- Patient-reported olfaction improves following outside-in Draf III frontal sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis. [Journal Article]
- LLaryngoscope 2018 Sep 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The outside-in Draf III appears to facilitate sustained, meaningful improvement in several self-reported outcomes, including smell. However, further study and comparison to less aggressive surgery will be required to confirm its true benefit.
- Quality of life and participation of young adults with a visual impairment aged 18-25 years: comparison with population norms. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 11
- CONCLUSIONS: VI has a moderate impact on some aspects of quality of life and a large impact on participation of young adults when compared with relevant normative populations. Severity of vision loss is associated with worse physical functioning and vision-related quality of life. The results contribute to a better understanding of the impact of VI and might lead to improved low vision services.
- A rare complication of endoscopic sinus surgery: Retinal artery occlusion. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 11; :1120672118798570
- A 60-year-old patient with a history of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease was admitted to the eye nose and throat clinic due to complaints of difficulty in breathing. The patient was deci...
A 60-year-old patient with a history of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease was admitted to the eye nose and throat clinic due to complaints of difficulty in breathing. The patient was decided for functional endoscopic sinus surgery with the diagnosis of right nasal polyposis and chronic sinusitis. The patient had right visual loss with the findings of retinal artery occlusion, which is a rare ocular complication seen after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Although the patient had proper urgent surgical and medical treatment, we did not observe visual improvement. Since this is a very rare condition, we intended to report it in the literature.
- Clinical efficacy of eplerenone versus placebo for central serous chorioretinopathy: study protocol for the VICI randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- EEye (Lond) 2018 Sep 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment is complete but was slower than expected. We maintained the eligibility criteria to ensure participants had 'true' CSCR and recruited additional centres. Effective distribution of the investigational medicinal product (IMP) was achieved by implementing a database to manage ordering and accountability of IMP packs. The results will provide adequately powered evidence to inform clinical decisions about using eplerenone to treat patients with CSCR.
- Synergistic Transcriptional Changes in AMPA and GABAA Receptor Genes Support Compensatory Plasticity Following Unilateral Hearing Loss. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2018 Sep 01
- Debilitating perceptual disorders including tinnitus, hyperacusis, phantom limb pain and visual release hallucinations may reflect aberrant patterns of neural activity in central sensory pathways fol...
Debilitating perceptual disorders including tinnitus, hyperacusis, phantom limb pain and visual release hallucinations may reflect aberrant patterns of neural activity in central sensory pathways following a loss of peripheral sensory input. Here, we explore short- and long-term changes in gene expression that may contribute to hyperexcitability following a sudden, profound loss of auditory input from one ear. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization to quantify mRNA levels for genes encoding AMPA and GABAA receptor subunits (Gria2 and Gabra1, respectively) in single neurons from the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (ACtx). Thirty days after unilateral hearing loss, Gria2 levels were significantly increased while Gabra1 levels were significantly decreased. Transcriptional rebalancing was more pronounced in ACtx than IC and bore no obvious relationship to the degree of hearing loss. By contrast to the opposing, synergistic shifts in Gria2 and Gabra1 observed 30 days after hearing loss, we found that transcription levels for both genes were equivalently reduced after 5 days of hearing loss, producing no net change in the excitatory/inhibitory transcriptional balance. Opposing transcriptional shifts in AMPA and GABA receptor genes that emerge several weeks after a peripheral insult could promote both sensitization and disinhibition to support a homeostatic recovery of neural activity following auditory deprivation. Imprecise transcriptional changes could also drive the system toward perceptual hypersensitivity, degraded temporal processing and the irrepressible perception of non-existent environmental stimuli, a trio of perceptual impairments that often accompany chronic sensory deprivation.
- Ocular findings and blood flow in patients with Takayasu arteritis: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 27
- CONCLUSIONS: This study reported the lowest prevalence of Takayasu retinopathy and is the only series without permanent visual loss. We documented for the first time that radial artery pulselessness can predict reduction of ipsilateral ocular perfusion. We believe that better management of TAK with current medications reduced ocular complication rates.
- Prophylactic anterior vitrectomy during cataract surgery in eyes at increased risk for aqueous misdirection. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2018; 12:24-27
- CONCLUSIONS: CAV can be safely combined with cataract surgery and glaucoma surgery, and it may be an effective intervention in eyes with CNAG and other risk factors for AM as a prophylactic measure against the development of AM.
- Low incidence of choroidal neovascularization following subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM) in high-risk AMD. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(8):e0202097
- CONCLUSIONS: In a review of a large group of eyes with exceptionally high-risk AMD, SDM was followed by a very low incidence of new CNV. If confirmed by further study, SDM would offer a new and highly effective treatment to reduce the risk of vision loss from AMD.
- The effect of nasal polyposis related nasal obstruction on cognitive functions. [Journal Article]
- CNCogn Neurodyn 2018; 12(4):385-390
- Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of ...
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of nasal obstruction related to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis on cognitive functions. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis causing bilateral total or near total nasal obstruction were enrolled in the study. Symptoms of nasal congestion, loss of smell, postnasal drip, headaches, snoring, concentration difficulties and blunted affect were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale. Brief symptom inventory test, Stroop test, visual aural digit span, serial digit learning test and P300 test were used to evaluate cognitive functions. Three months after treatment, the tests done before surgery were repeated and the results were compared. A total of 30 patients were included in the study. On the Visual Analog Scale, all symptoms showed significant postoperative improvement in all patients (p < 0.001 for all symptoms). Preoperative nasal congestion accompanied with impaired concentration were detected in 27 patients (90%), and these symptoms recovered in all these patients after treatment (p = 0.035) (correlation coefficient 0.4). Only 22 patients completed the neuropsychological tests. The mean preoperative Stroop test (23.16 ± 5.30), visual aural digit span test (24.68 ± 3.52), and serial digit learning test (16.18 ± 5.35) scores were showed significant improvement compared with mean postoperative Stroop test (21.12 ± 5.69), visual aural digit span test (26.45 ± 2.98), and serial digit learning test (19.31 ± 4.47) scores (p = 0.047, p = 0.022, p = 0.005 respectively). The postoperative P300 latency values improved in 19 (63%) patients. The preoperative and postoperative latency values for P300 showed a significant difference (p = 0.029), whereas the preoperative and postoperative amplitude values for P300 did not differ (p = 0.096). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) has negative effects on cognitive functions, such as the ability to focus and maintain concentration. These cognitive functions improve after the patients undergo endoscopic sinus surgery to treat their CRSwNP.
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- Deterioration of visual function mediated by senescence-associated endoplasmic reticulum stress in inflammatory tie2-TNF mice. [Journal Article]
- EBExp Biol Med (Maywood) 2018 Aug 16; :1535370218794915
- Stress-associated premature senescence plays a major role in retinal diseases. In this study, we investigated the relationship between endothelial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and ...
Stress-associated premature senescence plays a major role in retinal diseases. In this study, we investigated the relationship between endothelial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and cellular senescence in the development of retinal dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that constant endothelial activation by transmembrane tumor necrosis factor-α (tmTNF-α) exacerbates age-induced visual deficits via senescence-mediated ER stress in this model. To address this, we employed a mouse model of chronic vascular activation using endothelial-specific TNF-α-expressing (tie2-TNF) mice at 5 and 10 months of age. Visual deficits were exhibited by tie2-TNF mice at both 5 months and 10 months of age, with the older mice showing statistically significant loss of visual acuity compared with tie2-TNF mice at age 5 months. The neural defects, as measured by electroretinogram (ERG), also followed a similar trend in an age-dependent fashion, with 10-month-old tie2-TNF mice showing the greatest decrease in "b" wave amplitude at 25 cd.s.m2 compared with age-matched wildtype (WT) mice and five-month-old tie2-TNF mice. While gene and protein expression from the whole retinal extracts demonstrated increased inflammatory (Icam1, Ccl2), stress-associated premature senescence (p16, p21, p53), and ER stress (Grp78, p-Ire1α, Chop) markers in five-month-old tie2-TNF mice compared with five-month-old WT mice, a further increase was seen in 10-month-old tie2-TNF mice. Our data demonstrate that tie2-TNF mice exhibit age-associated increases in visual deficits, and these data suggest that inflammatory endothelial activation is at least partly at play. Given the correlation of increased premature senescence and ER stress in an age-dependent fashion, with the loss of visual functions and increased endothelial activation, our data suggest a possible self-enhanced loop of unfolded protein response pathways and senescence in propagating neurovascular defects in this model. Impact statement Vision loss in most retinal diseases affects the quality of life of working age adults. Using a novel animal model that displays constant endothelial activation by tmTNF-α, our results demonstrate exacerbated age-induced visual deficits via premature senescence-mediated ER stress. We have compared mice of 5 and 10 months of age, with highly relevant human equivalencies of approximately 35- and 50-year-old patients, representing mature adult and middle-aged subjects, respectively. Our studies suggest a possible role for a self-enhanced loop of ER stress pathways and senescence in the propagation of retinal neurovascular defects, under conditions of constant endothelial activation induced by tmTNF-α signaling.