- Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of GLPG1690, a novel autotaxin inhibitor, to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (FLORA): a phase 2a randomised placebo-controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- LRLancet Respir Med 2018 May 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support further development of GLPG1690 as a novel treatment for IPF.
- The role of human Metapneumovirus genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in adults. [Journal Article]
- VJVirol J 2018 May 23; 15(1):91
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HMPV genetic diversity and viral load did not impact symptom severity in adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Differences in viral load dynamics over time between genotypes may have important implications on viral transmission.
- The clinical importance of changes in Treg and Th17 lymphocyte subsets in splenectomized patients after spleen injury. [Journal Article]
- ACAdv Clin Exp Med 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Splenectomy results in an important deterioration of the Treg/Th17 cell balance with a predominance of immunoregulatory Tregs, which can contribute to insufficient immune response to infection.
- Predicting healthcare outcomes in prematurely born infants using cluster analysis. [Journal Article]
- PPPediatr Pulmonol 2018 May 23
- Prematurely born infants are at high risk of respiratory morbidity following neonatal unit discharge, though prediction of outcomes is challenging. We have tested the hypothesis that cluster analysis...
Prematurely born infants are at high risk of respiratory morbidity following neonatal unit discharge, though prediction of outcomes is challenging. We have tested the hypothesis that cluster analysis would identify discrete groups of prematurely born infants with differing respiratory outcomes during infancy.
- Human Metapneumovirus Small Hydrophobic Protein Inhibits Interferon Induction in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2018 05 23; 10(6)
- Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a leading cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, encodes a small hydrophobic (SH) protein of unknown function. Here we show that infection of plasmacytoid den...
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a leading cause of respiratory tract infections in infants, encodes a small hydrophobic (SH) protein of unknown function. Here we show that infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) with a recombinant virus lacking SH expression (rhMPV-ΔSH) enhanced the secretion of type I interferons (IFNs), which required TLR7 and MyD88 expression. HMPV SH protein inhibited TLR7/MyD88/TRAF6 signaling leading to IFN gene transcription, identifying a novel mechanism by which paramyxovirus SH proteins modulate innate immune responses.
- Macrolide Resistance in Cases of Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia in the Emergency Department. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Med 2018 May 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Resistance to macrolides is now above 25% in all regions of the United States, and resistance to other antibiotics is also on the rise. The failure of outpatient macrolide treatment for CAP because of resistance rates increases the burden of the disease both in terms of the patient and health economics. No definitive answer is available on whether macrolides will achieve treatment success despite infection with in vitro resistant strains. When selecting a therapy, a balance needs to be struck between spectrum of activity targeted against the probable etiology (including atypical pathogens) for respiratory tract infections and the need for first-time success.Currently available macrolides are now facing resistance rates that cloud their recommendation as a first-line treatment for CAP. Clinicians need a better understanding of their own local resistance rates, while hospitals need to do a better job in describing low- and high-level resistance rates to better inform their physicians.
- Respiratory Tract Infections in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Safety Analyses From Vedolizumab Clinical Trials. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Crohns Colitis 2018 May 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Vedolizumab therapy was not associated with an increased incidence of respiratory tract infection compared with placebo.
- Child morbidity and mortality associated with alternative policy responses to the economic crisis in Brazil: A nationwide microsimulation study. [Journal Article]
- PMPLoS Med 2018; 15(5):e1002570
- CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of fiscal austerity measures in Brazil can be responsible for substantively higher childhood morbidity and mortality than expected under maintenance of social protection-threatening attainment of Sustainable Development Goals for child health and reducing inequality.
- Effect of Patient and Provider Education on Antibiotic Overuse for Respiratory Tract Infections. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Healthc Qual 2018 May 18
- Antibiotic overuse for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care (PC) is a known important contributor to the serious health threat of antibiotic resistance, yet remains a difficult problem...
Antibiotic overuse for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care (PC) is a known important contributor to the serious health threat of antibiotic resistance, yet remains a difficult problem to improve. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a combination patient and provider education program on antibiotic prescribing in RTIs in a rural primary care clinic. Utilizing a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design, a retrospective electronic medical record review was conducted to determine if a patient and provider education program changed the rates of antibiotics being prescribed (immediate or delayed) during a visit for RTI for 207 randomly selected patients during the established evaluation time periods. The antibiotic prescription rate for the preintervention group was 56.3% compared to 28.8% for the postintervention group (p < .01). Immediate antibiotics were ordered in the preintervention group 31.1% of the time compared to 13.5% for the postintervention group (p < .05). The results of this study demonstrate that educational interventions can be effective in rural settings and that changes in antibiotic prescribing are possible.
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- Topical nasal decongestant oxymetazoline (0.05%) provides relief of nasal symptoms for 12 hours. [Journal Article]
- RRhinology 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time, that oxymetazoline provides both statistically significant and clinically meaningful relief of nasal congestion and improves nasal airflow for up to 12 hours following a single dose.