- Distinction of Condylomata Acuminata from Vulvar Vestibular Papules or Pearly Penile Papules Using Ki-67 Immunostaining. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cutan Med Surg 2018 Dec 17; :1203475418819992
- CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 is a reliable marker to pathologically distinguish benign vulvar vestibular papules in women, or pearly penile papules in men, from HPV-induced condylomata acuminata.
- Adaptation of Alpha-Papillomavirus over Millennia. [Review]
- ACActa Cytol 2018 Dec 13; :1-3
- Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a group of small DNA viruses that, with around 350 million years of evolution, acquired the capacity of infecting a broad range of vertebrates, including humans. To date, m...
Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a group of small DNA viruses that, with around 350 million years of evolution, acquired the capacity of infecting a broad range of vertebrates, including humans. To date, more than 300 PV types have been isolated. Viruses that have a long common evolutionary history with their host typically cause unapparent infections. However, in some Alpha-PV infections, lesions become apparent and may cause benign proliferative disorders or even malignant proliferative lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The incongruence observed between the topology of the phylogenetic tree of Alpha-PVs and that of their hosts suggests that virus-host codivergence is not the only evolutionary force that has driven the progression of PVs. The integration of the precursors of E5, E6, and E7 on the genome of the ancestral Alpha-PV was important and made the colonization of new niches and the emergence of carcinogenic types possible.
- Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection; the deadly duos in vulva. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Tuberc 2018; 65(4):277-279
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus induced immune suppression leads the way for various infections with tuberculosis being the most common. Tuberculosis of the vulva is an extremely rare entity and is seen...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus induced immune suppression leads the way for various infections with tuberculosis being the most common. Tuberculosis of the vulva is an extremely rare entity and is seen in only 1-2% of genital TB with increased risk in HIV co-infection. The co-infection places an immense burden on health care systems and poses particular diagnostic & therapeutic challenges with high mortality and morbidity. We present, here, a rare case of a 47 years postmenopausal female, who presented with itchy ulcerating lesions in the vulva with diagnostic dilemma turned to be vulval tuberculosis and during investigations, was found to be co-infected with HIV. The early diagnosis of TB and HIV in atypical looking lesions of vulva with high index of suspicion could lead to improved outcome.
- Penile intraepithelial neoplasia: Nomenclature, incidence and progression to malignancy in the Netherlands. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Urol 2018 Dec 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is a rarely diagnosed condition. Because of the wide variation of terms used for premalignant intraepithelial neoplasia of the penis, we recommend restricting this nomenclature to penile intraepithelial neoplasia.
- Bladder Carcinoma Presenting as Paget's Disease of Vulva: An Uncommon Entity. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Dermatol 2018 Nov-Dec; 63(6):518-520
- Paget's disease of the vulva is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm, accounting for <5% of all vulvar lesions. The underlying mechanisms of this disease are still poorly understood, however, diagnosing a...
Paget's disease of the vulva is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm, accounting for <5% of all vulvar lesions. The underlying mechanisms of this disease are still poorly understood, however, diagnosing a Pagetoid lesion early is of prime importance as it may forewarn an underlying systemic malignancy. We discuss the case of an elderly female who was being conservatively treated for infectious lesion of the lower urinary tract and vulva for months. She was subsequently confirmed on histopathology with vulvar Paget's and underlying urothelial carcinoma, with the help of an extensive panel of immunohistochemistry.
- A Case of Clitoral Hypertrophy of Unknown Origin. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Obstet Gynecol 2018; 2018:7865832
- Clitoral hypertrophy is caused by disorders of sex development and it is observed from birth in most cases. We encountered a patient in whom normal morphology at birth may have acquired deformity and...
Clitoral hypertrophy is caused by disorders of sex development and it is observed from birth in most cases. We encountered a patient in whom normal morphology at birth may have acquired deformity and hypertrophy. The patient was a 10-year-old girl with a chief complaint of pudendal deformity. The clitoral hood was enlarged and the clitoris size was 8 x 5 mm on the first examination. Various tests were performed. Sex chromosome or hormonal abnormalities and tumorous lesions were not detected, and the ovaries, uterus, and vagina were normal, indicating that disorders of mullerian development were negative. In surgery, reconstruction of the vulva was performed following the Marberger method. The present case may have been a very rare case of acquired hypertrophy of unknown origin.
- [Establishment of a rat model of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesions]. [Journal Article]
- NFNan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 Nov 30; 38(11):1318-1324
- CONCLUSIONS: DMBA in acetone solution combined with mechanical irritation can induce vulvar squamous intraepithelial lesions in female SD rats.
- Application of ultrasound in aggressive angiomyxoma: Eight case reports and review of literature. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Clin Cases 2018 Nov 26; 6(14):811-819
- Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare tumour that often occurs in soft tissues of the female genital tract. Eight cases of AAM are reported in this article, and the clinical features and ultrasound ...
Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare tumour that often occurs in soft tissues of the female genital tract. Eight cases of AAM are reported in this article, and the clinical features and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of the eight cases are reviewed and summarized. The main complaints of all the patients were palpable and painless masses in the vulva or scrotum. The lesions were mainly located in the vulva, pelvis, and perineal region, with a large scope of involvement. The sonographic features of AAM were characteristic. On sonography, all of the masses were of irregular shape and showed hypoechogenicity, with a heterogeneous inner echotexture. Intratumoural and peritumoural blood flows were detected by colour Doppler imaging. On real-time ultrasonic imaging, prominent deformation of the lesions was observed by compressing the masses with the probe. Some special imaging features were also revealed, including a laminated or swirled appearance of inner echogenicity, and a finger-like or tongue-like growth pattern. On MRI imaging, the lesions showed intermediate-intensity signals and intermediate to high-intensity signals on TI-weighted and T2-weighted sequences. A rapid and uneven enhancement pattern was demonstrated. After the comparison of sonographic features with MRI and pathological findings, we found the relevance of the ultrasonographic characteristics with MRI and histological features of AAM. Ultrasound can be a valuable imaging method for the preoperative diagnosis, evaluation of scope, and follow-up of AAM.
- Multiple Epidermolytic Acanthomas: Rare Vulval Lesions Which May be Mistaken for Viral Warts. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Gynecol Pathol 2018 Nov 21
- Epidermolytic acanthoma is a rare benign lesion that most often presents as a solitary or multiple small papular lesions on the trunk, face, limbs or external male genitalia. Only a small number of c...
Epidermolytic acanthoma is a rare benign lesion that most often presents as a solitary or multiple small papular lesions on the trunk, face, limbs or external male genitalia. Only a small number of cases have been reported occurring on the vulva and clinically and histologically they may mimic and be misdiagnosed as viral warts. We report 2 cases of multiple epidermolytic acanthomas localized to the vulva. Molecular tests (in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction) showed no evidence of human papillomavirus infection and p16 staining was negative. We stress the need for pathologists to consider epidermolytic acanthoma in the differential diagnosis of multiple vulval lesions resembling viral warts.
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- A Case Report of Scrotal Rejuvenation: Laser Treatment of Angiokeratomas of the Scrotum. [Journal Article]
- DTDermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Nov 26
- Scrotal rejuvenation encompasses not only the functional quality but also the aesthetic appearance of the scrotum. It includes medical therapy and procedural interventions to improve scrotal conditio...
Scrotal rejuvenation encompasses not only the functional quality but also the aesthetic appearance of the scrotum. It includes medical therapy and procedural interventions to improve scrotal conditions that require morphologic restoration and/or aesthetic alteration. Rejuvenation of the scrotum may be appropriate for aging-related and non-aging-related changes concerning the hair (alopecia and hypertrichosis), the morphology (laxity and wrinkles), and/or the vascularity (angiokeratoma) of the scrotum. Angiokeratomas-typically small, asymptomatic, purple papules-may occur on the scrotum. However, these benign vascular lesions may be of cosmetic concern to the affected individuals; in addition, the angiokeratomas can become an issue of medical importance if they begin to bleed. Multiple locally destructive modalities are available for the treatment of scrotal angiokeratomas; indeed, several lasers have effectively been used to treat angiokeratomas of the scrotum. A 70-year-old man with numerous scrotal angiokeratomas experienced scrotal bleeding in the absence of prior trauma to the area or sexual activity. He presented for treatment to prevent future episodes of spontaneous bleeding from his scrotal angiokeratomas, but he also had not liked the aesthetic appearance of the previously asymptomatic angiokeratomas on his scrotum. His angiokeratomas were successfully treated with three sequential 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser sessions, which led to not only functional but also cosmetic improvement of his scrotum. In conclusion, men can develop scrotal changes due to either intrinsic (aging) or extrinsic (trauma) causes, but nonsurgical interventions and surgical procedures are available for the management of these conditions in individuals who desire to rejuvenate their scrotum.