- DENGUE, CHIKUNGUNYA AND ZIKA INFECTIONS IMPORTED TO PARIS BETWEEN 2009 AND 2016: CHARACTERISTICS AND CORRELATION WITH OUTBREAKS IN THE FRENCH OVERSEAS TERRITORIES OF GUADELOUPE AND MARTINIQUE. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2018 May 18
- CONCLUSIONS: We found a temporal correlation between newly diagnosed imported cases of arboviruses, and the three corresponding outbreaks that occurred in Martinique and Guadeloupe during 8 consecutive years. We show that ill returned travelers act as epidemiological sentinels from the beginning up to the end of outbreaks occurring in touristic places.
- In vitro comparison of acyclovir, ganciclovir and cidofovir against equid alphaherpesvirus 3 and evaluation of their efficacy against six field isolates. [Journal Article]
- RARev Argent Microbiol 2018 May 17
- Equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3) is the etiological agent of equine coital exanthema (ECE), which is a venereal, highly contagious disease, characterized by the formation of papules, vesicles, pustule...
Equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3) is the etiological agent of equine coital exanthema (ECE), which is a venereal, highly contagious disease, characterized by the formation of papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers on the external genitalia of mares and stallions. EHV3 remains in a latent state after a successful infection and there are latently infected animals in which the virus is reactivated and generally re-excreted subclinically. There are no available vaccines for this condition and prevention is based on the clinical examination of mares prior to mating, which allows to segregate those showing clinical signs. As this approach does not eliminate the risk of contagion in stallions from subclinically infected mares, there is a need for a specific EHV3 treatment. Nowadays, there exist various antiviral compounds of proven effectiveness for other alphaherpesviruses affecting humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of three antiviral compounds, acyclovir, ganciclovir and cidofovir against EHV3 in vitro, and to assess their efficacy against six EHV3 Argentinian field isolates. To determine the efficacy of these compounds in vitro, three parameters were analyzed: reduction of plaque number, reduction of plaque size and reduction of viral production. Additionally, the effectiveness of the three compounds at an optimum concentration previously determined in this study was investigated for the EHV3 field isolates. Based on our results, ganciclovir was the most potent antiviral compound to reduce EHV3 replication in vitro and may thus be a valuable candidate for treatment and prevention of ECE in mares and stallions.
- Acute Zika Virus Infection in an Endemic Area Shows Modest Proinflammatory Systemic Immunoactivation and Cytokine-Symptom Associations. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:821
- An early immune response to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may determine its clinical manifestation and outcome, including neurological effects. However, low-grade and transient viremia limits the promp...
An early immune response to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may determine its clinical manifestation and outcome, including neurological effects. However, low-grade and transient viremia limits the prompt diagnosis of acute ZIKV infection. We have investigated the plasma cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profiles of 36 individuals from an endemic area displaying different symptoms such as exanthema, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, hyperemia, swelling, itching, and nausea during early-phase infection. These profiles were then associated with symptoms, revealing important aspects of the immunopathophysiology of ZIKV infection. The levels of some cytokines/chemokines were significantly higher in acute ZIKV-infected individuals compared to healthy donors, including interferon (IFN) gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-9, IL-7, IL-5, and IL-1ra, including some with predominantly immunoregulatory activity. Of note, we found that higher levels of IP-10 and IL-5 in ZIKV-infected individuals were strongly associated with exanthema and headache, respectively. Also, higher levels of IL-1ra were associated with subjects with arthralgia, whereas those with fever showed lower levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). No correlation was observed between the number of symptoms and ZIKV viral load. Interestingly, only IP-10 showed significantly decreased levels in the recovery phase. In conclusion, our results indicate that acute ZIKV infection in a larger cohort resident to an endemic area displays a modest systemic immune activation profile, involving both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines that could participate of virus control. In addition, we showed that differential cytokine/chemokine levels are related to specific clinical symptoms, suggesting their participation in underlying mechanisms.
- Hand, foot, and mouth disease photolocalized to sunburn. [Journal Article]
- PDPediatr Dermatol 2018 May 16
- Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common exanthem linked to infection with several non-polio enteroviruses. This case of an 11-year-old boy with an enteroviral infection limited to areas of sunburn ...
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common exanthem linked to infection with several non-polio enteroviruses. This case of an 11-year-old boy with an enteroviral infection limited to areas of sunburn is an atypical presentation of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Recognition of this unusual distribution will allow pediatricians and pediatric dermatologists to appropriately manage and counsel patients and parents.
- Case 14-2018: A 68-Year-Old Woman with a Rash, Hyponatremia, and Uveitis. [Case Reports]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2018 May 10; 378(19):1825-1833
- On-site detection of equid alphaherpesvirus 3 in perineal and genital swabs of mares and stallions. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol Methods 2018; 257:29-32
- Equine coital exanthema (ECE) is an infectious, venereally transmitted muco-cutaneous disease affecting mares and stallions, caused by equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3). Diagnostic tools for rapid iden...
Equine coital exanthema (ECE) is an infectious, venereally transmitted muco-cutaneous disease affecting mares and stallions, caused by equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3). Diagnostic tools for rapid identification of EHV3 are of primary importance to diminish the risk of EHV3 dissemination at the time of breeding. In the last years, it has been shown that the performance of the insulated-isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) is comparable to virus isolation, nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR) in detecting pathogens of various animal species. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of the iiPCR were compared with a qPCR, using a plasmid containing the target region of the EHV3 glycoprotein G gene and an Argentinian EHV3 isolate (E/9283/07 C3A). In order to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the iiPCR, nucleic acids of 85 perineal and genital swabs (PGS) of mares and stallions were extracted by tacoTM mini and tested by both techniques. EHV3 was detected in 46 and 45 of the 85 PGS by the iiPCR and qPCR, respectively. There was almost perfect agreement between the two diagnostic methods (98.82%; 95% CI: 95.03-100%; κ = 0.98). The iiPCR had a limit of detection of 95.00% at 6 genome equivalents per reaction and a detection endpoint for viral DNA comparable to that of the qPCR, and did not react with six non-targeted equine pathogens. The iiPCR represents a sensitive and specific method for the rapid on-site diagnosis of EHV3 infection. Its routinely implementation in breeding facilities, and artificial insemination and embryo transfer centers, will contribute to prevent the dissemination of this venereal, highly contagious disease in horses.
- Survival of viral pathogens in animal feed ingredients under transboundary shipping models. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194509
- The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. El...
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV). Surrogate viruses with similar genetic and physical properties were used for 6 viruses. Surrogates belonged to the same virus families as target pathogens, and included Senecavirus A (SVA) for FMDV, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) for CSFV, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1) for PRV, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) for NiV, Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) for SVDV and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) for VESV. For the remaining target viruses, actual pathogens were used. Virus survival was evaluated using Trans-Pacific or Trans-Atlantic transboundary models involving representative feed ingredients, transport times and environmental conditions, with samples tested by PCR, VI and/or swine bioassay. SVA (representing FMDV), FCV (representing VESV), BHV-1 (representing PRV), PRRSV, PSV (representing SVDV), ASFV and PCV2 maintained infectivity during transport, while BVDV (representing CSFV), VSV, CDV (representing NiV) and IAV-S did not. Notably, more viruses survived in conventional soybean meal, lysine hydrochloride, choline chloride, vitamin D and pork sausage casings. These results support published data on transboundary risk of PEDV in feed, demonstrate survival of certain viruses in specific feed ingredients ("high-risk combinations") under conditions simulating transport between continents and provide further evidence that contaminated feed ingredients may represent a risk for transport of pathogens at domestic and global levels.
- Isolation of infectious Zika virus from a urine sample cultured in SIRC cells from a patient suspected of having rubella virus. [Case Reports]
- RIRev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018; 60:e15
- A great variety of viruses which cause exanthema share other clinical manifestations, making the etiologic identification a very difficult task, relying exclusively on the clinical examination. Rubel...
A great variety of viruses which cause exanthema share other clinical manifestations, making the etiologic identification a very difficult task, relying exclusively on the clinical examination. Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In the present report, we described the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) particles in urine samples and also ZIKV isolation in SIRC cells from the urine of a patient in acute phase of suspected rubella disease. The 50-year-old unvaccinated woman living in Sao Paulo, Brazil, was admitted to the emergency room with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia and prostration. Urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-qPCR. SIRC and Vero cells were inoculated with urine samples during 7 days. RT-qPCR was performed using measles virus (MV) and RV primers and both were found to be negative. After this result, RT-qPCR was performed for parvovirus B19, herpes virus 6 and ZIKV. The urine sample and the isolate were positive by Real Time PCR for ZIKV and negative for all other viruses tested. The sequences isolated are from the Asiatic lineage.
- Cytokine and Chemokine Profiling in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Singapore and Malaysia. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Mar 06; 8(1):4087
- Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a prevalent contagious childhood disease typically associated with fever, oral lesions and limb exanthema. While HFMD is caused by a plethora of serotypes of vi...
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a prevalent contagious childhood disease typically associated with fever, oral lesions and limb exanthema. While HFMD is caused by a plethora of serotypes of viruses under the genus Enterovirus within the Picornaviridae family, Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) are considered the main etiological agents. In recent years however, other viruses have also been isolated in considerable numbers from infected individuals in many regions, joining the legion commonly associated with HFMD. The present study investigated the cytokine and chemokine profiles of HFMD patients from Singapore and Malaysia for the first time. Comparative cohort studies of EV-A71-associated HFMD cases revealed that the Malaysia cohort had a distinct profile from the Singapore cohort, and this could be partly attributed by different EV-A71 genotypes. As the isolation of CV-A6, instead of CV-A16, had become prevalent in the Singapore cohort, it was also of particular interest to study the differential cytokine and chemokine profiles. Our data revealed that overlapping as well as unique profiles exist between the two major causative clinical isolates in the Singapore cohort. Having a better understanding of the respective immunological profiles could be useful for more accurate HFMD diagnosis, which is imperative for disease transmission control until multi-valent vaccines and/or broad-spectrum anti-viral drugs become available.
New Search Next
- Canine caliciviruses of four serotypes from military and research dogs recovered in 1963-1978 belong to two phylogenetic clades in the Vesivirus genus. [Journal Article]
- VJVirol J 2018 02 23; 15(1):39
- CONCLUSIONS: These CaCV isolates have restricted cell tropism, antigenic diversity and genetic variation. Further investigation will shed light on antigenic relation to other vesiviruses, and its pathogenicity for dogs and potential infectivity to other animals. Together with the previously reported CaCV strains provides significant evidence to support the formation of a new CaCV species in the Vesivirus genus.