- Has VZV epidemiology changed in Italy? Results of a seroprevalence study. [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2016 Dec 27; :1-6
- The aim of the study was to evaluate if and how varicella prevalence has changed in Italy. In particular a seroprevalence study was performed, comparing it to similar surveys conducted in pre-immuniz...
The aim of the study was to evaluate if and how varicella prevalence has changed in Italy. In particular a seroprevalence study was performed, comparing it to similar surveys conducted in pre-immunization era. During 2013-2014, sera obtained from blood samples taken for diagnostic purposes or routine investigations were collected in collaboration with at least one laboratory/center for each region, following the approval of the Ethics Committee. Data were stratified by sex and age. All samples were processed in a national reference laboratory by an immunoassay with high sensitivity and specificity. Statutory notifications, national hospital discharge database and mortality data related to VZV infection were analyzed as well. A total of 3707 sera were collected and tested. In the studied period both incidence and hospitalization rates decreased and about 5 deaths per year have been registered. The seroprevalence decreased in the first year of life in subjects passively protected by their mother, followed by an increase in the following age classes. The overall antibody prevalence was 84%. The comparison with surveys conducted with the same methodology in 1996-1997 and 2003-2004 showed significant differences in age groups 1-19 y. The study confirms that in Italy VZV infection typically occurs in children. The impact of varicella on Italian population is changing. The comparison between studies performed in different periods shows a significant increase of seropositivity in age class 1 - 4 years, expression of vaccine interventions already adopted in some regions.
- How often people google for vaccination: Qualitative and quantitative insights from a systematic search of the web-based activities using Google Trends. [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2016 Dec 16; :1-6
- Nowadays, more and more people surf the Internet seeking health-related information. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can represent an important opportunities in the field of Public ...
Nowadays, more and more people surf the Internet seeking health-related information. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can represent an important opportunities in the field of Public Health and vaccinology. The aim of our current research was to investigate a) how often people search the Internet for vaccination-related information, b) if this search is spontaneous or induced by media, and c) which kind of information is in particular searched. We used Google Trends (GT) for monitoring the interest for preventable infections and related vaccines. When looking for vaccine preventable infectious diseases, vaccine was not a popular topic, with some valuable exceptions, including the vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccines-related queries represented approximately one third of the volumes regarding preventable infections, greatly differing among the vaccines. However, the interest for vaccines is increasing throughout time: in particular, users seek information about possible vaccine-related side-effects. The five most searched vaccines are those against 1) influenza; 2) meningitis; 3) diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus; 4) yellow fever; and 5) chickenpox. ICTs can have a positive influence on parental vaccine-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and vaccination willingness. GT can be used for monitoring the interest for vaccinations and the main information searched.
- Intradermal zoster vaccines: good for the old and the young. [Journal Article]
- BDBr Dent J 2016 Nov 18; 221(10):632
- This 'dose-sparing, and thus cost-sparing, intradermal vaccine' may not only reduce the burden of illness in the elderly population, but also chickenpox in children.
This 'dose-sparing, and thus cost-sparing, intradermal vaccine' may not only reduce the burden of illness in the elderly population, but also chickenpox in children.
- The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2016 Nov 10; 16(1):666
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox vaccination in Sweden.
- Effectiveness of Varicella Vaccination Program in Preventing Laboratory-Confirmed Cases in Children in Seoul, Korea. [Journal Article]
- JKJ Korean Med Sci 2016; 31(12):1897-1901
- A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community...
A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella. We included 537 cases and 537 controls. The overall effectiveness of one dose of varicella vaccination was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI], -17.3-35.6). Of the four licensed varicella vaccines, only one was highly effective (88.9%; 95% CI, 52.1-97.4). The vaccine effectiveness for the other vaccines were 71.4% (95% CI, -37.5-94.1), -5% (95% CI, -61.9-31.9), and -100% (95% CI, -700-50.0). The overall effectiveness of vaccination was 75.8% (95% CI, 22.8-92.4) in the first year after vaccination and decreased thereafter; the effectiveness became -7.2% (95% CI, -130.9-59.2) in the fourth year after vaccination. Further studies are warranted to investigate reduced effectiveness of varicella vaccines in Korea.
- The Glycoprotein B Cytoplasmic Domain Lysine Cluster Is Critical for Varicella-Zoster Virus Cell-Cell Fusion Regulation and Infection. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2017 Jan 01; 91(1)
- The conserved glycoproteins gB and gH-gL are essential for herpesvirus entry and cell-cell fusion induced syncytium formation, a characteristic of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pathology in skin and s...
The conserved glycoproteins gB and gH-gL are essential for herpesvirus entry and cell-cell fusion induced syncytium formation, a characteristic of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pathology in skin and sensory ganglia. VZV syncytium formation, which has been implicated in the painful condition of postherpetic neuralgia, is regulated by the cytoplasmic domains of gB (gBcyt) via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) and gH (gHcyt). A lysine cluster (K894, K897, K898, and K900) in the VZV gBcyt was identified by sequence alignment to be conserved among alphaherpesviruses, suggesting a functional role. Alanine and arginine substitutions were used to determine if the positive charge and susceptibility to posttranslational modifications of these lysines contributed to gB/gH-gL cell-cell fusion. Critically, the positive charge of the lysine residues was necessary for fusion regulation, as alanine substitutions induced a 440% increase in fusion compared to that of the wild-type gBcyt while arginine substitutions had wild-type-like fusion levels in an in vitro gB/gH-gL cell fusion assay. Consistent with these results, the alanine substitutions in the viral genome caused exaggerated syncytium formation, reduced VZV titers (-1.5 log10), and smaller plaques than with the parental Oka (pOka) strain. In contrast, arginine substitutions resulted in syncytia with only 2-fold more nuclei, a -0.5-log10 reduction in titers, and pOka-like plaques. VZV mutants with both an ITIM mutation and either alanine or arginine substitutions had reduced titers and small plaques but differed in syncytium morphology. Thus, effective VZV propagation is dependent on cell-cell fusion regulation by the conserved gBcyt lysine cluster, in addition to the gBcyt ITIM and the gHcyt.
- Dysregulated Glycoprotein B-Mediated Cell-Cell Fusion Disrupts Varicella-Zoster Virus and Host Gene Transcription during Infection. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2017 Jan 01; 91(1)
- The highly conserved herpesvirus glycoprotein complex gB/gH-gL mediates membrane fusion during virion entry and cell-cell fusion. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) characteristically forms multinucleated ...
The highly conserved herpesvirus glycoprotein complex gB/gH-gL mediates membrane fusion during virion entry and cell-cell fusion. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) characteristically forms multinucleated cells, or syncytia, during the infection of human tissues, but little is known about this process. The cytoplasmic domain of VZV gB (gBcyt) has been implicated in cell-cell fusion regulation because a gB[Y881F] substitution causes hyperfusion. gBcyt regulation is necessary for VZV pathogenesis, as the hyperfusogenic mutant gB[Y881F] is severely attenuated in human skin xenografts. In this study, gBcyt-regulated fusion was investigated by comparing melanoma cells infected with wild-type-like VZV or hyperfusogenic mutants. The gB[Y881F] mutant exhibited dramatically accelerated syncytium formation in melanoma cells caused by fusion of infected cells with many uninfected cells, increased cytoskeleton reorganization, and rapid displacement of nuclei to dense central structures compared to pOka using live-cell confocal microscopy. VZV and human transcriptomes were concurrently investigated using whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify viral and cellular responses induced when gBcyt regulation was disrupted by the gB[Y881F] substitution. The expression of four vital VZV genes, ORF61 and the genes for glycoproteins gC, gE, and gI, was significantly reduced at 36 h postinfection for the hyperfusogenic mutants. Importantly, hierarchical clustering demonstrated an association of differential gene expression with dysregulated gBcyt-mediated fusion. A subset of Ras GTPase genes linked to membrane remodeling were upregulated in cells infected with the hyperfusogenic mutants. These data implicate gBcyt in the regulation of gB fusion function that, if unmodulated, triggers cellular processes leading to hyperfusion that attenuates VZV infection.
- [Vaccination status in psoriasis patients on immunosuppressant therapy (including biologics)]. [Journal Article]
- ADAnn Dermatol Venereol 2016 Oct 19
- CONCLUSIONS: This study should help raise awareness among patients and health professionals concerning the new vaccination recommendations for a population particularly at risk of infection.
- Varicella Vaccination of Children With Leukemia Without Interruption of Maintenance Therapy: A Danish Experience. [Journal Article]
- PIPediatr Infect Dis J 2016; 35(11):e348-e352
- CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates that VZV vaccination is feasible and justified in seronegative children with ALL, in countries where VZV vaccination is not part of the national vaccination program.
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- Vaccination Coverage Among Children in Kindergarten - United States, 2015-16 School Year. [Journal Article]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Oct 07; 65(39):1057-1064
- State-mandated vaccination requirements for school entry protect children and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Each school year, federally funded immunization programs (e.g., sta...
State-mandated vaccination requirements for school entry protect children and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Each school year, federally funded immunization programs (e.g., states, territories, jurisdictions) collect and report kindergarten vaccination data to CDC. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), and the estimated number of kindergartners with at least one vaccine exemption in 47 states and DC, during the 2015-16 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.6% for 2 doses of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR); 94.2% for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 94.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine. MMR coverage increased in 32 states during the last year, and 22 states reported coverage ≥95% (2). A total of 45 states and DC had either a grace period allowing students to attend school before providing documentation of vaccination or provisional enrollment that allows undervaccinated students to attend school while completing a catch-up schedule. Among the 23 states that were able to voluntarily report state-level data on grace period or provisional enrollment to CDC, a median of 2.0% of kindergartners were not documented as completely vaccinated and were attending school within a grace period or were provisionally enrolled. The median percentage of kindergartners with an exemption from one or more vaccinations(†) was 1.9%. State and local immunization programs, in cooperation with schools, can improve vaccination coverage by ensuring that all kindergartners are vaccinated during the grace period or provisional enrollment.