- Growth resilience and oxidative burst control as tolerance factors to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi in Ulmus minor. [Journal Article]
- TPTree Physiol 2019 Jun 18
- The Dutch elm disease (DED) pathogens, Ophiostoma ulmi and the more aggressive O. novo-ulmi, have decimated European elm populations in the last 100 years. Today the number of tolerant elm varieties …
The Dutch elm disease (DED) pathogens, Ophiostoma ulmi and the more aggressive O. novo-ulmi, have decimated European elm populations in the last 100 years. Today the number of tolerant elm varieties available on the market is limited, partly due to the long breeding cycles and expensive facilities they require. Developing a low-cost technique to allow early screening of elm tolerance based on simple morphological and/or biochemical traits would considerably boost elm breeding and research. Within this general aim, we developed an in vitro plant culture system to: i) characterize stress responses to O. novo-ulmi-root inoculation in two Ulmus minor clones of contrasting susceptibility level to DED (termed "tolerant" and "susceptible"), and ii) compare the upward dispersal rate of the pathogen in the two clones. Constitutive xylem anatomy was similar in both clones, indicating that differences in plant responses to the pathogen are not attributable to anatomical factors (e.g., conduit size). Susceptible plantlets suffered a significant delay in apical growth and a decrease in chlorophyll content at 21 days post inoculation (dpi). The rate of pathogen dispersal from roots to aerial tissues was similar in both clones. However, the tolerant clone showed a marked increase in lipid peroxidation at 1 dpi, while the susceptible clone showed enhanced values of lipid peroxidation during most of the experimental period (1-21 dpi). Despite wide stem colonization by the pathogen, the tolerant clone effectively regulated the oxidative stress levels and showed remarkable resilience to inoculation. These results extend current knowledge on elm defense mechanisms, and the proposed in vitro plant culture system emerges as a promising early screening method for tolerance to improve elm breeding.
- Ulmus macrocarpa Hance modulates lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia via activation of AMPK pathway. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0217112
- Ulmus macrocarpa Hance as an oriental medicinal plant has shown enormous potential for the treatment of several metabolic disorders in Korea. Hyperlipidemia, which is characterized by the excess accu…
Ulmus macrocarpa Hance as an oriental medicinal plant has shown enormous potential for the treatment of several metabolic disorders in Korea. Hyperlipidemia, which is characterized by the excess accumulation of lipid contents in the bloodstream, may lead to several cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, in this study, anti-hyperlipidemic potential of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) was examined in vitro and in vivo using HepG2 cells and experimental rats, respectively. The hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was induced by the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) followed by oral administration of various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) of UME for 6 weeks. As a result, the UME significantly improved the biochemical parameters such as increased the level of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as reduced the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the HCD-fed rats. In addition, UME also prevented lipid accumulation through regulating AMPK activity and lipid metabolism proteins (ACC, SREBP1 and HMGCR) in the HCD-fed rats as compared to the controls. Moreover, similar pattern of gene expression levels was confirmed in oleic acid (OA)-treated HepG2 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that UME prevents hyperlipidemia via activating the AMPK pathway and regulates lipid metabolism. Thus, based on the above findings, it is estimated that UME could be a potential therapeutic agent for preventing the hyperlipidemia.
- [Vertical variation and model construction of area and dry mass for a single leaf from six broadleaved trees in mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forests.] [Journal Article]
- YYYing Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019; 30(5):1667-1678
- Rapidly and accurately predicting leaf area (LA) and leaf dry mass (LDM) are essential for exploring the response of plant traits to climate change. Empirical models suitable for predicting LA and LD…
Rapidly and accurately predicting leaf area (LA) and leaf dry mass (LDM) are essential for exploring the response of plant traits to climate change. Empirical models suitable for predicting LA and LDM of a single leaf for various broadleaved tree species at the regional scale have not been proposed. We selected six broadleaved tree species in four mixed broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forests in northeastern China, including Betula platyphylla, Tilia amurensis, Populus davidiana, Betula costata, Fraxinus mandshurica and Ulmus laciniata, and measured leaf length, leaf width, leaf thickness, LA and LDM at different canopy layers (top, middle, and low). Using the median of leaf length and width ratio as the classification criterion, the six species were sorted into two groups. We tested whether different canopy layers for each group of broadleaved tree species had significant impacts on the empirical model for predicting LA and LDM. We constructed empirical models suitable for predicting LA and LDM of a single leaf at different canopy layers at the regional scale, and verified their forecast accuracy, and further evaluated their applicability for predicting LA and LDM of same broadleaved tree species in other regions. These results showed that the LA of a single leaf increased significantly with the decreases of canopy height for the six tree species, while the LDM of some broadleaved tree species showed a downward trend. The canopy height had significant impacts on constructing the empirical model for LA and LDM. The average forecast accuracy of empirical model was 95% and 83% for LA and LDM of a single leaf across canopy layers for two groups of broadleaved tree species, respectively. The average forecast accuracy was 94% and 80% for predicting LA and LDM of corresponding broadleaved tree species in other regions, respectively, indicating that the empirical models constructed in this study had a universal applicability in Northeast China.
- [Effect of neighborhood competition on key tree species growth in broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain, China.] [Journal Article]
- YYYing Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019; 30(5):1479-1486
- Competition is the main factor affecting the growth, morphology and death of trees in fore-sts. The analysis of individual competition can reflect the characteristics of interaction among individuals…
Competition is the main factor affecting the growth, morphology and death of trees in fore-sts. The analysis of individual competition can reflect the characteristics of interaction among individuals and their interaction ranges, which is important for reducing individual competition and promoting tree growth. To understand the effects of competition on tree growth in broad-leaved Korean pine forest, based on Hegyi single-tree competition index and neighborhood analysis method, we explored the neighborhood radius of competition for five key tree species, i.e. Pinus koraiensis, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica and Ulmus japonica (80% of basal area at breast height in total), and analyzed the effects of competition on the growth and death of the key tree species. The results showed that the neighborhood radius of single-tree competition of four tree species, P. koraiensis, T. amurensis, F. mandshurica and Q. mongolica was 11 m, while that of U. pumila was 13 m. The single-tree competition intensity for all five key tree species was negatively correlated with the logarithm of its growth increment, and positively correlated with the size of individual trees. The relative importance of competition intensity on tree growth decreased with tree growth. Neighborhood competition significantly increased tree mortality. Our results revealed the effects of neighborhood competition on the growth and survival of the key tree species at different developmental stages in broad-leaved Korean pine forests in Changbai Mountain. The results are instructive to the adjustment of competitive environment and the improvement of productivity of key tree species in broad-leaved Korean pine forests.
- Phytoextraction of arsenic forms in selected tree species growing in As-polluted mining sludge. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2019 May 14; :1-10
- The aim of this study was to determine the phytoextraction of inorganic (As(III), As(V)) and organic arsenic (Asorg) forms in six tree species: Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, …
The aim of this study was to determine the phytoextraction of inorganic (As(III), As(V)) and organic arsenic (Asorg) forms in six tree species: Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata and Ulmus laevis. Plants were grown in a pot experiment using As-polluted mining sludge for 90 days. Arsenic (Astotal) was accumulated mainly in the roots of all six tree species, which were generally thinner, shorter and/or black after the experiment. The highest concentration of As(III) and As(V) was determined in the roots of A. pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides (174 and 420 mg kg-1, respectively). High concentrations of As(III) were also recorded in the shoots of B. pendula (11.9 mg kg-1) and As(V) in the aerial parts of U. laevis and A. pseudoplatanus (77.4 and 70.1 mg kg-1). With some exceptions, the dominant form in the tree organs was Asorg, present in mining sludge in low concentration. This form has a decisive influence on As phytoextraction by young tree seedlings even though its BCF value was the only one lower than 1. The obtained results highlight the important role of speciation studies in assessing the response of plants growing in heavily polluted mining sludge.
- Arsenate phytoextraction abilities of one-year-old tree species and its effects on the nutritional element content in plant organs. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Phytoremediation 2019 Apr 25; :1-13
- The aim of the study was to evaluate the As phytoextraction potential of four tree species: Acer pseudoplatanus L., Betula pendula Roth., Quercus robur L., and Ulmus laevis Pall. in light of their pr…
The aim of the study was to evaluate the As phytoextraction potential of four tree species: Acer pseudoplatanus L., Betula pendula Roth., Quercus robur L., and Ulmus laevis Pall. in light of their prospective use in the phytoremediation of arsenate [As(V)] contaminated soils. The content of nutritional elements: B, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Si, P, and S was also analyzed. The trees were grown for 1 month in hydroponic cultures (Knop medium) supplemented with As(V), (1 mM). The results showed that the highest As accumulation efficiency was characterized by B. pendula (BCF = 0.87) and Q. robur (BCF = 0.5). Betula pendula accumulated about 80% of As in its roots (TF = 0.22) whereas Q. robur accumulated more than 60% of As in its shoots (TF = 1.60). The other tree species accumulated significantly lower amounts of As, more than 60% of which collected in their shoots. As(V) phytoextraction led to a significantly lower level of P and S in the roots of all tested tree species. Betula pendula seems promising for phytostabilisation and Q. robur for phytoextraction of As(V) from contaminated soils. The obtained results confirm the accumulation and translocation of As(V), as well as the acquisition of nutritional elements by the selected tree species.
- Gastroprotective Effects of Plants Extracts on Gastric Mucosal Injury in Experimental Sprague-Dawley Rats. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:8759708
- Rubus crataegifolius (black raspberry, RF), Ulmus macrocarpa (elm, UL), and Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine, GJ) are well known for hundreds of years as folk medicines in China and Korea to treat …
Rubus crataegifolius (black raspberry, RF), Ulmus macrocarpa (elm, UL), and Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine, GJ) are well known for hundreds of years as folk medicines in China and Korea to treat various gastrointestinal disturbance. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of these plants either single or in combination against HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rat model. Stomach ulcer was induced by oral ingestions of HCl/EtOH or indomethacin. Treatment with RF, UL, and GJ separately or in combination was done 1 h before ulcer induction. On HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis RF, UL, and GJ at a dose of 150 mg/kg showed comparable antigastritis effect (less than 50% inhibition) with lesion index of 94.97±8.05, 108.48±11.51, and 79.10±9.77 mm compared to cimetidine (45.33±23.73 mm). However, the combination of RF, UL, and GJ at a dose of 150 mg/kg with a ratio of 50:50:50 showed remarkable antigastritis effect with 77% inhibition. The observed lesion index at a ratio of 50:50:50 was 23.34±9.11 mm similar to cimetidine (18.88±19.88 mm). On indomethacin-induced ulcer, RF and GJ showed 38.28% and 51.8% inhibition whereas UL showed around 17.73% inhibition at 150 mg/kg. Combination of RF, UL, and GJ at 150 mg/kg showed strong antigastritis effect with 83.71% inhibition. These findings suggest strong gastroprotective effect of combined extract. In addition, these plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH scavenging assay and antilipid peroxidation activity. Combination of black raspberry, elm, and cape jasmine might be a significant systemic gastroprotective agent that could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer.
- Nanomechanical and Topochemical Changes in Elm Wood from Ancient Timber Constructions in Relation to Natural Aging. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2019 Mar 07; 12(5)
- Knowledge of properties of building materials affected by aging is of great importance to conserve cultural heritages or replace their biopolymer components. The objective of the study was to investi…
Knowledge of properties of building materials affected by aging is of great importance to conserve cultural heritages or replace their biopolymer components. The objective of the study was to investigate the chemical characterization change in the biopolymer components and identify whether these changes are correlated with alterations in the nanomechanical properties of the wood cell wall bio-composites in relation to natural aging. The effects of natural aging on the elm (Ulmus) wood component (dated from 1642 to 1681) of Chenghuang Temple, an ancient timber construction in China were investigated to understand the chemical and mechanical changes in the wood cell wall. Especially, confocal Raman microscopy and nanoindentation (NI) were used to track changes in the chemical structure and nanomechanical properties. The results showed that the morphological, chemical and physical properties of cell walls changed with aging. After aging, the cell structure showed evidential alternations, and the wood components, especially hemicellulose and lignin, were degraded, leading to deterioration of mechanical properties of aged wood compared with normal wood. Morphology deterioration and micromechanical changes only occurred on the surface with the depth of about 3.6 mm of the aged element. This study would be helpful to provide practical guidance for protecting the apparent performance of ancient timber structures.
- Flight and Walking Performance of Dark Black Chafer Beetle Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the Presence of Known Hosts and Attractive Nonhost Plants. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Insect Sci 2019 Mar 01; 19(2)
- Holotrichia parallela damages seriously on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) pods. Elucidation of its flight and walking performance in the presence of different plants may provide an insight in its host sel…
Holotrichia parallela damages seriously on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) pods. Elucidation of its flight and walking performance in the presence of different plants may provide an insight in its host selection process and an explanation to its strong olfactory preference to an attractive nonhost, castor bean (Ricinus communis). We determined the relationships among flight performance, mate choice, and body weight of H. parallela beetles, and then investigated their flight and walking patterns in the presence of known hosts and attractive nonhost plants using a flight mill and a locomotion compensator, respectively. Body weights were not related to mating success, regardless of sex. The flight proportion of selected females drastically decreased compared with nonselected females, nonselected males, and selected males. Within mated males, heavier individuals exhibited poorer flight performance than lighter ones. In flight bioassay, peanut showed an arrestment effect on virgin females. For walking activity factors (distance, time, and speed), the host plants velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) elicited the strongest responses in females and males, respectively. Interestingly, the most preferred adult host, Siberian elm, and the nonhost, castor bean, elicited the highest values of two orientation factors (orientation and upwind length) in females. The chemical similarity hypothesis, which states that feeding or oviposition of insects mistakenly on nonhost can be traced to their chemical similarity to actual hosts, could explain the attraction of H. parallela to castor bean.
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- Ulmosides A: Flavonoid 6-C-glycosides from Ulmus wallichiana attenuates lipopolysacchride induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and neuronal death. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotoxicology 2019 Mar 08; 73:100-111
- Extract of Ulmus wallichiana is being used as traditional medicine used for the treatment of fractured bones however the effect of its individual flavonols is not known. The present study was conduct…
Extract of Ulmus wallichiana is being used as traditional medicine used for the treatment of fractured bones however the effect of its individual flavonols is not known. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of its novel flavonol, (2S, 3S)-(+)-30, 40, 5, 7-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol-6-C-b-d-glucopyranoside named as Ulmoside A (UA), on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treated neurons. LPS treatment to neuronal cells caused significant cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, depletion in glutathione and mitochondrial impairment which were significantly inhibited with UA treatment. LPS treatment also caused significant translocation of cytochrome-c, decreased level of Bcl2, increased level of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in neuronal cells reflecting the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in neuronal death which was attenuated with UA treatment. Since LPS is a well known pro-inflammatory agent it also offered the significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factors-α & interleukin 1-beta) however, UA treatment did not exhibit significant inhibition against LPS induced inflammatory response. LPS also caused the augmented level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which was also not inhibited with co treatment of UA. We have also observed the significant DNA fragmentation and augmented level of cleaved Poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase 1 after LPS treatment which was significantly reverted with UA treatment. Findings suggested that UA acts through mitochondria and exhibited its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities in neuronal cells while no significant anti-inflammatory activity and effect on iNOS were observed.