- Multidisciplinary study of the secondary immune response in grandparents re-exposed to chickenpox. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Apr 24; 7(1):1077
- Re-exposure to chickenpox may boost varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity in the elderly. This secondary immune response is hypothesized to confer protection against herpes zoster. We longitudinally ...
Re-exposure to chickenpox may boost varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immunity in the elderly. This secondary immune response is hypothesized to confer protection against herpes zoster. We longitudinally sampled 36 adults over the course of one year after re-exposure to chickenpox. The resulting 183 samples and those of 14 controls were assessed for VZV-specific T-cell immunity and antibody titres. The percentages of VZV-specific CD4+ IL-2-producing T-cells were increased in re-exposed grandparents compared to control participants up to 9 months after re-exposure. Using a longitudinal mixture modelling approach, we found that 25% and 17% of re-exposed grandparents showed a boosting of VZV-specific CD4+ IL-2-producing T-cells and VZV-specific antibodies, respectively. The antibody boosting occurred exclusively in cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG-positive participants. CMV IgG-positive participants also had higher VZV IE62-specific CD4+ IFN-γ-producing T-cell percentages and VZV-specific antibody titres. The protective effect of re-exposure to chickenpox is likely limited, as boosting only occurred in 17-25% of the VZV re-exposed grandparents and for less than one year.
- [Decrease in the incidence of chickenpox in the Community of Madrid after universal childhood immunization. Years 2001-2015]. [Journal Article]
- APAten Primaria 2017 Apr 19
- CONCLUSIONS: There has been a significant decrease in the incidence of cases and of hospital admissions by varicella in all age groups after the recommendation to vaccinate at 15months of age, which is compatible with the effectiveness of a dose and its ability to produce immunity group. The withdrawal of this recommendation between 2014 and 2015 has led to an increase in the incidence.
- Varicella zoster virus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in children using a relatively short duration of acyclovir prophylaxis: A retrospective study. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2017; 96(14):e6546
- Although acyclovir prophylaxis against varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection for ≥1 year is recommended after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the emergence of acyclovir-resistan...
Although acyclovir prophylaxis against varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection for ≥1 year is recommended after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the emergence of acyclovir-resistant viruses and adverse drug effects cannot be ignored. We investigated the cumulative incidence of VZV infection after allogeneic HCT in children receiving a shorter duration of acyclovir prophylaxis than recommended and evaluated the appropriateness of the short duration of acyclovir prophylaxis.Medical records of 217 children who received allogeneic HCT were retrospectively reviewed until a median of 25 months (range = 1-59 months) after HCT. Acyclovir prophylaxis was given for a median of 9 weeks (range = 3-24 weeks) after HCT.VZV infection was diagnosed in 33 (15.2%) children at a median time of 5 months (range = 2-41 months) after HCT. The 1-year and 2-year cumulative incidences of VZV infection after allogeneic HCT were 11.2% and 15.5%, respectively. These incidences were between the previously reported 1-year incidence of 25% to 30% in patients not receiving prophylaxis and 1-year incidence of 4% to 5% in patients receiving ≥1 year duration of prophylaxis. Male sex and older age were significantly associated with VZV infection after allogeneic HCT. Only 1 chickenpox patient experienced severe complications because of VZV infection, and there were no deaths attributable to VZV infection.In conclusion, a shorter duration of acyclovir prophylaxis may be appropriate for children receiving allogeneic HCT, based on the rare occurrence of severe complications because of VZV infection and the expected discomfort because of daily oral medication for a long time.
- Vaccination campaign at a temporary camp for victims of the earthquake in Lorca (Spain). [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Mar 31; :1-8
- Outbreaks in temporary camps are an important risk for the health of the displaced population. The town of Lorca (Murcia, Spain) suffered 2 earthquakes on May 2011 that required the re-housing of 1,4...
Outbreaks in temporary camps are an important risk for the health of the displaced population. The town of Lorca (Murcia, Spain) suffered 2 earthquakes on May 2011 that required the re-housing of 1,424 victims in a temporary camp. Following 4 cases of chickenpox control measures were adopted among the displaced population. These measures included vaccination against chickenpox; due to the existence of cases of measles in adjacent regions, it was decided to offer measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination as well. The immunization campaign was performed during 2 d (3 to 4 d after the first case). The immunity status of 1,041 (73,1%) of the residents was reviewed. Being vaccinated 523 (67%) against chickenpox and MMR, 133 (17%) against only MMR and 124 (16%) against only chickenpox. We consider the action taken was a success, as only 4 additional cases of chickenpox were subsequently recorded in the campsite, being avoidable only one of them. There is a major risk of outbreaks in a disaster situation. Because of this, conducting preventive actions are indicated to avoid doing worse this critical.
- Varicella seroepidemiology in United States air force recruits: A retrospective cohort study comparing immunogenicity of varicella vaccination and natural infection. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2017 Apr 25; 35(18):2351-2357
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite prior vaccination, seroimmunity in a large cohort of young adults unexposed to wild-type VZV failed to meet the estimated threshold for herd immunity. If vaccination in accordance with the current US VZV vaccination schedule is inadequate to maintain herd immunity, young adults not previously exposed to wild-type VZV may be at increased risk for varicella outbreaks.
- ORF7 of Varicella-Zoster Virus Is Required for Viral Cytoplasmic Envelopment in Differentiated Neuronal Cells. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2017 Mar 29
- Although a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine has been used for many years, the neuropathy caused by VZV infection is still a major health concern. ORF7 of VZV has been recognized as a neurotropic ...
Although a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine has been used for many years, the neuropathy caused by VZV infection is still a major health concern. ORF7 of VZV has been recognized as a neurotropic gene in vivo, but its neurovirulent role remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ORF7 deletion on VZV replication cycle at virus entry, genome replication, gene expression, capsid assembly and cytoplasmic envelopment, and transcellular transmission in differentiated neural progenitor cells (dNPCs) and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y (dSY5Y) cells. Our results demonstrate that the ORF7 protein is a component of the tegument layer of VZV virions. Deleting ORF7 did not affect viral entry, viral genome replication or expression of typical viral genes, but clearly impacted cytoplasmic envelopment of VZV capsids resulting in a dramatic increase of envelop-defective particles and a decrease in intact virions. The defect was more severe in differentiated neuronal cells of dNPCs and dSY5Y. ORF7 deletion also impaired transmission of ORF7-deficient virus among the neuronal cells. These results indicate that ORF7 is required for cytoplasmic envelopment of VZV capsids, virus transmission among neuronal cells and probably the neuropathy induced by VZV infection.IMPORTANCE The neurological damage caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is commonly manifested as clinical problems. Thus, identifying viral neurovirulent genes and characterizing their functions are important for relieving VZV related neurological complications. ORF7 has been previously identified as a potential neurotropic gene, but its involvement in VZV replication is unclear. In this study, we found that ORF7 is required for VZV cytoplasmic envelopment in differentiated neuronal cells, and the envelopment deficiency caused by ORF7 deletion results in poor dissemination of VZV among neuronal cells. These findings imply that ORF7 plays a role in neuropathy, highlighting a potential strategy to develop a neurovirulence-attenuated vaccine against chickenpox and herpes zoster, and providing a new target for intervention of neuropathy induced by VZV.
- Epidemiology of varicella in Haidian district, Beijing, China-2007-2015. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2017 Apr 25; 35(18):2365-2371
- CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of varicella has decreased substantially in Haidian district since 2013, with largest decline in children aged 5-9years. The 2-dose varicella vaccination might not lead to increase in incidence in adults. Long-term surveillance is needed to fully evaluate the long-term impact of the 2-dose varicella vaccination.
- Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance inaugural annual report, 2014. [Journal Article]
- CDCommun Dis Intell Q Rep 2016 Sep 30; 40(3):E391-E400
- CONCLUSIONS: PAEDS provides unique policy-relevant data. This is the first of planned PAEDS annual reports to Communicable Diseases Intelligence.
- Severe varicella in persons vaccinated with varicella vaccine (breakthrough varicella): a systematic literature review. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Vaccines 2017; 16(4):391-400
- Varicella vaccines are highly effective at preventing disease, but varicella may occur among vaccinated persons (termed breakthrough varicella). Breakthrough varicella is generally mild, but severe c...
Varicella vaccines are highly effective at preventing disease, but varicella may occur among vaccinated persons (termed breakthrough varicella). Breakthrough varicella is generally mild, but severe cases have been reported. The objective of this review is to describe severe breakthrough varicella. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of articles published during 1974-2016. A total of 34 articles were included in our review: 21 described breakthrough varicella with disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with other organ involvement in addition to skin (none among two-dose vaccinees); 9 described hospitalized breakthrough varicella without mention of other organ involvement in addition to skin (of which 2 reported 4 two-dose vaccinees); and 4 described both. A total of 52-60 unique breakthrough varicella cases with disseminated VZV infection with other organ involvement in addition to skin reported with the following complications, not mutually exclusive: pneumonia (n = 8-9 cases), neurologic (n = 18-24 cases), hematologic (n = 10-11 cases), ocular (n = 5 cases), renal (n = 2 cases), hepatic (n = 3 cases), secondary infection with bacteremia or sepsis (n = 8 cases), and other complication (n = 4 cases). There were 6 cases of fatal breakthrough varicella. Expert commentary: With >31 million doses distributed annually worldwide since 2007, severe breakthrough varicella can occur but they appear to be uncommon.
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- Has VZV epidemiology changed in Italy? Results of a seroprevalence study. [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2017; 13(2):385-390
- The aim of the study was to evaluate if and how varicella prevalence has changed in Italy. In particular a seroprevalence study was performed, comparing it to similar surveys conducted in pre-immuniz...
The aim of the study was to evaluate if and how varicella prevalence has changed in Italy. In particular a seroprevalence study was performed, comparing it to similar surveys conducted in pre-immunization era. During 2013-2014, sera obtained from blood samples taken for diagnostic purposes or routine investigations were collected in collaboration with at least one laboratory/center for each region, following the approval of the Ethics Committee. Data were stratified by sex and age. All samples were processed in a national reference laboratory by an immunoassay with high sensitivity and specificity. Statutory notifications, national hospital discharge database and mortality data related to VZV infection were analyzed as well. A total of 3707 sera were collected and tested. In the studied period both incidence and hospitalization rates decreased and about 5 deaths per year have been registered. The seroprevalence decreased in the first year of life in subjects passively protected by their mother, followed by an increase in the following age classes. The overall antibody prevalence was 84%. The comparison with surveys conducted with the same methodology in 1996-1997 and 2003-2004 showed significant differences in age groups 1-19 y. The study confirms that in Italy VZV infection typically occurs in children. The impact of varicella on Italian population is changing. The comparison between studies performed in different periods shows a significant increase of seropositivity in age class 1 - 4 years, expression of vaccine interventions already adopted in some regions.