- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Trichomonas vaginalis is among the most common causes of protozoal infections in the United States, and it is also a common cause of symptomatic vaginitis in women. It is a motile organism that live...
Trichomonas vaginalis is among the most common causes of protozoal infections in the United States, and it is also a common cause of symptomatic vaginitis in women. It is a motile organism that lives in the lower genitourinary tract of females and the prostate and urethra of men. Often, men inhabited by T. vaginalis are asymptomatic. When considering other non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STI), Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent in the United States.
- Genital Tract Pathology in Female Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): a Retrospective Study of 655 Post-mortem and 64 Biopsy Cases. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Comp Pathol 2018; 165:13-22
- Disorders of the female genital tract are among the most common disorders in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus); however, knowledge of many aspects of these disorders is sparse, especially regarding t...
Disorders of the female genital tract are among the most common disorders in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus); however, knowledge of many aspects of these disorders is sparse, especially regarding their incidence and age distribution. Ovarian cysts, as the most common genital tract disorder in guinea pigs, have been investigated in detail; however, information on the nature of these cysts is inconsistent. The present study reviewed genital tract disorders occurring within 655 full post-mortem examinations of intact female pet guinea pigs and 64 female genital tract biopsies examined over a 22.5 year period. Age distribution was determined from 550 post-mortem examinations of animals of known age. Genital tract disorders were found in 295 post-mortem examinations (45.0%) in animals with a median age of 52 months. Additionally, disorders were found in all genital tract biopsy samples from guinea pigs with a median age of 48 months. The incidence of genital tract diseases increased from 1.5% in guinea pigs ≤6 months of age to up to 77.8% in animals >6 years of age. Ovarian cysts were the most common genital tract disorder, found in 245 of the 655 post-mortem cases (37.4%) and 38 of 43 ovarian biopsy samples (88.4%). The incidence of ovarian cysts increased with advancing age, reaching 75.6% in animals >6 years. In 119 cases, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed cystic rete ovarii as the only cyst type. A Fallopian tube adenoma was found in a single case, so disorders of the Fallopian tube should be considered rare. Uterine disorders were diagnosed in 17.4% of the post-mortem examinations and 98.1% of uterine biopsy samples. Uterine neoplasia, hyperplasia and inflammation were common, but occurred at different ages. The incidence of uterine neoplasia and hyperplasia was higher in older animals (>15% in guinea pigs >6 years), while the incidence of uterine inflammation was the highest (17.9%) in animals aged 7-12 months. An association between ovarian cysts and uterine neoplasia or hyperplasia was not evident. Vaginal disorders were rare and included leiomyoma, polyps and vaginitis.
- Intravaginal Device-Type and Treatment-Length for Ovine Estrus Synchronization Modify Vaginal Mucus and Microbiota and Affect Fertility. [Journal Article]
- AAnimals (Basel) 2018 Nov 29; 8(12)
- Induction and synchronization of estrus and ovulation in sheep is based on intravaginal progestagen-impregnated polyurethane sponges or progesterone-loaded silicon-based devices (CIDR), in either sho...
Induction and synchronization of estrus and ovulation in sheep is based on intravaginal progestagen-impregnated polyurethane sponges or progesterone-loaded silicon-based devices (CIDR), in either short- (6⁻7 days) or long-term (12⁻14 days) protocols. Bearing in mind that the use of intravaginal sponges in long-term protocols has been related to the presence of vaginitis at removal, we compared the effects of sponges and CIDRs, maintained during either 7 or 14 days, on vaginal features (characteristics of vaginal mucus discharge, pH and microbiota) and fertility under field conditions. Almost all the ewes treated with intravaginal sponges showed vaginal discharge at device withdrawal, which was purulent and/or bloody in around 15% and 80% of the females treated for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The vaginal pH and microbiota changed in both groups when compared to control sheep, especially in ewes treated for 14 days, which showed a pH value around 8 and a higher incidence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, independently of the length of the treatment, only around 15⁻20% of the sheep treated with CIDRs evidenced vaginal discharge (p < 0.00005 when compared to sponge groups), and such discharge was scarce, clear, and showed no changes in vaginal pH and microbiota when compared to control sheep. Fertility yields were associated with vaginal features, being higher in both short-term treatments (75%) and the long-term CIDR-based treatment (70%) than in the long-term sponge-based treatment (45%).
- Intralesional and subcutaneous application of Viscum album L. (European mistletoe) extract in cervical carcinoma in situ: A CARE compliant case report. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(48):e13420
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on complete remission of cervical CIS after intralesional and subcutaneous injection with VAE. Prospective studies should evaluate to what degree the treatment effect is reproducible.
- Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Surfactant Lipid in the Vaginal Mucosa: A Pilot Study. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Low Genit Tract Dis 2018 Nov 27
- CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study in healthy women demonstrates that calfactant reduces proinflammatory cytokines and increases anti-inflammatory cytokines in the vagina. We propose that calfactant may be an effective vaginal anti-inflammatory therapy for inflammatory vaginitis and similar disorders for which current therapy is ineffective.
- Device-based treatment for vaginal wellness. [Journal Article]
- SCSemin Cutan Med Surg 2018; 37(4):226-232
- Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), encompassing the disorders of atrophic vaginitis, urinary incontinence, and pelvic prolapse, affects the majority of postmenopausal women, as well as patien...
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), encompassing the disorders of atrophic vaginitis, urinary incontinence, and pelvic prolapse, affects the majority of postmenopausal women, as well as patients who are undergoing breast cancer treatement, post-ovarectomy, post-radiation, and breast-feeding. There is a need for better treatment options for these common conditions that adversely affect physical function and quality of life and that are often underserved by existing options. Lasers have been used to treat genitourinary tissue for over 40 years, and over the past decade, several lasers and radiofrequency devices have been developed and clinically tested for the treatment of GSM, with an accumulating body of evidence demonstrating their safety and efficacy. Fractional lasers, including carbon dioxide, erbium: YAG and hybrid technologies, as well as monopolar radiofrequency devices, work by resurfacing and/or stimulating via heat the vaginal lining resulting in a re-epithelialization, neovascularization, and remodeling of the vaginal tissue from an atrophic postmenopausal state to a thickened, glycogen-rich and well-vascularized state similar to premenopausal vaginal lining. These changes are correlated clinically with improved function on a variety of validated vaginal health scales and urinary incontinence tests. Currently cleared for general application to genitourinary tissue, clinical trials are underway for FDA clearance or approval for specific GSM indications.
- Aerobic vaginitis in late pregnancy and outcomes of pregnancy. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Nov 22
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors and pregnancy outcomes for aerobic vaginitis (AV) in late pregnancy. A total of 624 pregnant women who were treated in the perinatal unit...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors and pregnancy outcomes for aerobic vaginitis (AV) in late pregnancy. A total of 624 pregnant women who were treated in the perinatal unit at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and 365 nonpregnant women who were evaluated at a health management center from January 2015 to June 2016 were recruited for this case-control study. A questionnaire covering personal hygiene habits and sociodemographic factors was administered to pregnant women to analyze risk factors for AV. Bacterial vaginosis, AV, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and Trichomonas vaginitis were scored according to standardized definitions. Pregnancy outcomes were followed up and recorded. The chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for statistical evaluation. The prevalence of vaginal infection in pregnant and nonpregnant women were 27.9% and 15.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). AV was identified more frequently in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (4.2% vs. 1.4%; P < 0.05). A history of vaginal infection within 1 year (odds ratio [OR] = 3.219, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.103-9.346) and external hemorrhoids (OR = 11.233, 95% CI 4.647-27.155) were independent risk factors for AV during pregnancy. A higher incidence of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) was significantly associated with AV (P < 0.05). AV is common in late pregnancy. Clinicians should pay more attention to vaginal microbiota evaluations during pregnancy.
- Calophyllum inophyllum in vaginitis treatment: Stimulated by electroporation with an in vitro approach. [Journal Article]
- ACAdv Clin Exp Med 2018 Nov 22
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of this extract (at concentrations indicated by the studies presented here) stimulates the healing processes (increased expression of collagen type III), and has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiseptic qualities.
- Application of conjugated estrogen cream in the treatment of postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis. [Journal Article]
- PJPak J Pharm Sci 2018; 31(5(Special)):2283-2286
- To observe and analyze the effect of conjugated estrogen cream in the treatment of postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis. The 160 patients clearly diagnosed with postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis and tre...
To observe and analyze the effect of conjugated estrogen cream in the treatment of postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis. The 160 patients clearly diagnosed with postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis and treated in our hospital were selected as subjects and divided into study group and reference group with equal number of cases. The reference group was treated with compound metronidazole suppository, while the study group was treated with conjugated estrogen cream. The treatment efficacy of the two groups was compared and observed. Comparison of estradiol and folliclestimulating hormone levels after treatment in the two groups show that the study group has obvious advantage over the reference group, p<0.05; comparison of vagina cleanliness in the two groups after treatment shows the study group is significantly superior to the reference group, p<0.05; comparison of incidence of adverse reactions in the two groups shows that the study group has lower incidence, with statistical significance in comparison between the groups, p<0.05. Treatment of postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis with combination of conjugated estrogen cream and compound metronidazole suppository can achieve good results with high safety and reliability.
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- [Interaction between vaginal micro-environment alterations and HPV16 infection in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Nov 10; 39(11):1486-1490
- Objective: To explore the effect of vaginal micro-environment alterations and HPV16 infection and their interaction in the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods: The participan...
Objective: To explore the effect of vaginal micro-environment alterations and HPV16 infection and their interaction in the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods: The participants of this study came from the cervical lesions study cohort in Shanxi province, including 623 women with normal cervical (NC), 303 patients with pathogenically diagnosed low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅠ) and 93 patients with pathogenically diagnosed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅡ/Ⅲ). The data of the demographic characteristics of the study subjects and factors related to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were collected, and HPV16 infection were detected by using flow-through hybridization technology and H(2)O(2), β-glucuronidase, clotting enzyme, neuraminidase and leucocyte esterase in vaginal secretions were detected by using the combined detection kit of aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. pH value and vaginal cleanliness were also detected at the same time. The database was established and analyzed by SPSS statistical software (version 22.0). Results: The HPV16 infection rate (trend χ(2)=55.45, P<0.001) and the abnormal rates of H(2)O(2) (trend χ(2)=26.19, P<0.001), pH (trend χ(2)=5.06, P=0.024), vaginal cleanliness (trend χ(2)=19.55, P<0.001), β-glucuronidase (trend χ(2)=17.52, P<0.001) and neuraminidase (trend χ(2)=14.90, P<0.001) increased gradually along with the severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, but the abnormal rates of clotting enzyme and leucocyte esterase showed no same trend. The results of GMDR model analysis showed that there was interaction between HPV16 infection and abnormalities of H(2)O(2), β-glucuronidase, clotting enzyme and neuraminidase in CINⅠ group, and the interaction between HPV16 infection and the abnormalities of vaginal cleanliness, H(2)O(2), β-glucuronidase and neuraminidase in CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the vaginal micro-environment alterations and HPV16 infection could increase the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and they might have an important synergistic effect in the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.