- Clindamycin-induced Maculopapular Exanthema with Preferential Involvement of Striae Distensae: A Koebner phenomenon? [Journal Article]
- ADActa Dermatovenerol Croat 2018; 26(1):61-63
- Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, ...
Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, although hypersensitivity syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have also been reported (1). We report the case of a patient with a maculopapular rash triggered by clindamycin who developed cutaneous lesions on striae distensae (SD). A 47-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for pruritic cutaneous lesions which had started 6 days earlier. Her past clinical history included hypertension, hypothyroidism, hyperuricemia, cholecystectomy, caesarean section, and endometriosis-related abdominal surgery, and she was taking levothyroxine, allopurinol, imidapril, and omeprazole. The skin rash first developed on her neck and back on the 3rd day of clindamycin oral treatment (300 mg every 6 hours), which was prescribed as antibiotic prophylaxis for a tooth implant. General malaise (but not fever) was also reported. Physical examination revealed an erythematous maculopapular eruption symmetrically distributed on the neck, abdomen, and back (Figure 1, A), with isolated lesions involving the proximal upper and lower limbs (Figure 1, B). There was a striking vertical distribution of skin lesions along the SD on the lateral sides of the abdomen (Figure 1, C). No mucosal involvement was found, and laboratory studies showed no abnormalities. Clindamycin withdrawal was followed by prescription of a course of oral deflazacort, starting at 30 mg daily and tapering down during a 9-day period. On the 5th day of treatment, the rash had almost cleared with minimal desquamation (Figure 1, D). Eight weeks after clearance of the skin rash, informed consent was obtained in order to perform an allergological evaluation of clindamycin, including prick and intradermal (ID) tests on the forearm and patch tests on the upper back (2). For patch testing, powder of the commercial capsules (Dalacin®) was diluted in petrolatum (pet.) and water (aq.), resulting in a final 1% clindamycin dilution. Parenteral clindamycin preparations were used in therapeutic concentrations for prick tests (150 mg/mL) and dilutions in saline of 1/100 and 1/10 for the ID test. Other authors have reported that these concentrations do not seem to irritate the skin (3-6). Prick and ID tests were assessed after 20 min and 24 hours, respectively. Patch tests were removed after the 2nd day, and late reactions were evaluated on day 2 and day 4. Prick and ID test results after 20 min were negative. Late results of ID tests with clindamycin (1.5 and 15 mg/mL) were positive: erythematous infiltrated papules about 7×7 mm and 18×15 mm were observed at 24 hours and lasted until the 8th day. Patch tests with clindamycin 1% in pet. and 1% in aq. were also positive (+ on day 2 and day 4). Positive late skin tests suggested delayed-type non-IgE-mediated allergic clindamycin hypersensitivity. Oral challenge tests are considered to be the gold standard to establish or exclude drug hypersensitivity. Due to the positive result of late skin test to clindamycin, oral challenge was not performed in our patient (3,5). The Koebner isomorphic phenomenon has been described in cutaneous reactions induced by drugs, such as antibiotics and chemotherapy. Chronic pressure on the skin is probably involved in the onset of skin lesions in hand-foot eruptions induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib and sutinib). Solar exposure and cutaneous trauma also seem to play a role in the location of papulopustular eruptions caused by endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors (erlotinib) (7). More frequent involvement in traumatized skin and surgical scars has been reported in the context of linear IgA bullous dermatosis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis triggered by vancomycin and cefuroxime (8). SD are produced by non-penetrating physical trauma, similar to friction or pressure. Different dermatoses can develop along SD skin lesions (like plaque psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, lichen planus, vitiligo, discoid lupus erythematosus, lupus vasculitis, urticarial vasculitis, or chronic graft-versus-host disease) (9). Bevacizumab, etretinate, and corticosteroid-induced ulcers, hyperpigmentation caused by bleomycin, and urticariform lesions triggered by diclofenac are examples of different type of drug-induced abnormalities involving SD (10). In summary, we identified clindamycin as the cause of the cutaneous reactions that occurred in our patient on the basis of the results of the skin tests and clinical history. Our findings confirmed a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, possibly involving a T-cell-mediated immunologic mechanism. Intradermal and patch tests were found to be useful in order to confirm the diagnosis (4,5). We did not find reports in the literature of drug-induced cutaneous eruptions along the SD as a manifestation of a Koebner phenomenon. Clinical underreporting of this phenomenon could explain the scarce literature on this cutaneous adverse reaction.
- Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis and Desensitization to High-dose Methotrexate in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- CLClin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018; 18(5):e197-e200
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Leukocytoclastic vasculitis, also known as “hypersensitivity vasculitis” is a histopathologic diagnosis given to cutaneous, small vessel vasculitis, specifically a vasculitis of the dermal post-capil...
Leukocytoclastic vasculitis, also known as “hypersensitivity vasculitis” is a histopathologic diagnosis given to cutaneous, small vessel vasculitis, specifically a vasculitis of the dermal post-capillary venules. The vasculitis is most often idiopathic. However, there are many other triggers including, but not limited to, infections, neoplasms, inflammatory disorders, and drug-induced vasculitis. Key clinical features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis include palpable purpura, lower extremity location, small vessel involvement, and extracutaneous involvement in approximately 30% of patients. If leukocytoclastic vasculitis is suspected, a punch biopsy should be performed with direct immunofluorescence studies. If no systemic symptoms are present, laboratory testing including ESR, complete blood count (CBC), basic metabolic panel, liver function tests, and urinalysis should be done as well. If there is a concern for systemic involvement, a more extensive workup can be performed. Most cases of cutaneous, small vessel vasculitis are self-limited with 90% resolving in weeks to months of onset. Otherwise, treatment depends on the severity of disease and can range from an oral corticosteroid taper to various steroid-sparing agents.
- Complete resolution of erythema elevatum diutinum using oral sulfasalazine. [Case Reports]
- DODermatol Online J 2017 Oct 15; 23(10)
- Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a rare, chronic small-vessel vasculitis that presents as firm, red, violaceous, or brown papules and nodules on the extensor surfaces of the limbs. Oral dapsone is...
Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a rare, chronic small-vessel vasculitis that presents as firm, red, violaceous, or brown papules and nodules on the extensor surfaces of the limbs. Oral dapsone is considered first-line therapy for EED; in the current case report, a patient presenting with EED began dapsone treatment and symptoms subsided within two weeks. Seven months later, the patient became pregnant and stopped dapsone owing to her concerns with dapsone use during pregnancy, resulting in recurrence of EED symptoms. We present a novel treatment approach with oral sulfasalazine, which was given to the patient in lieu of dapsone and resulted in complete resolution of EED symptoms.
- A case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis caused by novel anticoagulant rivaroxaban. [Case Reports]
- DODermatol Online J 2017 Nov 15; 23(11)
- Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) is type of small vessel vasculitis that commonly presents as palpable purpura involving the lower extremities and buttocks. Approximately half of cases are...
Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) is type of small vessel vasculitis that commonly presents as palpable purpura involving the lower extremities and buttocks. Approximately half of cases are idiopathic, but the disease may be triggered by infection, drug reaction, inflammatory disease, or other causes. We report a case of leukocytoclastic vasculitis secondary to the novel anticoagulant rivaroxaban (Xarelto®).
- Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitis Syndrome With Crescentic Glomerulonephritis. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Med Sci 2018; 355(2):195-200
- Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ system involvement, including renal disease, with low complement levels. We repor...
Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ system involvement, including renal disease, with low complement levels. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, diarrhea, macular rash and abdominal pain with acute renal failure leading to end-stage kidney disease. Laboratory results showed hematuria, nephrotic range proteinuria, worsening creatinine and low C1q levels. Left kidney biopsy showed proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. She was treated with 6 months of intravenous cyclophosphamide, followed by 2 doses of intravenous rituximab (1g each), thereafter maintained on mycophenolate mofetil and glucocorticoid-based therapy. She experienced a full recovery of renal function after 12 months of dialysis dependence. Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome with crescentic glomerulonephritis is a rare disease with only 5 other reported cases in literature. In our case, we document a delayed but excellent renal recovery during a 2-year follow-up.
- Non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of rivaroxaban. [Journal Article]
- AMArch Med Sci Atheroscler Dis 2017; 2:e108-e112
- The direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban is useful in various indications that include venous deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis/treatment after knee/hip replacement surgery and prevention of stroke i...
The direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban is useful in various indications that include venous deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis/treatment after knee/hip replacement surgery and prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Its mechanism of action has been mostly associated with hemorrhage-related adverse effects; thus a number of non-hemorrhage-related adverse effects of the drug have received less attention or go unrecognized. These adverse effects mainly include liver injury, hypersensitivity reactions, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and hair loss. Clinicians should be aware of these rare adverse reactions and advise their patients to contact them as soon as they observe any unexpected clinical response.
- Leukocytoclastic vasculitis complicating cisplatin + radiation treatment for laryngeal cancer: a case report. [Case Reports]
- BCBMC Cancer 2017 12 06; 17(1):831
- CONCLUSIONS: Cisplatin can induce leukocytoclastic vasculitis and clinicians should be aware of this potential effect for better case management and diagnosis.
- Outline of guidelines for the management of vasculitis and vascular disorders in Japan, 2016 revised edition. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dermatol 2018; 45(2):122-127
- The proposal by the 1994 International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference on the Nomenclature of Systemic Vasculitides (CHCC1994) and by the CHCC2012 markedly influenced the classification and way of c...
The proposal by the 1994 International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference on the Nomenclature of Systemic Vasculitides (CHCC1994) and by the CHCC2012 markedly influenced the classification and way of considering cutaneous vasculitis. In the proposal by the CHCC1994, hypersensitivity angiitis was defined as an equivalent pathological condition to microscopic polyangiitis or cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis (CLA), and it was not adopted as a disease name. However, CLA which was positioned as a type of small-vessel vasculitis is only a pathological name. In the proposal by the CHCC2012, a new category of single-organ vasculitis included CLA and cutaneous arteritis. Vasculitis allergica cutis (Ruiter) corresponded to CLA and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa corresponded to cutaneous arteritis. The Japanese Dermatological Association (JDA) prepared guidelines for the management of vasculitis and vascular disorders in 2008 based on the proposal by the CHCC1994 and their original viewpoint of dermatology. The JDA subsequently revised the 2008 edition guidelines in 2016 following publication of the proposal of the CHCC2012 in Japanese. We presented the outline of the 2016 edition guidelines and propose a treatment algorithm for primary vasculitides based on the evaluation of the cutaneous symptoms for cases suspected as primary cutaneous vasculitides, which integrates the 2008 JDA guideline and CHCC2012 classification. This is the secondary English version of the original Japanese manuscript for the guideline for management of vasculitis and vascular disorders published in the Japanese Journal of Dermatology 127(3); 299-415, 2017.
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- Vancomycin-Induced Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis and Acute Renal Failure Due to Tubulointerstitial Nephritis. [Case Reports]
- AJAm J Case Rep 2017 Sep 25; 18:1024-1027
- CONCLUSIONS: Although skin reactions associated with drug therapy are common, vancomycin-associated dermal vasculitis is rare. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is also a rare association with vancomycin treatment. This case report has highlighted that patients being treated with intravenous vancomycin should be carefully observed for acute skin rashes and deterioration in renal function, which can be managed by ceasing treatment with vancomycin, steroid challenge, and preventing future exposure to similar antimicrobial agents.