- Unprecedented high catecholamine production causing hair pigmentation after urinary excretion in red deer. [Journal Article]
- CMCell Mol Life Sci 2018 Nov 09
- Hormones have not been found in concentrations of orders of magnitude higher than nanograms per milliliter. Here, we report urine concentrations of a catecholamine (norepinephrine) ranging from 0.05 ...
Hormones have not been found in concentrations of orders of magnitude higher than nanograms per milliliter. Here, we report urine concentrations of a catecholamine (norepinephrine) ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 g/l, and concentrations of its metabolite DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (DOPEG) ranging from 1.0 to 44.5 g/l, in wild male red deer Cervus elaphus hispanicus after LC-MS analyses. The dark ventral patch of male red deer, a recently described sexually selected signal, contains high amounts of DOPEG (0.9-266.9 mg/l) stuck in the hairs, while DOPEG is not present in non-darkened hair. The formation of this dark patch is explained by the chemical structure of DOPEG, which is a catecholamine-derived o-diphenol susceptible to be oxidized by air and form allomelanins, nitrogen-free pigments similar to cutaneous melanins; by its high concentration in urine; and by the urine spraying behavior of red deer by which urine is spread through the ventral body area. Accordingly, the size of the dark ventral patch was positively correlated with the concentration of DOPEG in urine, which was in turn correlated with DOPEG absorbed in ventral hair. These findings represent catecholamine concentrations about one million higher than those previously reported for any hormone in an organism. This may have favored the evolution of the dark ventral patch of red deer by transferring information on the fighting capacity to rivals and mates. Physiological limits for hormone production in animals are thus considerably higher than previously thought. These results also unveil a novel mechanism of pigmentation based on the self-application of urine over the fur.
- Delayed Hemolytic Anemia after Treatment with Artesunate: Case Report and Literature Review. [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Drug Saf 2018 Nov 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Considering clinical course and base on a reliable causality assessment scale, post artesunate delay hemolytic anemia was possible.
- Leptomeningeal metastases of a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour: a rare entity. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 03; 2018
- A 73-year-old man, without any medical history, had presented with dark urine and pale stool without pain. Diagnostic imaging revealed a tumour in the pancreas with liver metastases. Histopathologica...
A 73-year-old man, without any medical history, had presented with dark urine and pale stool without pain. Diagnostic imaging revealed a tumour in the pancreas with liver metastases. Histopathological examination showed a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. After a stable 2.5 years on everolimus, progression of the liver metastases was seen and a switch was made to chemotherapy. Three months later, he developed progressive spinal neurological symptoms. MRI of the spine and brain revealed leptomeningeal contrast-enhancing lesions. Cytopathological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid showed malignant epithelial cells compatible with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour. Epithelial cell-adhesion molecule-based flow cytometry of the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the presence of epithelial tumour cells. Based on these results, the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases of an originally well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour of the pancreas was made.
- Late reactivation of hepatitis B virus after rituximab-containing chemotherapy for mantle cell lymphoma: a case report. [Journal Article]
- IInfection 2018 Oct 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the risk of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-positive patients with undetectable HBV-DNA can occur even after three years from the last administration of rituximab and several months after the withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy in patients with hematological malignancies. This implies that a close monitoring of HBV-related markers including HBV-DNA must continue after the withdrawal of prophylactic NA therapy.
- Naphthalene Toxicity: Methemoglobinemia and Acute Intravascular Hemolysis. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Aug 15; 10(8):e3147
- Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs. Clinically, patients present wit...
Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs. Clinically, patients present with acute onset of dark brown urine, watery diarrhea, and non-bloody bilious vomiting 48-96 hours after exposure. Vital sign abnormalities include fever, tachycardia, hypotension, and persistent pulse oximetry readings of 84%-85% despite oxygen supplementation. Laboratory workup demonstrates hyperbilirubinemia with indirect predominance, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, and renal dysfunction. Treatment options include supportive care, red cell transfusion, ascorbic acid, methylene blue, and N-acetylcysteine. We present a case of naphthalene toxicity in a 20-year-old autistic male, who improved with supportive care, red blood cell transfusion, and ascorbic acid.
- Effect of Consumption of Cocoa-Derived Products on Uric Acid Crystallization in Urine of Healthy Volunteers. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2018 Oct 16; 10(10)
- The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consumption of different cocoa-derived products on uric acid crystallization in urine of 20 healthy volunteers. Participants were requested t...
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consumption of different cocoa-derived products on uric acid crystallization in urine of 20 healthy volunteers. Participants were requested to select the specific diet that they wished to follow during the 12 h prior to collection of urine. The only restriction was that the diet could not include any product with cocoa, coffee, or caffeine. On the first day, each volunteer followed their selected diet, and an overnight 12 h urine sample was collected as the baseline urine. After seven days on an unrestricted diet, each volunteer repeated the same diet with 20 g of milk chocolate, chocolate powder, or dark chocolate during breakfast and another 20 g during dinner. Overnight 12 h urine samples were then collected. Urine volume, pH, oxalate, creatinine, uric acid, theobromine, and a uric acid crystallization test were determined for each sample. The results for all 20 patients show that uric acid crystallization was significantly lower following the consumption of chocolate powder or dark chocolate relative to baseline or following the consumption of milk chocolate. The results indicated that increased concentrations of urinary theobromine reduced the risk of uric acid crystallization.
- Liquid crystals-based sensor for the detection of lithocholic acid coupled with competitive host-guest inclusion. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Sep 29; 173:178-184
- A simple, low-cost and label-free strategy for detecting lithocholic acid (LCA) was designed at the liquid crystals (LCs)/aqueous interface via competitive host-guest inclusion. In this method, sodiu...
A simple, low-cost and label-free strategy for detecting lithocholic acid (LCA) was designed at the liquid crystals (LCs)/aqueous interface via competitive host-guest inclusion. In this method, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was initially adsorbed on the fluid interface and induced LCs to adopt the homeotropic ordering. Inclusion complexation of SDS and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) disturbed interaction between LCs and SDS and evoked LCs to keep a tilted alignment. When injecting LCA into the mixed solution of SDS and β-CD, SDS excluded from the cavity of β-CD by competitive host-guest inclusion and could be re-adsorbed at the LCs/aqueous interface, resulting in the orientational transition of LCs from tilted to homeotropic state. Correspondingly, a bright-to-dark optical response was observed under polarized optical microscope (POM). The as-prepared LCs-based sensor could detect LCA as low as about 2 μM in aqueous solution. Moreover, the practicability of the approach was validated by monitoring the known amount of LCA in human urine. This work offers an appealing approach for the detection of LCA which has a great potentiality in clinical diagnosis.
- Dark urine, hypotension and blood smear examination. [Journal Article]
- ICIntensive Care Med 2018 Oct 04
- Pyogenic Liver Abscess with No Predisposing Risk Factors. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Gastrointest Med 2018; 2018:9509356
- Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) are an uncommon cause of hospitalization in the United States. The majority of such cases are polymicrobial and are most commonly caused by seeding of infection from th...
Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) are an uncommon cause of hospitalization in the United States. The majority of such cases are polymicrobial and are most commonly caused by seeding of infection from the biliary system. PLA is frequently associated with specific comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, history of liver transplant, underlying hepatobiliary, or pancreatic disease. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old healthy male with no known risk factors associated with PLA who presented to the hospital with acute fever, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine. Initially the patient had a negative right upper quadrant ultrasound. However, the patient continued to have persistent fevers and abnormal liver biochemistries with negative liver serology that led to checking a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography which suggested multiple liver abscesses. Computer tomography guided aspiration revealed a monobacterial Streptococcus species within the abscess, which is commonly associated with arterial bacteremia as a source of PLA. Arterial bacteremia is one of most rare causes of PLA. The patient's septic workup was negative for any source of infection. This case demonstrates a patient with no risk factors who was diagnosed with PLA caused by apparent arterial bacteremia with no clear source of infection.
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- Enriched Environment Exposure Enhances Social Interactions and Oxytocin Responsiveness in Male Long-Evans Rats. [Journal Article]
- FBFront Behav Neurosci 2018; 12:198
- Both social and physical stimuli contribute to the complexity of an animal's environment, influencing biobehavioral responses to subsequent challenges. In the current study, male Long-Evans rats were...
Both social and physical stimuli contribute to the complexity of an animal's environment, influencing biobehavioral responses to subsequent challenges. In the current study, male Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to an isolate (ISO), social control (SC) or social enriched (SE) group (n = 8 per group). The SC and SE conditions were group housed with the SE group exposed to physical enrichment stimuli that were natural as opposed to manufactured (e.g., hollowed out log instead of plastic hiding place). On three occasions during their 40-day enriched environment exposure, night/dark phase videos were obtained for 1 h during the early part of the dark phase. During this time, the SE animals exhibited significantly more social grooming with no differences between the SE and SC in the frequency of play or self-grooming bouts. Subsequently, all animals were assessed in social interaction and problem-solving escape tasks during the last week of the enriched environment exposure. SE rats exhibited increased digging bouts toward the restrained conspecific in the social interaction task whereas the other groups exhibited more escape responses. In the problem-solving task, SE animals exhibited a decreased latency to cross the barrier to escape from the predator odor (i.e., cat urine and fur). Neural analyses indicated increased oxytocin-immunoreactive (OT-ir) tissue in the SE supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus compared to the other groups. Interestingly, blood samples indicated lower peripheral corticosterone (CORT) and higher OT levels in the ISO animals when compared to the SC and SE animals, an effect retrospectively attributed to separation anxiety in the SE and SC animals in preparation for histology procedures. When the behavioral, neural and endocrine data were visualized as a multifaceted dataset via a multidimensional scaling analysis, however, an association between social enrichment and higher OT involvement was observed in the SE animals, as well as heightened stress responsivity in the ISO and SC groups. In sum, the SE animals exhibited a facilitation of social responses, problem-solving ability and OT immunoreactive responsiveness. These findings provide new information about the influences of both physical and social stimuli in dynamic and enriched environments.