- Regulation of melanocyte stem cells in the pigmentation of skin and its appendages: Biological patterning and therapeutic potentials. [Review]
- EDExp Dermatol 2018 Dec 11
- Skin evolves essential appendages and indispensable types of cells that synergistically insulate the body from environmental insults. Residing in the specific regions in the skin such as epidermis, d...
Skin evolves essential appendages and indispensable types of cells that synergistically insulate the body from environmental insults. Residing in the specific regions in the skin such as epidermis, dermis and hair follicle, melanocytes perform an array of vital functions including defending the ultraviolet radiation and diversifying animal appearance. As one of the adult stem cells, melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicle bulge niche can proliferate, differentiate, and keep quiescence to control and coordinate tissue homeostasis, repair, and regeneration. In synchrony with hair follicle stem cells, melanocyte stem cells in the hair follicles undergo cyclic activation, degeneration, and resting phases, to pigment the hairs and to preserve the stem cells. Disorder of melanocytes results in severe skin problems such as canities, vitiligo, and even melanoma. Here, we compare and summarize recent discoveries about melanocyte in the skin, particularly in the hair follicle. A better understanding of the physiological and pathological regulation of melanocyte and melanocyte stem cell behaviors will help to guide the clinical applications in regenerative medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Molecular and cellular basis of depigmentation in vitiligo patients. [Review]
- EDExp Dermatol 2018 Dec 10
- Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease characterized by the appearance of zones of depigmentation. It is mostly described as an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys the melanocytes. Con...
Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease characterized by the appearance of zones of depigmentation. It is mostly described as an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys the melanocytes. Consistent with this origin, genetic studies have implicated genes encoding proteins mediating the immune response targeting melanocytes in the etiology of this disease, together with proteins specific to these cells. However, the destruction of melanocytes by the immune system is neither global nor complete, because the patients do not display total depigmentation. The etiopathology of vitiligo is clearly complex and cannot be simply reduced to an autoimmune reaction directed against pigmented cells. Intrinsic changes have been observed in the melanocytes, keratinocytes and dermal cells of vitiligo patients. Identification of the molecular and cellular changes occurring in normally pigmented skin in vitiligo patients, and an understanding of these changes, are essential to improve the definition of trigger events for this disease, with a view to developing treatments with long-term efficacy. This review focuses on the early events identified to date in the non-lesional regions of the skin in vitiligo patients, and discusses the process of repigmentation from melanocyte stem cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Onychomatricoma in a Patient With Extensive Vitiligo. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2018 Nov 22
- 5 fluorouracil as an adjuvant therapy along with microneedling in vitiligo. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Dec 07
- "Vitiligo and major depressive disorder: a bidirectional population-based cohort study". [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Dec 05
- CONCLUSIONS: This study did not evaluate the severity of MDD or vitiligo on outcome development.These results highlight the burden of depression in patients with vitiligo and support the possible existence of pathophysiological connections between these two conditions.
- The influence of interferon on healthy and diseased skin. [Journal Article]
- CCytokine 2018 Dec 06
- Type I interferons (IFNs) are an immunomodulatory class of cytokines that serve to protect against viral and bacterial infection. In addition, mounting evidence suggests IFNs, particularly type I but...
Type I interferons (IFNs) are an immunomodulatory class of cytokines that serve to protect against viral and bacterial infection. In addition, mounting evidence suggests IFNs, particularly type I but also IFNγ, are important to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory skin diseases, such as cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). Understanding the role of IFNs is relevant to anti-viral responses in the skin, skin biology, and therapeutics for these IFN-related conditions. Type I IFNs (α and β) are produced by recruited inflammatory cells and by the epidermis itself (IFNκ) and have important roles in autoimmune and inflammatory skin disease. Here, we review the current literature utilizing a PubMed database search using terms [interferon/IFN/type I IFN AND lupus/ cutaneous lupus/CLE/dermatomyositis/Sjogrens/psoriasis/lichen planus/morphea/alopecia areata/vitiligo] with a focus on the role of IFNs in basic keratinocyte biology and their implications in the cutaneous autoimmune and inflammatory diseases: cutaneous lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, Sjogren's syndrome, psoriasis, lichen planus, alopecia areata and vitiligo. We provide information about genes and proteins induced by IFNs and how downstream mechanisms relate to clinical disease.
- Genus Psoralea A review of the traditional and modern uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. [Review]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 03
- CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a simple bio-scientific justification for various ethnopharmacological uses of Psoralea species. From the toxicological perspective, the root, leaf, and seed extracts and their preparations have been proven to be safe when consumed in the recommended doses. But, meticulous studies on the pharmaceutical standardization, mode of action of the active constituents, and sustainable conservation of Psoralea species are needed, to meet the growing demands of the pharmaceutical industries, and to fully exploit their preventive and therapeutic potentials.
- The effectiveness of topical therapy combined with 308-nm excimer laser on vitiligo compared to excimer laser monotherapy in pediatric patients. [Journal Article]
- PDPediatr Dermatol 2018 Dec 05
- We evaluated the efficiency of using a 308-nm excimer laser with either tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, or halometasone for the treatment of childhood vitiligo. Patients who received combined treatments ha...
We evaluated the efficiency of using a 308-nm excimer laser with either tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, or halometasone for the treatment of childhood vitiligo. Patients who received combined treatments had significantly higher rates of repigmentation in comparison with individuals who underwent excimer laser alone therapy. Moreover, patients who received treatment with excimer laser and halometasone had significantly higher rates of repigmentation, even higher than individuals who were treated with tacrolimus combined or pimecrolimus combined. This regimen was more effective on the face, neck, and limbs. We conclude that the use of a combined excimer laser and halometasone cream has a greater therapeutic effect than laser alone.
- Associated auto-immune disease in type 1 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 01
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of antibody mediated auto-immune disease is high among type 1 diabetes patients. Especially hypothyroidism and celiac disease are frequently found.
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- Use of platelet-rich plasma to suspend noncultured epidermal cell suspension improves repigmentation after autologous transplantation in stable vitiligo: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Dermatol 2018 Dec 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Suspending NCES in PRP can result in significantly greater mean repigmentation and patient satisfaction than suspending in PBS.