- Host: Microbiome co-metabolic processing of dietary polyphenols - An acute, single blinded, cross-over study with different doses of apple polyphenols in healthy subjects. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2018; 112:108-128
- Apples are one of the most commonly consumed fruits and their high polyphenol content is considered one of the most important determinants of their health-promoting activities. Here we studied the nu...
Apples are one of the most commonly consumed fruits and their high polyphenol content is considered one of the most important determinants of their health-promoting activities. Here we studied the nutrikinetics of apple polyphenols by UHPLC-HRMS metabolite fingerprinting, comparing bioavailability when consumed in a natural or a polyphenol-enriched cloudy apple juice. Twelve men and women participated in an acute single blind controlled crossover study in which they consumed 250 mL of cloudy apple juice (CAJ), Crispy Pink apple variety, or 250 mL of the same juice enriched with 750 mg of an apple polyphenol extract (PAJ). Plasma and whole blood were collected at time 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 h. Urine was collected at time 0 and 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, and 8-24 h after juice consumption. Faecal samples were collected from each individual during the study for 16S rRNA gene profiling. As many as 110 metabolites were significantly elevated following intake of polyphenol enriched cloudy apple juice, with large inter-individual variations. The comparison of the average area under the curve of circulating metabolites in plasma and in urine of volunteers consuming either the CAJ or the PAJ demonstrated a stable metabotype, suggesting that an increase in polyphenol concentration in fruit does not limit their bioavailability upon ingestion. Faecal bacteria were correlated with specific microbial catabolites derived from apple polyphenols. Human metabolism of apple polyphenols is a co-metabolic process between human encoded activities and those of our resident microbiota. Here we have identified specific blood and urine metabolic biomarkers of apple polyphenol intake and identified putative associations with specific genera of faecal bacteria, associations which now need confirmation in specifically designed mechanistic studies.
- Combination of dispersive solid phase extraction and deep eutectic solvent-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an efficient analytical method for the quantification of some tricyclic antidepressant drugs in biological fluids. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2018 Oct 12; 1571:84-93
- A dispersive solid phase extraction coupled with deep eutectic solvent-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the extraction and preconcentration of some t...
A dispersive solid phase extraction coupled with deep eutectic solvent-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the extraction and preconcentration of some tricyclic antidepressant drugs in the human urine and plasma samples prior to their determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In this method, a sorbent (C18) is first added into an alkaline aqueous sample and dispersed by vortexing. By this action, the analytes are adsorbed onto the sorbent. Then, the sorbent particles are isolated from the aqueous solution by centrifugation. Afterward, a deep eutectic solvent, prepared from choline chloride and 4-chlorophenol is used to desorb the analytes from the sorbent. Subsequently, the supernatant solution is removed and added into an alkaline deionized water placed into a test tube with a conical bottom. The resulting mixture is rapidly sucked into a glass syringe and then injected into the tube. This procedure is repeated for several times and a cloudy solution consisting of fine droplets of deep eutectic solvent dispersed into the aqueous phase is formed. After centrifuging the obtained cloudy solution, the tiny droplets of the extractant, containing the extracted analytes, settle at the bottom of the tube. Finally, an aliquot of the extractant is taken and injected into the separation system for quantitative analysis. Several significant factors affecting the performance of the proposed method are evaluated and optimized. Under optimum extraction conditions, the method shows low limits of detection in the ranges of 5-10, 8-15 and 32-60 ng L-1 in deionized water, urine, and plasma, respectively. Enrichment factors are observed to be between 325 to 385 in deionized water, 155 to 185 in urine, and 64 to 72 in plasma. Extraction recoveries are in the range of 65-77 (in deionized water), 62-74 (in urine), and 64-72% (in plasma). The relative standard deviations of the proposed method are ≤ 6% for intra- (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 4) precisions at a concentration of 200 ng L-1 of each analyte. Finally, the applicability of the introduced method is investigated by analyzing the selected drugs in different biological fluids. In the proposed method, for the first time, a deep eutectic solvent composed of safe, cheap, and biodegradable compounds was synthesized and used (at μL-level) as an elution and extraction solvent, simultaneously which led to omit the consumption of toxic organic solvents. This represents a significant advantage in the era of green chemistry. In addition, the introduced method is sensitive, simple in operation, rapid, and efficient.
- Dispersed Solidified Fine Droplets Based on Sonication of a Low Melting Point Deep Eutectic Solvent: a Novel Concept for Fast and Efficient Determination of Cr(VI) in Urine Samples. [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2018 Jul 24
- Cr(VI) has carcinogenic effects, so determination of trace amount of chromium in human body such as urine has a great deal of importance. In this work, a novel microextraction method was developed ba...
Cr(VI) has carcinogenic effects, so determination of trace amount of chromium in human body such as urine has a great deal of importance. In this work, a novel microextraction method was developed based on solidification of dispersed fine droplets (SDFD) of a low melting point deep eutectic solvent (DES), produced with the aid of sonication, for fast and efficient determination of Cr(VI) in urine samples. Cr(VI) contents of the human urine samples were first complexed using 1,5-diphenylcarbazone at pH ≈ 2.0 and then extracted by the method. A cloudy solution was achieved by the sonication of a microliter volume of a new water-immiscible DES consisting of benzyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (BTPPB) and phenol. Low freezing point of DES makes it possible to use simple, precise, and fast collection of the extraction phase by solidification and the subsequent centrifugation. Finally, the sedimented phase was diluted with methanol and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The influences of the main factors on the efficiency of the procedure were investigated by a four-factor central composite design (CCD). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear within the range of 10-1000 ng L-1. The intra- and inter-day RSD% values of 2.6 and 4.7% were obtained at the concentration of 50.0 ng L-1, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were calculated as 2.0 and 7.0 ng L-1, respectively. Moreover, compared to the other approaches, the proposed method presented better or comparable analytical performance and provided accurate, precise, and reliable results for trace analysis of Cr(VI) in urine samples.
- Determination of Cyanide by Microdiffusion Technique Coupled to Spectrophotometry and GC/NPD and Propofol by Fast GC/MS-TOF in a Case of Poisoning. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2018 Jul 01; 42(6):e51-e57
- A man was found dead in a hotel located near Rome (Italy). The man was still holding a syringe attached to a butterfly needle inserted in his left forearm vein. The syringe contained a cloudy pinkish...
A man was found dead in a hotel located near Rome (Italy). The man was still holding a syringe attached to a butterfly needle inserted in his left forearm vein. The syringe contained a cloudy pinkish fluid. In the hotel room the Police found a broken propofol glass vial plus four sealed ones, an opened NaCl plastic vial and six more still sealed, and a number of packed smaller disposable syringes and needles. An opened plastic bottle containing a white crystalline powder labeled as potassium cyanide was also found. Systematic toxicological analysis (STA), carried out on blood, urine and bile, evidenced only the presence of propofol in blood and bile. So the validated L-L extraction protocol and the GC/MS-TOF method for the confirmation of propofol in the biological fluids optimized in our laboratory was applied to blood, urine and bile. The concentration of propofol resulted to be 0.432 μg/mL in blood and 0.786 μg/mL in bile. The quantitative determination of cyanide in blood was carried out by microdiffusion technique coupled to spectrophotometric detection obtaining a cyanide concentration of 5.3 μg/mL. The quantitative determination was then confirmed by GC/NPD and the concentration of cyanide resulted to be 5.5 μg/mL in blood and 1.7 μg/mL in bile. Data emerging from autopsy findings, histopathological exams and the concentrations of cyanide suggested that death might be due to poisoning caused by cyanide, however, respiratory depression caused by propofol could not be excluded.
- REPEATED SCLEROTHERAPY SUCCESSFULLY TREATS A CHILD WITH IDIOPATHIC CHYLURIA: A CASE REPORT. [Case Reports]
- SASoutheast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2017; 48(2):360-6
- We describe a clinical course of idiopathic chyluria in a previouslyhealthy 8-year-old Thai boy, with a 1-year history of cloudy white urine undergoing antibiotic treatment. The patient was investiga...
We describe a clinical course of idiopathic chyluria in a previouslyhealthy 8-year-old Thai boy, with a 1-year history of cloudy white urine undergoing antibiotic treatment. The patient was investigated for the causes but they all proved negative. Cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography demonstrated a renolymphatic fistula of the right kidney. The patient was refractory to a mediumchain triglyceride-rich diet. Ultimately, sclerotherapy with 1% povidone iodine was employed twice, which resulted in a resolution of the disorder. We emphasize that chyluria, even though a very rare condition of chylous disorders, but ultimately can be initially managed by providing a medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet and is curable by sclerotharapy. Importantly, medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet can be applied to treat other types of chylous disorders.
- Predictive ability of NGAL in identifying urinary tract infection in children with neurogenic bladders. [Journal Article]
- PNPediatr Nephrol 2018; 33(8):1365-1374
- CONCLUSIONS: uNGAL is elevated in CIC-dependent children with UTI compared to those with negative cultures and those with UTC.
- Salt-induced ionic liquid-based microextraction using a low cytotoxic guanidinium ionic liquid and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection to determine monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine. [Journal Article]
- ABAnal Bioanal Chem 2018; 410(19):4701-4713
- A novel ionic liquid (IL)-based microextraction method has been developed for the determination of four hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs) in urine samples. The water soluble IL-b...
A novel ionic liquid (IL)-based microextraction method has been developed for the determination of four hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs) in urine samples. The water soluble IL-based surfactant selected as extraction solvent is decylguanidinium chloride (C10Gu-Cl), the cytotoxicity and micellar behavior of which were evaluated. The proposed salt-induced IL-based preconcentration method simply consists in adding NaClO4 to the aqueous medium containing the IL to promote its water insolubility. The entire method was optimized, requiring the use of only 20 μL of C10Gu-Cl for 10 mL of diluted urine sample (1:10) without any pH adjustment, followed by the addition of NaClO4 to ensure a 5% (w/v) content. A cloudy solution was observed immediately, and after the application of 4 min of vortex and 8 min of centrifugation, the droplet was diluted up to 60 μL with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (30:70) and injected into the liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detection. The method was validated using both synthetic urine and human urine as matrix for the determination of the four OHPAHs. The following analytical features were obtained: detection limits down to 1 ng·L-1 in real urine; inter-day reproducibility (as RSD in %) always lower than 17% when dealing with real urine samples spiked at 80 ng·L-1; and average relative recoveries of 102% in real urine samples at such low spiked levels. Despite the simplicity of the proposed method, it performed successfully with complex urine samples. Graphical abstract Salt-induced IL-based microextraction using a low cytotoxic IL for mono-OHPAHs in urine.
- Enhancing quality practice for prevention and diagnosis of urinary tract infection during inpatient spinal cord rehabilitation. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Spinal Cord Med 2017; 40(6):803-812
- CONCLUSIONS: The concurrent presence of cloudy and foul smelling urine is predicted of UTI diagnosis inpatients tertiary setting. SCI inpatients are susceptible to UTI when learning CIC technique from nurses.
- Enterovesical fistula, a rare complication of Meckel's diverticulum: A case report. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Case Rep 2017; 37:254-256
- CONCLUSIONS: Vesico-diverticular fistula resulting from a perforated Meckel's diverticulum is a rare complication. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case which is not associated to inflammatory bowel disease.
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- Determination of Isthmocele Using a Foley Catheter During Laparoscopic Repair of Cesarean Scar Defect. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Minim Invasive Gynecol 2018; 25(1):21-22
- CONCLUSIONS: Even though the literature is cloudy in this area, a laparoscopic approach to repairing an isthmocele is a safe and minimally invasive procedure. Our approach described here involves inserting a Foley catheter in the uterine cavity through the cervical canal, then filling the balloon in the lower uterine segment under laparoscopic view to identify the isthmocele.