- Unveiling the pH dependent interaction between bolaamphiphiles (dicarboxylic acids) and C10TAB (decyltrimethylammonium bromide) in aqueous medium. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Feb 08; 518:225-233
- Development of stable self-assembled nanostructures (especially vesicles and liposomes), and understanding their physicochemical behaviors in aqueous solution is a long-standing topic of interest in ...
Development of stable self-assembled nanostructures (especially vesicles and liposomes), and understanding their physicochemical behaviors in aqueous solution is a long-standing topic of interest in chemical and biochemical research. In this progressive area, we report for the first-time formation of mixed micelles (at pH 12), and vesicles of anionic bolaamphiphiles (dicarboxylic acids viz. [Formula: see text] , with moderate values of n 10, 11, 12, and 14) in combination with a cationic surfactant decyltrimethylammonium bromide (C10TAB) in buffered aqueous medium at different pH (6.0, 6.5, 6.8, and 8.0 for bola 10, 11, 12, and 14, respectively). Three pH dependent states of the solutions are observed: clear (high pH > 8), turbid and translucent (mid pH ≈ 6-8), and viscous inhomogeneous oil-like state (low pH < 6). The micelle size varies from 6.24 to 7.43 nm at pH 12, for vesicles the values are large (220-296 nm), and small (∼30-70 nm) in the pH range of 6.0-8.0. The self-assembly formation properties of their mixtures are herein investigated using different techniques viz. UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser confocal scanning microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The formed vesicles are fairly polydisperse, and show overall spherical shape. Formation of the bilayer assemblies, and their conversion to mixed micelles by the temperature effect are observed from steady state fluorescence anisotropy measurements. Micellization of the mixed bola-C10TAB species is endothermic and fairly entropy controlled; their formation/deformation is pH sensitive. They have spherical morphologies, and once formed at the right pH they are found to be very stable in terms of time. Thus, these vesicles have prospects for encapsulation and delivery of materials like drugs, and other substrates by controling the acid-base conditions of the system environment. The formed mixed micelles, and vesicles are expected to be low toxic, and thus green materials in nature with wider application possibilites.
- Microvesicles as Emerging Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Cardiometabolic Diseases. [Review]
- GPGenomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2018 Feb 17
- Microvesicles (MVs, also known as microparticles) are small vesicles that originate from plasma membrane of almost all eukaryotic cells during apoptosis or activation. MVs can serve as extracellular ...
Microvesicles (MVs, also known as microparticles) are small vesicles that originate from plasma membrane of almost all eukaryotic cells during apoptosis or activation. MVs can serve as extracellular vehicles to transport bioactive molecules from their parental cells to recipient target cells, thereby serving as novel mediators for intercellular communication. Importantly, more and more evidence indicates that MVs could play important roles in early pathogenesis and subsequent progression of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Elevated plasma concentrations of MVs, originating from red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets, or other organs and tissues, have been reported in various cardiometabolic diseases. Circulating MVs could serve as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis or therapeutic monitoring. In this review, we summarized recently-published studies in the field and discussed the role of MVs in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. The emerging values of MVs that serve as biomarker for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis, as well as their roles as novel therapeutic targets in cardiometabolic diseases, were also be described.
- Mitophagy and Quality Control Mechanisms in Mitochondrial Maintenance. [Review]
- CBCurr Biol 2018 Feb 19; 28(4):R170-R185
- The maintenance of a healthy and functional mitochondrial network is critical during development as well as throughout life in the response to physiological adaptations and stress conditions. Owing t...
The maintenance of a healthy and functional mitochondrial network is critical during development as well as throughout life in the response to physiological adaptations and stress conditions. Owing to their role in energy production, mitochondria are exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species, making them particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial DNA mutations and protein misfolding. Given that mitochondria are formed from proteins encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, an additional layer of complexity is inherent in the coordination of protein synthesis and the mitochondrial import of nuclear-encoded proteins. For these reasons, mitochondria have evolved multiple systems of quality control to ensure that the requisite number of functional mitochondria are present to meet the demands of the cell. These pathways work to eliminate damaged mitochondrial proteins or parts of the mitochondrial network by mitophagy and renew components by adding protein and lipids through biogenesis, collectively resulting in mitochondrial turnover. Mitochondrial quality control mechanisms are multi-tiered, operating at the protein, organelle and cell levels. Herein, we discuss mitophagy in different physiological contexts and then relate it to other quality control pathways, including the unfolded protein response, shedding of vesicles, proteolysis, and degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Understanding how these pathways contribute to the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis could provide insights into the development of targeted treatments when these systems fail in disease.
- Toll Like Receptor 4 Signaling Licenses the Cytosolic Transport of Lipopolysaccharide from Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles. [Journal Article]
- SShock 2018 Feb 16
- Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), released by variety of bacteria, are membrane-enclosed entities enriched in microbial components, toxins and virulent factors. OMVs could deliver lipopolysaccharide (L...
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), released by variety of bacteria, are membrane-enclosed entities enriched in microbial components, toxins and virulent factors. OMVs could deliver lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the cytosol of host cells and subsequently activate caspase-11, which critically orchestrates immune responses and mediates septic shock. Though it is known that caspase-11 is activated by intracellular LPS, how OMVs deliver LPS into the cytosol remains largely unknown. Here we show that the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), a LPS receptor on the cytoplasmic membrane, licenses macrophages to transport LPS from OMVs into the cytosol through TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF). TRIF-mediated cytosolic delivery of LPS from OMVs depends on the production of type 1 interferon and the expression of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). Deletion of TRIF or GBPs prevents pyroptosis and lethality induced by OMVs or OMVs-releasing E.coli. Together, these findings provide novel insight into how host coordinates extracellular and intracellular LPS sensing to orchestrate immune responses during gram-negative bacterial infection.
- Microparticles and Exercise in Clinical Populations. [Journal Article]
- EIExerc Immunol Rev 2018; 24:46-58
- Microparticles (MPs) are shed membrane vesicles released from a variety of cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. They are elevated in a wide variety of disease states and have b...
Microparticles (MPs) are shed membrane vesicles released from a variety of cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. They are elevated in a wide variety of disease states and have been previously measured to assess both disease activity and severity. However, recent research suggests that they also possess bioeffector functions, including but not limited to promoting coagulation and thrombosis, inducing endothelial dysfunction, increasing pro-inflammatory cytokine release and driving angiogenesis, thereby increasing cardiovascular risk. Current evidence suggests that exercise may reduce both the number and pathophysiological potential of circulating MPs, making them an attractive therapeutic target. However, the existing body of literature is largely comprised of in vitro or animal studies and thus drawing meaningful conclusions with regards to health and disease remains difficult. In this review, we highlight the role of microparticles in disease, comment on the use of exercise and dietary manipulation as a therapeutic strategy, and suggest future research directions that would serve to address some of the limitations present in the research to date.
- Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils from the ∼3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia. [Journal Article]
- AAstrobiology 2018 Feb 20
- The ∼3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is a key geological unit for the study of Earth's earliest life and the habitats it occupied. Here, we describe a new ...
The ∼3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is a key geological unit for the study of Earth's earliest life and the habitats it occupied. Here, we describe a new suite of spheroidal to lenticular microstructures that morphologically resemble some previously reported Archean microfossils. Correlative microscopy shows that these objects have a size distribution, wall ultrastructure, and chemistry that are incompatible with a microfossil origin and instead are interpreted as pyritized and silicified fragments of vesicular volcanic glass. Organic kerogenous material is associated with much of the altered volcanic glass; variable quantities of organic carbon line or fill the insides of some individual vesicles, while relatively large, tufted organic-rich laminae envelop multiple vesicles. The microstructures reported herein constitute a new type of abiogenic artifact (pseudo-fossil) that must be considered when evaluating potential signs of early life on Earth or elsewhere. In the sample studied here, where hundreds of these microstructures are present, the combined evidence permits a relatively straightforward interpretation as vesicular volcanic glass. However, reworked, isolated, and silicified microstructures of this type may prove particularly problematic in early or extraterrestrial life studies since they adsorb carbon onto their surfaces and are readily pyritized, mimicking a common preservation mechanism for bona fide microfossils. In those cases, nanoscale analysis of wall ultrastructure would be required to firmly exclude a biological origin. Key Words: Microfossils-Pseudo-fossils-Volcanic vesicles-Archean life-Pilbara Craton-Dresser Formation. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.
- Autofluorescence-free Live-cell Imaging Using Terbium Nanoparticles. [Journal Article]
- BCBioconjug Chem 2018 Feb 20
- Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) have become irreplaceable tools for advanced cellular and sub-cellular imaging. While very bright NPs require excitation with UV or visible light, which can create str...
Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) have become irreplaceable tools for advanced cellular and sub-cellular imaging. While very bright NPs require excitation with UV or visible light, which can create strong autofluorescence of biological components, NIR-excitable NPs without autofluorescence issues exhibit much lower brightness. Here, we show the application of a new type of surface-photosensitized terbium NPs (Tb-NPs) for autofluorescence-free intracellular imaging in live HeLa cells. Combination of exceptionally high brightness, high photostability, and long photoluminecence (PL) lifetimes for highly efficient suppression of the short-lived autofluorescence, allowed for time-gated PL imaging of intracellular vesicles over 72 h without toxicity and at extremely low Tb-NP concentrations down to 12 pM. Detection of highly resolved long-lifetime (ms) PL decay curves from small (~10 µm2) areas within single cells within a few seconds emphasized the unprecedented photophysical properties of Tb-NPs for live-cell imaging that extend well beyond currently available nanometric imaging agents.
- Peptide ligand-mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles to cancer cells: cell receptor-binding- vs. cell membrane-penetrating peptides. [Journal Article]
- BBBiotechnol Bioeng 2018 Feb 20
- The endocytosis-mediating performances of two types of peptide ligands, cell receptor binding peptide (CRBP) and cell membrane penetrating peptide (CMPP), were analyzed and compared using a common ca...
The endocytosis-mediating performances of two types of peptide ligands, cell receptor binding peptide (CRBP) and cell membrane penetrating peptide (CMPP), were analyzed and compared using a common carrier of peptide ligands-human ferritin heavy chain (hFTH) nanoparticle. 24 copies of a CMPP(human immunodeficiency virus-derived TAT peptide) and/or a CRBP (peptide ligand with strong and specific affinity for either human integrin(αvβ3) or epidermal growth factor receptor I (EGFR) that is overexpressed on various cancer cells) were genetically presented on the surface of each hFTH nanopariticle. The quantitative level of endocytosis and intracellular localization of fluorescence dye-labeled CRBP- and CMPP-presenting nanoparticles were estimated in the in vitro cultures of integrin- and EGFR-overexpressing cancer and human dermal fibroblast cells(control). From the cancer cell cultures treated with the CMPP- and CRBP-presenting nanoparticles, it was notable that CRBPs resulted in quantitatively higher level of endocytosis than CMPP (TAT) and successfully transported the nanoparticles to the cytosol of cancer cells depending on concentration and treatment period of time, whereas TAT-mediated endocytosis localized most of the nanoparticles within endosomal vesicles under the same conditions. These novel findings provide highly useful informations to many researchers both in academia and in industry who are interested in developing anticancer drug delivery systems/carriers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Representation analysis of miRNA from clarified urine and urine microvesicles in prostate malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms]. [Journal Article]
- BKBiomed Khim 2018; 64(1):38-45
- Urine of prostate cancer patients contains tumor-specific biopolymers, including protein- and microvesiclesassociated miRNAs that can potentially be used as oncomarkers. Previously we have characteri...
Urine of prostate cancer patients contains tumor-specific biopolymers, including protein- and microvesiclesassociated miRNAs that can potentially be used as oncomarkers. Previously we have characterized urine extracellular vesicles and demonstrated diagnostic potential of their miRNA cargo. In this study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the expression of 84 miRNA in paired samples of urine microvesicles and clarified urine from healthy men, patients with benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate using miRCURY LNA miRNA qPCR Panels. Subsets of miRNAs with differences in expression between the fractions of the urine were found in all three groups. Two groups of miRNA were identified based on the patterns of their differential expression. They regulate several key signaling pathways associated with prostate cancer development.
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- [Isolation of extracellular micro-vesicles from cell culture medium: comparative evaluation of methods]. [Journal Article]
- BKBiomed Khim 2018; 64(1):23-30
- Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted by cells of multicellular organisms. EV mediate specific mode of intercellular communication by "horizontal" exchange of substances and information. This phen...
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted by cells of multicellular organisms. EV mediate specific mode of intercellular communication by "horizontal" exchange of substances and information. This phenomenon seems to have an essential biological significance and became a subject of intensive research. Biogenesis, structural and functional features of the EV is being commonly studies in in vitro condition. Several methods of EV isolation from cell culture medium are established, however selection of method might influence on obtained results. The choice of the optimal method depends usually from the amount of medium and the aims of the research while is still challenging issue. We performed a comparative analysis of four different methods of EV isolation from cell culture medium: differential ultracentrifugation, ultracentrifugation with a 30% sucrose/D2O "cushion", precipitation with plant proteins and immune-affinity capturing. EV isolated by different approaches were compared in terms of following parameters: size, concentration, morphology of EV, contamination by non-vesicular particles, content of exosomal tetraspanins on the EV surface, content of total proteins, RNA, and several glioma-associated miRNAs. Applied methods included nano-patricle tracking analysis (NTA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryo-electron microscopy, flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. On the base of obtained results, we developed practical recommendations that may help researchers to make a best choice of EV isolation method.