- Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Lactobacillus buchneri strains isolated from spoiled, fermented cucumber. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Food Microbiol 2018 May 09; 280:46-56
- Lactobacillus buchneri is a Gram-positive, obligate heterofermentative, facultative anaerobe commonly affiliated with spoilage of food products. Notably, L. buchneri is able to metabolize lactic acid...
Lactobacillus buchneri is a Gram-positive, obligate heterofermentative, facultative anaerobe commonly affiliated with spoilage of food products. Notably, L. buchneri is able to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Although beneficial to the silage industry, this metabolic capability is detrimental to preservation of cucumbers by fermentation. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of L. buchneri purified from both industrial and experimental fermented cucumber after the onset of secondary fermentation. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization included 16S rRNA sequencing, DiversiLab® rep-PCR, colony morphology, API 50 CH carbohydrate analysis, and ability to degrade lactic acid in modified MRS and fermented cucumber media. Distinct groups of isolates were identified with differing colony morphologies that varied in color (translucent white to opaque yellow), diameter (1 mm-11 mm), and shape (umbonate, flat, circular or irregular). Growth rates in MRS revealed strain differences, and a wide spectrum of carbon source utilization was observed. Some strains were able to ferment as many as 21 of 49 tested carbon sources, including inulin, fucose, gentiobiose, lactose, mannitol, potassium ketogluconate, saccharose, raffinose, galactose, and xylose, while others metabolized as few as eight carbohydrates as the sole source of carbon. All isolates degraded lactic acid in both fermented cucumber medium and modified MRS, but exhibited differences in the rate and extent of lactate degradation. Isolates clustered into eight distinct groups based on rep-PCR fingerprints with 20 of 36 of the isolates exhibiting >97% similarity. Although isolated from similar environmental niches, significant phenotypic and genotypic diversity was found among the L. buchneri cultures. A collection of unique L. buchneri strains was identified and characterized, providing the basis for further analysis of metabolic and genomic capabilities of this species to enable control of lactic acid degradation in fermented plant materials.
- Surgeon-performed ultrasound for the assessment of parotid masses. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Otolaryngol 2018 Apr 16
- CONCLUSIONS: SP-US can help predict parotid mass benignity/malignancy, positive margin risk, and tumor relation to FN. SP-US may be used as the sole imaging in cytologically benign tumors unless the deep tumor extent cannot be identified.
- A case of benign osteogenic tumour in Homo naledi: Evidence for peripheral osteoma in the U.W. 101-1142 mandible. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Paleopathol 2017 May 20
- The reported incidence of neoplasia in the extinct hominin record is rare. We describe here the first palaeopathological analysis of an osteogenic lesion in the extinct hominin Homo naledi from Dinal...
The reported incidence of neoplasia in the extinct hominin record is rare. We describe here the first palaeopathological analysis of an osteogenic lesion in the extinct hominin Homo naledi from Dinaledi Cave (Rising Star), South Africa. The lesion presented as an irregular bony growth, found on the right lingual surface of the body of the adult mandible U.W. 101-1142. The growth was macroscopically evaluated and internally imaged using micro-focus x-ray computed tomography (μCT). A detailed description and differential diagnosis were undertaken using gross and micromorphology, and we conclude that the most probable diagnosis is peripheral osteoma - a benign osteogenic neoplasia. These tumours are cryptic in clinical expression, though they may present localised discomfort and swelling. It has been suggested that muscle traction may play a role in the development and expression of these tumours. The impact of this lesion on the individual affected is unknown. This study adds to the growing corpus of palaeopathological data from the South African fossil record, which suggests that the incidence of neoplastic disease in deep prehistory was more prevalent than traditionally accepted. The study also highlights the utility of micro-computed tomography in assisting accurate diagnoses of ancient pathologies.
- New evidence of a rhythmic priming effect that enhances grammaticality judgments in children. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Child Psychol 2018 May 16
- Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the...
Musical rhythm and the grammatical structure of language share a surprising number of characteristics that may be intrinsically related in child development. The current study aimed to understand the potential influence of musical rhythmic priming on subsequent spoken grammar task performance in children with typical development who were native speakers of English. Participants (ages 5-8 years) listened to rhythmically regular and irregular musical sequences (within-participants design) followed by blocks of grammatically correct and incorrect sentences upon which they were asked to perform a grammaticality judgment task. Rhythmically regular musical sequences improved performance in grammaticality judgment compared with rhythmically irregular musical sequences. No such effect of rhythmic priming was found in two nonlinguistic control tasks, suggesting a neural overlap between rhythm processing and mechanisms recruited during grammar processing. These findings build on previous research investigating the effect of rhythmic priming by extending the paradigm to a different language, testing a younger population, and employing nonlanguage control tasks. These findings of an immediate influence of rhythm on grammar states (temporarily augmented grammaticality judgment performance) also converge with previous findings of associations between rhythm and grammar traits (stable generalized grammar abilities) in children. Taken together, the results of this study provide additional evidence for shared neural processing for language and music and warrant future investigations of potentially beneficial effects of innovative musical material on language processing.
- Prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnancy: what do pregnant women and health care workers in East India know and do about it? [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2018 May 18; 17(1):207
- CONCLUSIONS: Understanding of malaria varied as a concern for pregnant women, continued use of unproven malaria prevention and treatment strategies was evident in this population in India. These results highlight the need to educate both pregnant women and HCWs about effective malaria methods to protect pregnant women and their babies from malaria.
- Diagnostic performance of ATA, BTA and TIRADS sonographic patterns in the predication of malignancy in histologically proven thyroid nodules. [Journal Article]
- SMSingapore Med J 2018 May 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that sonographic patterns outlined by the three guidelines have high sensitivity and NPV. Although isolated suspicious US features cannot predict malignancy risk, they should be considered when risk stratifying nodules that do not fit into particular sonographic patterns based on current guidelines.
- Genetic Analyses of Elys Mutations in Drosophila Show Maternal-Effect Lethality and Interactions with Nucleoporin Genes. [Journal Article]
- GG3 (Bethesda) 2018 May 18
- ELYS determines the subcellular localizations of Nucleoporins (Nups) during interphase and mitosis. We made loss-of-function mutations of Elys in Drosophila melanogaster and found that ELYS is dispen...
ELYS determines the subcellular localizations of Nucleoporins (Nups) during interphase and mitosis. We made loss-of-function mutations of Elys in Drosophila melanogaster and found that ELYS is dispensable for zygotic viability and male fertility but the maternal supply is necessary for embryonic development. Subsequent to fertilization, mitotic progression of the embryos produced by the mutant females is severely disrupted at the first cleavage division, accompanied by irregular behavior of mitotic centrosomes. The Nup160 introgression from D. simulans shows close resemblance to that of the Elys mutations, suggesting a common role for those proteins in the first cleavage division. Our genetic experiments indicated critical interactions between ELYS and three Nup107-160 subcomplex components; hemizygotes of either Nup37, Nup96 or Nup160 were lethal in the genetic background of the Elys mutation. Not only Nup96 and Nup160 but also Nup37 of D. simulans behave as recessive hybrid incompatibility genes with D. melanogaster An evolutionary analysis indicated positive natural selection in the ELYS-like domain of ELYS. Here we propose that genetic incompatibility between Elys and Nups may lead to reproductive isolation between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, although direct evidence is necessary.
- Preoperative prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma with IVIM diffusion-weighted MR imaging and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(5):e0197488
- Microvascular invasion (MVI) is regarded as one of the independent risk factors for recurrence and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The presence of MVI in HCCs was evaluated on the b...
Microvascular invasion (MVI) is regarded as one of the independent risk factors for recurrence and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The presence of MVI in HCCs was evaluated on the basis of pathological reports of surgical specimens and was defined as tumor within a vascular space lined by endothelium that was visible only on microscopy. The aim of the study was to investigate the usefulness of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in predicting MVI of HCC. Preoperative IVIM DW imaging and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of 51 patients were analyzed. Standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), D (the true diffusion coefficient), D* (the pseudodiffusion coefficient) and f (the perfusion fraction), relative enhancement (RE) and radiological features were evaluated and analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed that HCCs with MVI had a higher portion of an irregular tumor shape than HCCs without MVI (p = 0.009), the Standard ADC, D value were significantly lower in HCCs with MVI (p = 0.022, p = 0.007, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that an irregular shape (p = 0.012) and D value ≤ 1.16×10-3mm2/sec (p = 0.048) were independent predictors for MVI. Combining the two factors of an irregular shape and D value, a sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 63.6% for predicting MVI was obtained. In conclusion, we found that an irregular shape and D value ≤ 1.16×10-3mm2/sec may suggest the presence of MVI in HCCs.
- Crestal endoscopic approach for evaluating sinus membrane elevation technique. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Implant Dent 2018 May 17; 4(1):15
- CONCLUSIONS: Crestal endoscopic access gives better direct vision to the membrane than the induced opening in the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. Moreover, it uses the same prepared osteotomy site without doing any extra procedures. Perforation depends on the thickness of sinus lining and its ability to stretch during elevation. Intact crestal sinus floor elevation can never be guaranteed under endoscopic monitoring especially with thin irregular membranes.
New Search Next
- [Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection and effect of albendazole treatment among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2018 Feb 22; 30(2):219-221
- CONCLUSIONS: The infection rate of C. sinensis among residents in the two communities of Zhongshan City is high, especially among the males and aged people. The effect of albendazole is good in the treatment of C. sinensis infection. In the future, the general survey and treatment should be strengthened in order to lower the infection rate.