- Efficacy and Safety of Apremilast in Systemic- and Biologic-Naive Patients With Moderate Plaque Psoriasis: 52-Week Results of UNVEIL. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Drugs Dermatol 2018 Feb 01; 17(2):221-228
- CONCLUSIONS: Apremilast was effective in systemic-naive patients with moderate plaque psoriasis with BSA 5%-10%; efficacy was sustained through week 52. No new safety signals emerged with continued apremilast exposure.</p> <p>ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02425826</p> <p>J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(2):221-228.</p> <p>THIS ARTICLE HAD BEEN MADE AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE.</p> <p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN TO ACCESS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS ARTICLE WITHOUT LOGGING IN.</p> <p>NO PURCHASE NECESSARY.</p> PLEASE CONTACT THE PUBLISHER WITH ANY QUESTIONS.
- Neuronal apoptosis in the brainstem medulla of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and the importance of standardized SUDI classification. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Feb 19
- The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to dete...
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla. Expression was compared between groups of SUDI infants where the cause of death was initially classified by a forensic pathologist or subsequently after reclassification by an expert panel using the San Diego Criteria. 68 SUDI infants were studied and originally classified as explained SUDI (n = 12), Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (n = 27) and undetermined (n = 29). Reclassification resulted in a decrease in the number of explained SUDI cases to 7 and a decrease in the number of undetermined cases to 4, with a corresponding increase in the number of SIDS cases to 57 (8 SIDS I; 49 SIDS II). The expression of apoptotic markers was similar in explained SUDI and SIDS I infants. However, TUNEL expression was greater in the cuneate (p < 0.001), vestibular (p = 0.01) and hypoglossal (p < 0.001) nuclei and active caspase-3 expression was lower in the arcuate nucleus (p = 0.037) in SIDS II compared to explained Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (eSUDI) infants. Compared to SIDS I infants, SIDS II infants had greater TUNEL expression in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (p < 0.01) and greater active caspase-9 expression in the medial and spinal vestibular nuclei (p = <0.01). Changes in apoptotic expression predominated in SIDS II infants. We postulate that these are due to a combination of contributing risk factors including the presence of an upper respiratory tract infection and bed-sharing/co-sleeping. The absence of changes in active caspase-9 expression compared to eSUDI indicates that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is not upregulated in SIDS.
- The DNases of pathogenic Lancefield streptococci. [Journal Article]
- MMicrobiology 2018 Jan 25
- DNases are abundant among the pathogenic streptococci, with most species harbouring genes for at least one. Despite their prevalence, however, the role for these extracellular enzymes is still relati...
DNases are abundant among the pathogenic streptococci, with most species harbouring genes for at least one. Despite their prevalence, however, the role for these extracellular enzymes is still relatively unclear. The DNases of the Lancefield group A Streptococcus, S. pyogenes are the best characterized, with a total of eight DNase genes identified so far. Six are known to be associated with integrated prophages. Two are chromosomally encoded, and one of these is cell-wall anchored. Homologues of both prophage-associated and chromosomally encoded S. pyogenes DNases have been identified in other streptococcal species, as well as other unique DNases. A major role identified for streptococcal DNases appears to be in the destruction of extracellular traps produced by immune cells, such as neutrophils, to ensnare bacteria and kill them. These traps are composed primarily of DNA which can be degraded by the secreted and cell-wall-anchored streptococcal DNases. DNases can also reduce TLR-9 signalling to dampen the immune response and produce cytotoxic deoxyadenosine to limit phagocytosis. Upper respiratory tract infection models of S. pyogenes have identified a role for DNases in potentiating infection and transmission, possibly by limiting the immune response or through some other unknown mechanism. Streptococcal DNases may also be involved in interacting with other microbial communities through communication, bacterial killing and disruption of competitive biofilms, or control of their own biofilm production. The contribution of DNases to pathogenesis may therefore be wide ranging and extend beyond direct interference with the host immune response.
- Sequence analysis of the G gene of hRSVA ON1 genotype from Egyptian children with acute respiratory tract infections. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Microbiol 2018 Feb 02
- Human respiratory syncytial virus causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in neonates and children. Genotype ON1, with duplication of 72-nt in the G gene, was first detected in Canada and the...
Human respiratory syncytial virus causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in neonates and children. Genotype ON1, with duplication of 72-nt in the G gene, was first detected in Canada and then recorded in other countries. In the current study, we describe the first detection of the ON1 genotype among children in Egypt in 2014/2015. Sequence analysis of the full-attachment G gene revealed that the majority of the strains examined were related to the ON1 genotype and only one sample related to N1 genotype. The Egyptian ON1 strains showed unique non-silent mutations in addition to variable mutations near the antigenic sites in comparison to the original ON1 ancestor strain. Continuous surveillance of hRSV regionally and globally is needed to understand the evolutionary mechanisms and strategies adopted by hRSV and their inducers for better adaption to the host.
- Obesity and risk of respiratory tract infections: results of an infection-diary based cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Public Health 2018 Feb 20; 18(1):271
- CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the association of obesity with infection burden and present evidence for putative interaction with sports activity and dietary patterns.
- Agreement Between Integrated Management of Childhood Illness and Final Diagnosis in Acute Respiratory Tract Infections. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Pediatr 2018 Feb 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Adding saturation level to the IMCI algorithmic diagnosis may increase agreement between IMCI classification and final diagnosis.
- Bacillus cereus pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient: a case report. [Journal Article]
- JCJA Clin Rep 2017; 3(1):25
- CONCLUSIONS: This is a rare case ofB. cereuspneumonia in an immunocompetent patient, who subsequently recovered.Bacillusshould be considered as a potential pathogen when immunocompetent patients develop severe pneumonia.
- Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms. [Journal Article]
- ABAdv Biomed Res 2018; 7:5
- CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.
- Compound Heterozygous Variants in the Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 40 Gene in a Chinese Family with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Cause Extreme Phenotypic Diversity in Cilia Ultrastructure. [Journal Article]
- FGFront Genet 2018; 9:23
- Purpose: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder manifested with recurrent infections of respiratory tract and infertility. Mutations in more than 20 genes inc...
Purpose: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare genetic disorder manifested with recurrent infections of respiratory tract and infertility. Mutations in more than 20 genes including the Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 40 (CCDC40) gene are associated with PCD. A Chinese proband with a clinical diagnosis of PCD was analyzed for mutations in these genes to identify the genetic basis of the disease in the family. The proband showed altered mucociliary clearance of the airways, various degree of hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane, left/right body asymmetry, infertility and ultrastructural abnormality of cilia in both sperm and bronchioles.Methods:The DNA from the proband was analyzed for genetic variation in a subset of genes known to cause PCD using targeted next generation sequencing in order to understand the molecular and genetic basis of the PCD in present family. The result of targeted next generation sequencing has been validated by Sanger sequencing and q-PCR.Results:Targeted next-generation sequencing identified two novel mutations (c.1259delA and EX17_20 deletion) inCCDC40gene that causes abnormalCCDC40mRNA expression. These two novel variants cause disorganization of axoneme filaments, which resulted in reduction of sperm motility and phenotypic diversity in ultrastructure of cilia in the proband.Conclusion:These findings highlight the significance of the mutations inCCDC40as novel candidates for genetic testing in PCD patients as well as the key role of ICSI treatment for the families affected by this ciliary dysmotility. Our findings showed that our work enriched the performance of cilia ultrastructure which were not previously reported in PCD patients.
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- Transmission routes of respiratory viruses among humans. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Virol 2018 Jan 17; 28:142-151
- Respiratory tract infections can be caused by a wide variety of viruses. Airborne transmission via droplets and aerosols enables some of these viruses to spread efficiently among humans, causing outb...
Respiratory tract infections can be caused by a wide variety of viruses. Airborne transmission via droplets and aerosols enables some of these viruses to spread efficiently among humans, causing outbreaks that are difficult to control. Many outbreaks have been investigated retrospectively to study the possible routes of inter-human virus transmission. The results of these studies are often inconclusive and at the same time data from controlled experiments is sparse. Therefore, fundamental knowledge on transmission routes that could be used to improve intervention strategies is still missing. We here present an overview of the available data from experimental and observational studies on the transmission routes of respiratory viruses between humans, identify knowledge gaps, and discuss how the available knowledge is currently implemented in isolation guidelines in health care settings.