- Bactrian camels shed large quantities of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after experimental infection. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2019; 8(1):717-723
- In 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged. To date, more than 2300 cases have been reported, with an approximate case fatality rate of 35%. Epidemiological investigatio…
In 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged. To date, more than 2300 cases have been reported, with an approximate case fatality rate of 35%. Epidemiological investigations identified dromedary camels as the source of MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission and evidence of MERS-CoV circulation has been observed throughout the original range of distribution. Other new-world camelids, alpacas and llamas, are also susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Currently, it is unknown whether Bactrian camels are susceptible to infection. The distribution of Bactrian camels overlaps partly with that of the dromedary camel in west and central Asia. The receptor for MERS-CoV, DPP4, of the Bactrian camel was 98.3% identical to the dromedary camel DPP4, and 100% identical for the 14 residues which interact with the MERS-CoV spike receptor. Upon intranasal inoculation with 107 plaque-forming units of MERS-CoV, animals developed a transient, primarily upper respiratory tract infection. Clinical signs of the MERS-CoV infection were benign, but shedding of large quantities of MERS-CoV from the URT was observed. These data are similar to infections reported with dromedary camel infections and indicate that Bactrians are susceptible to MERS-CoV and given their overlapping range are at risk of introduction and establishment of MERS-CoV within the Bactrian camel populations.
- Bacterial Aetiologies of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections among Adults in Yaoundé, Cameroon. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:4834396
- Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain a challenge in African healthcare settings and only few data are available on their aetiology in Cameroon. The purpose of this study was to access th…
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) remain a challenge in African healthcare settings and only few data are available on their aetiology in Cameroon. The purpose of this study was to access the bacterial cause of LRTIs in patients in Cameroon by two methods. Methods. Participants with LRTIs were enrolled in the referral centre for respiratory diseases in Yaoundé city and its surroundings. To detect bacteria, specimens were tested by conventional bacterial culture and a commercial reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. One hundred forty-one adult patients with LRTIs were enrolled in the study. Among the participants, 46.8% were positive for at least one bacterium. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the most detected bacteria with 14.2% (20/141) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9.2% (13/141), Staphylococcus aureus, 7.1% (10/141), and Moraxella catarrhalis, 4.3% (6/141). Bacterial coinfection accounted for 23% (14/61) with Haemophilus influenzae being implicated in 19.7% (12/61). The diagnostic performance of RT-PCR for bacteria detection (43.3%) was significantly different from that of culture (17.7%) (p< 0.001). Only Streptococcus pneumoniae detection was associated with empyema by RT-PCR (p<0.001). These findings enhance understanding of bacterial aetiologies in order to improve respiratory infection management and treatment. It also highlights the need to implement molecular tools as part of the diagnosis of LRTIs.
- Carbapenem Non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Intensive Care Units in the United States: A Potential Role for New β-lactam Combination Agents. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Microbiol 2019 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: In these U.S. hospital ICUs, carbapenem-NS P. aeruginosa was frequently observed from respiratory sources. Novel β-lactam combination agents appear to retain active in vitro susceptibility profiles against these isolates and may play a role in treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-NS P. aeruginosa.
- Next-generation sequencing for identifying a novel/de novo pathogenic variant in a Mexican patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med Genomics 2019 May 22; 12(1):68
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the efficiency of targeted NGS for making a rapid and precise diagnosis in patients with clinically suspected CF. This method can enable the provision of accurate genetic counselling, and improve our understanding of the molecular basis of genetic diseases.
- Longitudinal study of humoral immunity to bovine coronavirus, virus shedding, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned beef calves. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2019 May 22; 15(1):161
- CONCLUSIONS: Co-detection of BCV and H. somni at the time of the disease outbreak suggests that these pathogens contributed to disease pathogenesis. Developing appropriate control measures for respiratory BCV infections may help decrease the incidence of pre-weaning BRD. The role of antibodies in protection must still be further defined.
- Clinical and laboratory associations of mannose-binding lectin in 219 adults with IgG subclass deficiency. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Immunol 2019 May 22; 20(1):15
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the proportion of the present IgGSD patients with serum MBL ≤50 ng/mL is similar to that of healthy European adults. MBL ≤50 ng/mL was not significantly associated with independent variables we studied.
- Enteroviruses: A Gut-Wrenching Game of Entry, Detection, and Evasion. [Review]
- VViruses 2019 May 21; 11(5)
- Enteroviruses are a major source of human disease, particularly in neonates and young children where infections can range from acute, self-limited febrile illness to meningitis, endocarditis, hepatit…
Enteroviruses are a major source of human disease, particularly in neonates and young children where infections can range from acute, self-limited febrile illness to meningitis, endocarditis, hepatitis, and acute flaccid myelitis. The enterovirus genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, enterovirus 71, and enterovirus D68. Enteroviruses primarily infect by the fecal-oral route and target the gastrointestinal epithelium early during their life cycles. In addition, spread via the respiratory tract is possible and some enteroviruses such as enterovirus D68 are preferentially spread via this route. Once internalized, enteroviruses are detected by intracellular proteins that recognize common viral features and trigger antiviral innate immune signaling. However, co-evolution of enteroviruses with humans has allowed them to develop strategies to evade detection or disrupt signaling. In this review, we will discuss how enteroviruses infect the gastrointestinal tract, the mechanisms by which cells detect enterovirus infections, and the strategies enteroviruses use to escape this detection.
- Clinical Manifestations, Immunological Characteristics and Genetic Analysis of Patients with Hyper-Immunoglobulin M Syndrome in Iran. [Journal Article]
- IAInt Arch Allergy Immunol 2019 May 22; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: Physicians in our country should carefully pay attention to respiratory tract infections and pneumonia, particularly in patients with a positive family history. Further investigations are required for detection of new genes and pathways resulting in HIGM phenotype.
- Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. [Journal Article]
- CLClin Lab 2019 May 01; 65(5)
- CONCLUSIONS: RDW was a non-invasive, low-cost, and widely available predictor for the risk and progression of RTIs. RDW level may reflect the disease course among RTIs.
New Search Next
- Procalcitonin: Is This the Promised Biomarker for Critically Ill Patients? [Review]
- JPJ Pediatr Intensive Care 2016; 5(4):162-171
- Objective Procalcitonin (PCT) has been increasingly used in the critical care setting to determine the presence of bacterial infection and also to guide antibiotic therapy. We reviewed PCT's physiolo…
Objective Procalcitonin (PCT) has been increasingly used in the critical care setting to determine the presence of bacterial infection and also to guide antibiotic therapy. We reviewed PCT's physiologic role, as well as its clinical utility for the management of pediatric critically ill patients. Findings PCT is a precursor of the hormone calcitonin. Its production is induced by inflammatory conditions, especially bacterial infections. Literature shows that PCT is a moderately reliable diagnostic test for severe bacterial infection in children. Synthesis of available adult studies suggests that the use of PCT-based algorithms to support medical decision making reduces antibiotic exposure without compromising safety in critically ill patients. However, no study has addressed the usefulness and safety of PCT to guide antibiotic therapy in severely ill children. In pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections, the use of PCT-based algorithms also led to a safe decrease in antibiotic treatment duration. Conclusion PCT has demonstrated clinical utility in the pediatric critical care setting when used for the diagnosis of bacterial infections and to guide antibiotic use in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections. However, more research is needed in critically ill children to determine the utility of PCT-driven antibiotic therapy in this population.