- Color-Coded Single-Particle Pyrophosphate Assay with Dark-Field Optical Microscopy. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chem 2018 Aug 17
- In this work, we demonstrate a convenient yet sensitive color-coded single-particle detection (SPD) method for the quantification of pyrophosphate (PPi) by using single gold nanoparticle (GNP) as the...
In this work, we demonstrate a convenient yet sensitive color-coded single-particle detection (SPD) method for the quantification of pyrophosphate (PPi) by using single gold nanoparticle (GNP) as the probe. The design is based on GNP-dependent catalytic deposition of Cu onto the surface of GNPs with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Without PPi, Cu2+ can be directly reduced to Cu0 through the gold-catalyzed oxidization of NADH. In the presence of PPi, the coating process is impeded due to the strong coordination capability of PPi with Cu2+. The selective coating of Cu shell onto the GNPs surface results in the extraordinary red-shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from individual GNPs. By quantitatively counting the fraction of yellow particles with color-coded dark-field optical microscopy (DFM), the trace amounts of PPi in solution can be accurately quantified. The limit-of-detection (LOD) is as low as 1.49 nM with a linear dynamic range of 0-4.29 μM, which is much lower than the spectroscopic measurements in bulk solution. In artificial urine sample, good recovery efficiency was achieved. As a consequence, the method demonstrated herein will find promising applications for the ultra-sensitive detection of target biomolecules under biological milieu in the future.
- [Melatonin: Physiological and pharmacological aspects related to sleep: The interest of a prolonged-release formulation (Circadin®) in insomnia]. [Journal Article]
- EEncephale 2018 Aug 11
- Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It displays a very marked nycthohemeral rhythm, which is entrained to the light dark cycle. The secretion spreads over 8-10 hours, with a maximum ...
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It displays a very marked nycthohemeral rhythm, which is entrained to the light dark cycle. The secretion spreads over 8-10 hours, with a maximum around 3-4 a.m. Melatonin plays the role of an endogenous synchronizer which regulates circadian rhythms, especially the sleep/wake and temperature rhythms. Acute melatonin administration reduces sleep latency, increases theta/alpha power and spindle activity (soporific activity). Fast-release melatonin preparations showed inconstant effects in insomnia. Melatonin displays a short blood half-life, a fast turn over and undergoes a high first-pass hepatic metabolism. More than 80% is excreted exclusively in the urine as 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. The individual's capacity to produce the endogenous hormone, the decline in circadian clock output and the increase in complaints of poor sleep quality at older age led to develop a prolonged-release melatonin preparation to mimic the endogenous secretion in patients. This reviews provides data on physiological and pharmacological melatonin effects related to sleep and summarizes trials published about Circadin® efficacy and tolerance in insomnia. Preliminary therapeutic data on other indications are given. The main clinically relevant benefits are improvements in sleep quality and latency, next-day morning alertness and quality of life. The response develops over several days. An oral 2-mg dose once daily, for 3 months, is generally well tolerated with no rebound, withdrawal or 'hangover' effects and no safety concerns on concomitant therapy with antihypertensive, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering or anti-inflammatory drugs. Untoward effects of hypnotics on cognition, memory, postural stability and sleep structure are not seen with Circadin®. Given as a first-line prescription, with 13 weeks' posology and the lack of rebound effects, Circadin® has the potential to improve quality of life in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and avoid long-term use of hypnotics.
- Necrotic Lesions Following Elective Urological Surgery in an Infant. [Journal Article]
- SJSurg J (N Y) 2018; 4(3):e133-e135
- Case Report An 11-month-old female infant presented on the first postoperative (PO) day following an elective pyeloplasty, a dark bluish erythema of her lumbotomy wound, plus a satellite lesion of t...
Case Report An 11-month-old female infant presented on the first postoperative (PO) day following an elective pyeloplasty, a dark bluish erythema of her lumbotomy wound, plus a satellite lesion of the same characteristics. Fever and sepsis developed, and despite broad spectrum antibiotics (meropenem and vancomycin) were started, a diagnosis of necrotizing soft-tissue infection (NSTI or necrotizing fasciitis) was established. Surgical debridement of both lesions was performed on day 3 PO, and a surgical contamination (ring retractor blade) was suspected, due to the particular geography of the lesion. Urine and blood cultures yielded no bacteria, but tissue culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa . At PO 6th day, lesions still appeared exudative and poorly perfused, so vacuum-assisted therapy (VAT) treatment was started. Exudate control, perfusion, and granulation improved in consecutive days, which permitted direct closure (no graft needed) at PO day 12. Discussion P. aeruginosa can be a fatal cause of type I NSTI. It has been reported rarely in adult series, with a prevalence of 4%, but it can be a major pathogen in pediatric NSTI. Added to an early recognition, aggressive surgery and debridement are required, in combination with antibiotic therapy, to limit the spread of the infection. In our case, despite surgical debridement being performed on day 3 PO, both wounds maintained scarce perfusion, and debris and exudate were poorly controlled with usual silver foams and daily nursery cures. VAT pediatric device was then added, which rapidly improved surgical bed, enhancing tissue perfusion and granulation in the following days.
- A case of 'blue skin' and 'dark urine'. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Armed Forces India 2018; 74(3):300-303
- A 60-year-old female presented with a 20-year history of progressive dark bluish discoloration of skin and passage of dark colored urine, painful arthritis and a recent history of invasive ductal car...
A 60-year-old female presented with a 20-year history of progressive dark bluish discoloration of skin and passage of dark colored urine, painful arthritis and a recent history of invasive ductal carcinoma of right breast. Skin biopsy revealed hyaline material which was Periodic-Acid-Schiff stain positive and Congo-red stain negative, urine analysis revealed dark urine with presence reducing substance and radio-imaging showed intervertebral ossification and joint ankyloses. The patient was managed symptomatically with physiotherapy and acetaminophen on as required basis. This image is reported as a classic case of Alkaptonuria with clinical, histopathological and radio-imaging findings and the presence of invasive ductal breast carcinoma in the same patient.
- Absorbance measurements of oxidation of homogentisic acid accelerated by the addition of alkaline solution with sodium hypochlorite pentahydrate. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jul 27; 8(1):11364
- The urine of patients with alkaptonuria turns dark brown due to the oxidation of homogentisic acid (HGA) to benzoquinone acetic acid (BQA), and this is accelerated by the addition of alkali. We recen...
The urine of patients with alkaptonuria turns dark brown due to the oxidation of homogentisic acid (HGA) to benzoquinone acetic acid (BQA), and this is accelerated by the addition of alkali. We recently reported that alkaptonuric urine and HGA after the addition of alkali showed characteristic peaks at 406 and 430 nm. In order to improve the sensitivity of our spectrometric method for the detection of HGA, we accelerated the oxidation of HGA to BQA using sodium hypochlorite pentahydrate (NaOCl·5H2O), which is a strong oxidant. In the present study, we measured the absorption spectra of alkaptonuric urine and HGA solution after the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or NaOH with NaOCl·5H2O and analyzed the oxidation reaction of HGA after alkalization using a liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC/TOF-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. We accelerated the oxidation of HGA to BQA by adding NaOH with NaOCl·5H2O, and this absorbance measurement was useful for more sensitively observing the oxidation of HGA than LC/TOF-MS and NMR spectroscopy. This quick and easy screening method may be suitable for the diagnosis of alkaptonuria.
- Evaluation of pheromone-based kit: a non-invasive approach of estrus detection in buffalo. [Journal Article]
- RDReprod Domest Anim 2018 Jul 25
- In view of the silent nature of estrus in buffalo, a noninvasive assay kit has long been felt necessary for easy and effective estrus detection. The present study was designed to detect estrus in buf...
In view of the silent nature of estrus in buffalo, a noninvasive assay kit has long been felt necessary for easy and effective estrus detection. The present study was designed to detect estrus in buffalo using a kit formulated in our lab based on pheromone compound. Group I: urine samples collected at estrus phase; and group II: randomly collected urine samples, were subjected to the test using the kit. No color developed (i.e., positive reaction) in estrus urine after adding the kit solution. By contrast, pale- and/or dark-pink color developed (i.e., negative reaction) in urine from the proestrus and diestrus buffaloes, respectively. Field evaluation of the kit in groups I and II revealed that 60.87% and 71.43% of urine samples were correctly identified as estrus and non-estrus (i.e., proestrus and diestrus), respectively. Therefore, the first of its kind estrus detection kit formulated based on urinary pheromone, can as well be used as a simple device to detect estrus in buffalo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A Rare Cause of Obstructive Jaundice: Cecal Herniation through the Foramen of Winslow. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Imaging Sci 2018; 8:24
- Internal abdominal hernias are rarely reported in the literature and have a very low rate of preoperative diagnosis. It is even rarer that they present with jaundice. A 59-year-old Caucasian female p...
Internal abdominal hernias are rarely reported in the literature and have a very low rate of preoperative diagnosis. It is even rarer that they present with jaundice. A 59-year-old Caucasian female presented with a short history of jaundice, dark urine, epigastric pain, vomiting, and obstipation. Her liver biochemistry profile revealed a mixed cholestatic/hepatocellular pattern with significantly elevated bilirubin. She urgently underwent abdominal imaging which provided a preoperative diagnosis of internal herniation of the cecum within the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow. The dilated bowel was compressing the common bile duct explaining the jaundice. This was repaired intraoperatively by anchoring the mobile cecum. In this case, we highlight the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for internal herniation on abdominal imaging with clinical evidence of intestinal obstruction. A foramen of Winslow hernia should be further suspected in the presence of jaundice.
- A cold scare: Formation of cold reactive anti-A1 coinciding with gross hemolysis. [Journal Article]
- PLPract Lab Med 2018; 12:e00100
- Anti-A1 antibodies can be found as a usually clinically insignificant naturally occurring cold IgM antibody in A-subgroup patients. It is known from multiple prior case reports that warm-reactive ant...
Anti-A1 antibodies can be found as a usually clinically insignificant naturally occurring cold IgM antibody in A-subgroup patients. It is known from multiple prior case reports that warm-reactive anti-A1 that reacts at 37 °C can be clinically significant, and it has been previously reported that it could form after alloimmunization with donor A1 red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. In addition, the development of anti-A1, often as an autoantibody, have been described in the setting of various malignancies, perhaps due to expressed subtle alterations of the ABO antigens provoking an immune response. Here, we report a rare case of a cold-reactive anti-A1 alloantibody (after multiple transfusions with group A1 RBC units) in a 76 year old male patient (A2) with history of myelodysplastic syndrome and metastatic carcinoma who presented with hemolytic anemia and dark urine. The patient had previously typed as blood type A without reverse typing reaction for anti-A1; as a result, the patient had been transfused with group A1 RBCs. Four days prior to discovery of the ABO discrepancy, the patient had a febrile transfusion reaction associated with his A1 RBC transfusion. On admission, his immunohematology workup demonstrated an alloantibody to anti-A1 that coincidentally appeared during a new onset of hemolytic anemia. Case reports of patients with hemolytic anemia with a newly developed anti-A1 alloantibody are sparse in the literature, and this case is particularly interesting as the cold reactive anti-A1 (without demonstrable wide thermal amplitude) appeared to form after alloimmunization and in the setting of an underlying malignancy.
- Unilateral Labial Edema In An Adolescent Female: A Gynecologic Presentation Of Rhabdomyolysis. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2018 Jul 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Exertional rhabdomyolysis is associated with muscular damage following vigorous exercise. This case is an example of rhabdomyolysis presenting with an unusual external gynecological manifestation, as unilateral labial edema.
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- Effects of Various Cleaning Agents on the Performance of Mice in Behavioral Assays of Anxiety. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 Jul 01; 57(4):335-339
- Cleaning behavioral equipment between rodent subjects is important to prevent disease transmission and reduce odor cues from previous subjects. However, the reporting regarding the cleansing procedur...
Cleaning behavioral equipment between rodent subjects is important to prevent disease transmission and reduce odor cues from previous subjects. However, the reporting regarding the cleansing procedures used during such experiments is sporadic and often incomplete. In addition, some investigators are reluctant to clean devices between subjects because they are concerned that animals will react negatively to the smell of the cleansing agents. We hypothesized that mice tested on an elevated plus maze (EPM) soiled with excretions from conspecifics would test as being more stressed than mice tested on the same apparatus that was cleaned between animals. We tested the performance of C57BL/6J mice on an EPM sanitized with 3 common cleaning agents-isopropyl alcohol, chlorine dioxide, and bleach-and on an EPM soiled with rodent urine, feces, and presumably pheromones. We further tested the potentially aversive nature of the cleansing agents by using the classic light:dark box and a 2-choice light:dark box. Our data indicate that cleaning the EPM compared with leaving it soiled did not affect performance in male or female C57 mice, nor did cleaning agent choice. In addition, test subjects did not react to the presence of the cleaning agents when incorporated into the classic light:dark test. However, in the 2-choice light:dark test, mice given the option to avoid an area containing a cleaning agent showed aversion to all 3 agents, when all other conditions were equal. Given the lack of an observable effect of cleaning on EPM performance, we recommend cleaning of the EPM device between C57 mice to minimize the potential spread of disease.