in Pediatric Otolaryngology Disparities Research. [Journal Article]Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018; 159(1):173-177OH
- Objectives To describe trends in disparities research within pediatric otolaryngology as evidenced by major meeting presentations and to compare observed trends with those in the realm of patient safety and quality improvement (PSQI). Study Design Retrospective review of presentations at national otolaryngology meetings. Setting Online review of meeting programs. Subjects and Methods Meeting prog…
Objectives To describe trends in disparities research within pediatric otolaryngology as evidenced by major meeting presentations and to compare observed trends with those in the realm of patient safety and quality improvement (PSQI). Study Design Retrospective review of presentations at national otolaryngology meetings. Setting Online review of meeting programs. Subjects and Methods Meeting programs from the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Triological Society, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, and Society for Ear, Nose and Throat Advances in Children from 2003 to 2016 were manually searched for pediatric oral and poster presentations addressing disparities and socioeconomic determinants of health, as well as PSQI. Presentation frequency was compared between categories and within each category over time. Results Of 11,311 total presentations, 3078 were related to the pediatric population, and 1945 (63.2%) of those were oral presentations. Disparities-related presentations increased from 0 in 2003 to 17 in 2016. From 2003 to 2009, 9 of 656 (1.4%) presentations involved disparities, as opposed to 70 of 2422 (2.9%) from 2010 to 2016 (P = .03). The proportion of presentations regarding PSQI also increased: from 42 of 656 (6.4%) in 2003-2009 to 221 of 2422 (9.1%) in 2010-2016 (P = .01). PSQI presentations remain more common than disparities presentations (9.1% vs 2.9%, P < .001). Conclusion Health care disparities are increasingly addressed in pediatric otolaryngology meeting presentations. Compared with the well-established realm of PSQI, disparities research remains nascent but is gaining attention. Health care reform and quality improvement efforts should recognize the role of socioeconomic factors and include strategies for addressing disparities.
- Guide to Academic Research Career Development. [Journal Article]Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2016; 1(1):19-24LI
- CONCLUSIONS: Crucial elements in developing a research career are a desire for and commitment to high-quality research, a focus on an overall theme of progressive hypothesis-driven investigations, research guidance, a willingness to spend the time required, and an ability to learn from and withstand failure.
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- Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery in undergraduate medical education: advances and innovations. [Review]Laryngoscope 2015; 125 Suppl 2:S1-14L
- CONCLUSIONS: Enriching OtoHNS teaching in medical school is essential optimize primary care delivered to patients. Although e-learning and simulation are broadly accepted and desirable by today's medical students, these technologies should be woven into the fabric of UME pedagogical principles judiciously, and only after empiric assessment. Foundational to the development and implementation of these technologies is the framework of standardized competency-based learning objectives, common to all graduating medical students.