- Acinetobacter etiology respiratory tract infections associated with mechanical ventilation: what impacts on the prognosis? A retrospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Crit Care 2018 Nov 03; 49:124-128
- CONCLUSIONS: Previous comorbidities and degree of associated organic injury seem to be more important factors in the prognosis than double antibiotic therapy in patients with Acinetobacter-related respiratory infection.
- Care needs of people with dementia in the peri-operative environment: A systematic review. [Journal Article]
- DDementia (London) 2018 Nov 12; :1471301218809225
- The care of people with dementia within the hospital setting is challenging for healthcare professionals. Hospital design and services are not optimized for people with dementia, owing to the lack of...
The care of people with dementia within the hospital setting is challenging for healthcare professionals. Hospital design and services are not optimized for people with dementia, owing to the lack of preparation of healthcare professionals and the busy environment of the acute hospital. The peri-operative environment may present particular difficulties but little is known about the experience and care of people with dementia in this setting. The aim of this review was to examine the care of surgical patients who have dementia and their family members in peri-operative environments and describe strategies adopted by healthcare professionals. A systematic search of the following databases was completed: BNI, CINAHL, PubMED and PsychINFO in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Data were extracted and analysed within a thematic analysis framework as described by Braun and Clarke . Ten papers based on eight studies were included, five (n = 355,010 participants) containing quantitative data and five reporting qualitative data (n = 395 participants). People with dementia who go undergo surgery experienced higher adverse post-operative outcomes such as respiratory problems or urinary tract infections. The key elements in surgical care for people with dementia included: health assessment throughout the surgical trajectory (pre-, intra- and post-operative) and the resources used by healthcare professionals in the peri-operative care. Healthcare professionals reported difficulties in the completion of health assessments due to the cognitive status of people with dementia and a lack of skills in dementia management. The use of restraints was still a common practice and a source of conflict. Dementia-specific training and guidelines focused on the care of surgical patients who have dementia in peri-operative environments are required to improve care and post-operative outcomes. More research is required to develop effective interventions to improve care and decrease the risk of complications for people with dementia in the peri-operative care environment.
- Use of physician billing claims to identify infections in children. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(11):e0207468
- While medical records have detailed information, they are limited in reach to the availability and accessibility of those records. On the other hand, administrative data while limited in scope, have ...
While medical records have detailed information, they are limited in reach to the availability and accessibility of those records. On the other hand, administrative data while limited in scope, have a much further reach in coverage of an entire population. However, few studies have validated the use of administrative data for identifying infections in pediatric populations. Pediatric patients from Ontario, Canada aged <18 years were randomly sampled from the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD). Using physician diagnoses from the electronic medical record (EMR) as the reference standard, we determined the criterion validity of physician billing claims in administrative data for identifying infectious disease syndromes from 2012 to 2014. Diagnosis codes were assessed by infection category (respiratory, skin and soft tissue, gastrointestinal, urinary tract and otitis externa) and for all infections combined. Sensitivity analyses assessed the performance if patients had more than one reason to visit the physician. We analysed 2,139 patients and found 33.3% of all visits were for an infection, and respiratory infections accounted for 67.6% of the infections. When we combined all infection categories, sensitivity was 0.74 (95% CI 0.70-0.77), specificity was 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.96), positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.90), and negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.88 (95% CI 0.86-0.89). For respiratory infections, sensitivity was 0.77 (95% CI 0.73-0.81), specificity was 0.96 (95% CI 0.95-0.97), PPV was 0.85 (95% CI 0.81-0.88), and NPV was 0.94 (95% CI 0.92-0.95). Similar performance was observed for skin and soft tissue, gastrointestinal, urinary tract, and otitis externa infections, but with lower sensitivity. Performance measures were highest when the patient visited the physician with only one health complaint. We found when using linked EMR data as the reference standard, administrative billing codes are reasonably accurate in identifying infections in a pediatric population.
- Human Coronavirus in Hospitalized Children with Respiratory Tract Infections: A Nine-year-long, Population-based Study from Norway. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dis 2018 Nov 10
- CONCLUSIONS: HCoVs occurred in one out of 11 hospitalized children with RTIs and asymptomatic controls. A high HCoV genomic load was associated with RTI. HCoVs are associated with a substantial burden of RTIs in need of hospitalization.
- Transcriptionally Active Lung Microbiome and Its Association with Bacterial Biomass and Host Inflammatory Status. [Journal Article]
- MmSystems 2018 Sep-Oct; 3(5)
- Alteration of the lung microbiome has been observed in several respiratory tract diseases. However, most previous studies were based on 16S ribosomal RNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing; the viabil...
Alteration of the lung microbiome has been observed in several respiratory tract diseases. However, most previous studies were based on 16S ribosomal RNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing; the viability and functional activity of the microbiome, as well as its interaction with host immune systems, have not been well studied. To characterize the active lung microbiome and its associations with host immune response and clinical features, we applied metatranscriptome sequencing to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 25 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and from nine control cases without known pulmonary disease. Community structure analyses revealed three distinct microbial compositions, which were significantly correlated with bacterial biomass, human Th17 immune response, and COPD exacerbation frequency. Specifically, samples with transcriptionally active Streptococcus, Rothia, or Pseudomonas had bacterial loads 16 times higher than samples enriched for Escherichia and Ralstonia. These high-bacterial-load samples also tended to undergo a stronger Th17 immune response. Furthermore, an increased proportion of lymphocytes was found in samples with active Pseudomonas. In addition, COPD patients with active Streptococcus or Rothia infections tended to have lower rates of exacerbations than patients with active Pseudomonas and patients with lower bacterial biomass. Our results support the idea of a stratified structure of the active lung microbiome and a significant host-microbe interaction. We speculate that diverse lung microbiomes exist in the population and that their presence and activities could either influence or reflect different aspects of lung health. IMPORTANCE Recent studies of the microbiome proposed that resident microbes play a beneficial role in maintaining human health. Although lower respiratory tract disease is a leading cause of sickness and mortality, how the lung microbiome interacts with human health remains largely unknown. Here we assessed the association between the lung microbiome and host gene expression, cytokine concentration, and over 20 clinical features. Intriguingly, we found a stratified structure of the active lung microbiome which was significantly associated with bacterial biomass, lymphocyte proportion, human Th17 immune response, and COPD exacerbation frequency. These observations suggest that the microbiome plays a significant role in lung homeostasis. Not only microbial composition but also active functional elements and host immunity characteristics differed among different individuals. Such diversity may partially account for the variation in susceptibility to particular diseases.
- Manifestations and Outcomes of Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Serious Infection in the Emergency Department. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2018; 2018:6014896
- CONCLUSIONS: In infected patients with PD, respiratory and urinary tract infections were the two most common infectious sources. Empiric therapy based on experience could treat both respiratory and urinary tract infections. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for survival.
- Long-term safety and efficacy of benralizumab in patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma: 1-year results from the BORA phase 3 extension trial. [Journal Article]
- LRLancet Respir Med 2018 Nov 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The 2 years of safety results validate that observations observed in the first year of benralizumab continued through a second year of treatment. No new consequences of long-term eosinophil depletion occurred, and the incidence of other adverse events, including opportunistic infections, were similar during the second year.
- Non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype belfanti in a diabetic patient with upper tract respiratory infection. [Journal Article]
- EIEnferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2018 Nov 08
- Bacterial respiratory carriage in French Hajj pilgrims and the effect of pneumococcal vaccine and other individual preventive measures: A prospective cohort survey. [Journal Article]
- TMTravel Med Infect Dis 2018 Nov 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Pilgrims at risk for pneumococcal disease are more likely to suffer from febrile respiratory symptoms at the Hajj despite being immunized against pneumococcal disease and despite lowered S. pneumoniae carriage and should be targeted for reinforced prevention against respiratory infections.
New Search Next
- Changing respiratory expectations with the new disease trajectory of nusinersen treated spinal muscular atrophy [SMA] type 1. [Review]
- PRPaediatr Respir Rev 2018 Jul 12
- Spinal muscular atrophy [SMA] is the most common genetic cause of childhood mortality, primarily from the most severe form SMA type 1. It is a severe, progressive motor neurone disease, affecting the...
Spinal muscular atrophy [SMA] is the most common genetic cause of childhood mortality, primarily from the most severe form SMA type 1. It is a severe, progressive motor neurone disease, affecting the lower brainstem nuclei and the spinal cord. There is a graded level of severity with SMA children from a practical viewpoint described as "Non-sitters", "Sitters" and less commonly, "Ambulant" correlating with SMA Type 0/Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 respectively. Children with SMA Type 0 have a severe neonatal form whilst those with SMA Type 1 develop hypoventilation, pulmonary aspiration, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, dysphagia and failure to thrive before usually succumbing to respiratory failure and death before the age of 2 years. The recent introduction of the antisense oligonucleotide nusinersen into clinical practice in certain countries, following limited trials of less than two years duration, has altered the treatment landscape and improved the outlook considerably for SMN1 related SMA. Approximately 70% of infants appear to have a clinically significant response to nusinersen with improved motor function. It appears the earlier the treatment is initiated the better the response. There are other rarer genetic forms of SMA that are not treated with nusinersen. Clinical expectations will change although it is unclear as yet what the extent of response will mean in terms of screening initiatives [e.g., newborn screening], "preventative strategies" to maintain respiratory wellbeing, timing of introduction of respiratory supports, and prolonged life expectancy for the subcategory of children with treated SMA type 1. This article provides a review of the strategies available for supporting children with respiratory complications of SMA, with a particular emphasis on SMA Type 1.