- Recovery of Kidney Function in Children Treated with Maintenance Dialysis. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Sep 20
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a recovery rate of 2% within 2 years after dialysis initiation in a large cohort of pediatric patients on maintenance dialysis. There is a clinically important chance of recovery in patients on dialysis with vasculitis, ischemic kidney failure, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which should be considered when planning kidney transplantation in these children.
- Primary angiitis of the CNS and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: A comparative study. [Journal Article]
- NeurNeurology 2018 Sep 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that careful analysis of clinical context, headache features, and patterns of brain lesions can distinguish PACNS and RCVS within the first few days of admission in most cases. However, diagnosis remains challenging in a few cases.
- Positron emission tomography and reframing vasculitis as a spectrum of disease when investigating a patient with a fever of unknown origin. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Sep 19; 2018
- A retired businessman presented to the infectious diseases department with a history of ongoing fevers and myalgia and raised inflammatory markers. This continued despite adequate antibiotic treatmen...
A retired businessman presented to the infectious diseases department with a history of ongoing fevers and myalgia and raised inflammatory markers. This continued despite adequate antibiotic treatment of an epididymo-orchitis. Extensive investigations, including bone marrow and liver biopsies and a positron emission tomography, did not reveal a cause but showed reactive change in the bone marrow. Later, he developed a vasculitic rash and vision loss due to non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. High-dose steroids were immediately initiated. A temporal artery biopsy was performed, which confirmed a healing large vessel vasculitis, possibly giant cell arteritis. He has responded very well to therapy. We must better appreciate the limitations of positron emission tomography in investigating a fever of unknown origin. The case also encourages awareness of autoimmune disorders as the leading category of causative diseases for this in older age groups.
- Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitides. [Review]
- RIRheumatol Int 2018 Sep 17
- There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for large-vessel vasculitides (LVV), including giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK). Currently, available classification crite...
There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for large-vessel vasculitides (LVV), including giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK). Currently, available classification criteria cannot be used for the diagnosis of GCA and TAK. Early diagnosis of these two diseases is quite challenging in clinical practice and may be accomplished only by combining the patient symptoms, physical examination findings, blood test results, imaging findings, and biopsy results, if available. Awareness of red flags which lead the clinician to investigate TAK in a young patient with persistent systemic inflammation is helpful for the early diagnosis. It should be noted that clinical presentation may be highly variable in a subgroup of GCA patients with predominant large-vessel involvement (LVI) and without prominent cranial symptoms. Imaging modalities are especially helpful for the diagnosis of this subgroup. Differential diagnosis between older patients with TAK and this subgroup of GCA patients presenting with LVI may be difficult. Various pathologies may mimic LVV either by causing systemic inflammation and constitutional symptoms, or by causing lumen narrowing with or without aneurysm formation in the aorta and its branches. Differential diagnosis of aortitis is crucial. Infectious aortitis including mycotic aneurysms due to septicemia or endocarditis, as well as causes such as syphilis and mycobacterial infections should always be excluded. On the other hand, the presence of non-infectious aortitis is not unique for TAK and GCA. It should be noted that aortitis, other large-vessel involvement or both, may occasionally be seen in various other autoimmune pathologies including ANCA-positive vasculitides, Behçet's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis, and Sjögren's syndrome. Besides, aortitis may be idiopathic and isolated. Atherosclerosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of LVV. Other pathologies which may mimic LVV include, but not limited to, congenital causes of aortic coarctation and middle aortic syndrome, immunoglobulin G4-related disease, and hereditary disorders of connective tissue such as Marfan syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome.
- Inflammatory disorders associated with trisomy 8-myelodysplastic syndromes: French retrospective case-control study. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Haematol 2018 Sep 15
- CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of IADs associated with trisomy 8-positive MDS/MPN is dominated by Behçet's-like disease. Steroid therapy is effective, but mostly sparing therapies are necessary. Azacytidine could be an effective alternative. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in immunoglobulin A-associated vasculitis. [Letter]
- NNNeurol Neurochir Pol 2018 Sep 05
- [Sweet syndrome in a 5-year-old girl]. [Journal Article]
- AAArch Argent Pediatr 2018 Oct 01; 116(5):e671-e674
- Sweet syndrome, also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is an infrequent dermatological disorder in pediatrics. Clinically it is characterized by the development of papular and/or nodula...
Sweet syndrome, also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is an infrequent dermatological disorder in pediatrics. Clinically it is characterized by the development of papular and/or nodular lesions of a reddish-violet coloration with local hypersensitivity. We report the case of a 5-year-old female who consulted 1 month after the appearance of the lesion in the nasal arch. A skin biopsy was performed and it reported diffuse dermatitis with a predominance of neutrophil polymorphonuclear cells, epidermal necrosis and absence of vasculitis. No microorganisms were identified. It was considered compatible with Sweet syndrome. It is important to consider this diagnosis in similar clinical cases and other more frequent diagnoses must be ruled out first.
- Targeted Immunotherapy Strategies in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis. [Journal Article]
- JBJoint Bone Spine 2018 Sep 07
- Targeted immunotherapy is substantially improving the management of ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), which include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic pol...
Targeted immunotherapy is substantially improving the management of ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV), which include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss syndrome). This article reviews the current role for targeted immunotherapy in AAV, its validated indications, and avenues for further development. Rituximab is a validated induction treatment for GPA and severe MPA. Rituximab in these indications is not less effective than cyclophosphamide and is particularly useful in patients with refractory or relapsing disease, women of childbearing potential, and patients previously treated with cyclophosphamide. Rituximab is more effective than cyclophosphamide for treating relapses. For remission maintenance therapy, which is indispensable, rituximab has been proven superior over conventional immunosuppressive treatment. Rituximab is licensed in the USA and in Europe for the induction treatment of severe forms of GPA and MPA. An extension study for remission maintenance therapy is ongoing. In EGPA, although maintenance treatment with the interleukin-5 antagonist mepolizumab is effective in decreasing glucocorticoid requirements and in alleviating asthma and sinonasal symptoms, its efficacy on the vasculitis remains somewhat unclear. Mepolizumab is licensed for use in EGPA, and rituximab is also being evaluated as an induction and maintenance agent. Immunoglobulins can be helpful as an adjuvant treatment for active AAV with severe immunodepression, notably when infections occur. Plasma exchange is indicated in AAV with advanced renal dysfunction and, perhaps, in the event of alveolar hemorrhage, a possibility that will be assessed in 2018 in a large international study.
- Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: Clinical Pathology Conference and Review. [Review]
- JAJ Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Sep - Oct; 6(5):1496-1504
- Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a small vessel vasculitis associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Despite its rarity, continuous gains are b...
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a small vessel vasculitis associated with asthma and eosinophilia. Despite its rarity, continuous gains are being made in understanding the disease with knowledge advancements regarding its epidemiology, heterogeneous clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes. Large knowledge gaps remain, however, particularly surrounding pathophysiologic and diagnostic uncertainties. There is still an incomplete understanding of the interplay between the eosinophilic and vasculitic processes that are features of disease pathogenesis. EGPA is also a conceptually difficult disorder given its dual categorization with hypereosinophilic syndromes and systemic vasculitides and the absence of a biomarker that can reliably distinguish between the two. In addition, recent evidence points to distinct, but partly overlapping, disease phenotypes, yet there is insufficient understanding to inform phenotype-tailored therapies. EGPA also remains a diagnostic challenge in part because asthma may be the primary or predominant manifestation for years, and the chronic corticosteroid requirement may mask other disease features. Efforts are ongoing to better elucidate pathophysiologic mechanisms, resolve classification issues, better characterize disease manifestations, and further clarify disease subcategorization, all of which will translate into better diagnosis and treatment with the possibility of specifically adapted therapies.
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- Clinical features of acute kidney injury in patients with Kawasaki disease. [Review]
- WJWorld J Clin Pediatr 2018 Aug 30; 7(3):83-88
- Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized children, AKI has rarely been reported in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). Herein, we review the clinical trajectories ...
Although acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized children, AKI has rarely been reported in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). Herein, we review the clinical trajectories of AKI in patients with KD. A total of 39 patients with KD who developed AKI have been reported in 28 publications as case reports. The causes of AKI include prerenal AKI associated with acute heart failure (AHF), intrinsic AKI caused by tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), acute nephritic syndrome (ANS), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), immune complex-mediated nephropathy, rhabdomyolysis, and KD shock syndrome (KDSS). Six of the 39 patients (15.4%) underwent renal replacement therapy. While AHF and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome developed in 41% and 68% of KD patients with AKI, respectively, all patients recovered without any renal sequelae. Although the precise pathogenic mechanism underlying the development of AKI in patients with KD is unknown, several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including T-cell-mediated immunologic abnormalities for TIN, renal and glomerular endothelial injury resulting from vasculitis for HUS, immune complex-mediated kidney injury for immune complex-mediated nephropathy and ASN, and capillary leak and an increased release of cytokines with myocardial dysfunction for KDSS.