- Branching out: new insights into the genetic regulation of shoot architecture in trees. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Plant Biol 2018 Oct 16; 47:73-80
- Directional growth in all plants involves both phototropic and gravitropic responses. Accordingly, mechanisms controlling shoot architecture throughout the plant kingdom are likely similar. However, ...
Directional growth in all plants involves both phototropic and gravitropic responses. Accordingly, mechanisms controlling shoot architecture throughout the plant kingdom are likely similar. However, as forms vary between species due in part to gene copy number and functional divergence, some aspects of how plants predetermine and regulate architecture can differ. This is especially true when comparing annual herbaceous species (e.g. model plants) to woody perennials such as trees. In the past decade, inexpensive genomic sequencing and technological advances enabled gene discovery and functional analyses in trees. This led to the identification of genes associated with tree shoot architecture control. Here, we present recent discoveries on the regulation of shoot architectures for which causative genes have been identified, including dwarf, weeping, columnar, and pillar growth habits. We also discuss potential applications of these findings.
- Stellera chamaejasme and Its Main Compound Luteolin 7-O-Glucoside Alleviates Skin Lesions in Oxazolone- and 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Stimulated Murine Models of Atopic Dermatitis. [Journal Article]
- PMPlanta Med 2018 Oct 01
- Stellera chamaejasme, also known as "Langdu", has been traditionally used for the management of skin-related diseases such as psoriasis and skin ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine whether...
Stellera chamaejasme, also known as "Langdu", has been traditionally used for the management of skin-related diseases such as psoriasis and skin ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine whether S. chamaejasme and its major component, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, have a preventive effect on the development of atopic dermatitis in oxazolone-treated BALB/c mice and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-treated hairless mice. The epicutaneous applications of oxazolone and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene evoke an experimental murine atopic dermatitis-like reaction in BALB/c mouse ears and SKH-1 hairless mice. Atopic skin symptoms, including erythema (redness), pruritus (itching), exudation (weeping), excoriation (peeling), and lichenification (skin thickening), responded to treatment with S. chamaejasme aerial parts EtOH extract for 2 or 3 weeks. Histopathological examination revealed S. chamaejasme aerial parts EtOH extract significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration when applied to atopic dermatitis mice. In addition, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, the major active compound of the S. chamaejasme aerial parts EtOH extract, decreased serum IgE and IL-4 levels and transepidermal water loss and increased skin hydration, therefore exhibiting strong anti-atopic dermatitis activity in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis mice. In this study, we confirmed antipruritic and antidermatitic effects of S. chamaejasme extract and its main component luteolin 7-O-glucoside in atopic dermatitis murine models. The study shows S. chamaejasme aerial parts EtOH extract and luteolin 7-O-glucoside are most likely to be potential drug candidates for atopic dermatitis treatment.
- Effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) and associated acidity on ecosystem functioning: response of leaf litter breakdown. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018; 25(30):30720-30727
- Particulate matter (PM2.5 with the diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) as one of the most harmful and complex pollutants can reduce environment quality and affect human health. Through acidification by wet deposition...
Particulate matter (PM2.5 with the diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) as one of the most harmful and complex pollutants can reduce environment quality and affect human health. Through acidification by wet deposition, PM2.5 can cause acid rain to impact aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of PM2.5 effect on ecosystem functioning is highly limited. This study investigated the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, associated acidity, and leaf litter breakdown of three tree species in laboratory experimental mesocosms, which are weeping willow (Salix babylonica), camphor tree(Cinnamomum camphora), and the south magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). We found that leaf litter breakdown was significant affected by PM2.5 and associated acidity. With the increase of acidity, the leaf breakdown rate of all three tree species decreased. With the increase of PM2.5 concentration, the leaf breakdown rates of those leaves slowed down. When considering the influence of leaf toughness, willow leaves with lower toughness had a higher breakdown rate than that of camphor tree and the south magnolia. Our study suggests that PM2.5 has significant impact on the aquatic ecosystem functioning through increasing acidification in aquatic environment. Hence, along with ecological restoration of local aquatic habitats, further freshwater ecosystem management should include reducing air pollution through regional efforts of best ecosystem management.
- Weeping Higan Cherry Tree, Central Park, New York City. [Journal Article]
- JIMJAMA Intern Med 2018 Sep 01; 178(9):1162
- 'Weeping Leg'. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Aug 27; 2018
- Compounded Low-dose Naltrexone for the Treatment of Guttate Psoriasis: A Case Report. [Case Reports]
- IJInt J Pharm Compd 2018 Jul-Aug; 22(4):270-278
- The ancient autoimmune skin condition psoriasis is still ubiquitous worldwide, produces the same, often-intolerable effects noted in its earliest recorded descriptions, and remains without cure. Mana...
The ancient autoimmune skin condition psoriasis is still ubiquitous worldwide, produces the same, often-intolerable effects noted in its earliest recorded descriptions, and remains without cure. Management options designed to resolve the itchy, scaly, weeping, erythematous, and often widespread lesions of that disorder are now available, but they vary in efficacy, most are associated with the development of severe adverse effects, and many are prohibitively expensive. In this article, we describe the successful use of a compounded formulation of oral low-dose naltrexone to manage guttate psoriasis in a 75-year-old white male patient. That therapy produced only 1 adverse effect (dry skin near the lesions on the patient's arms and legs) and was relatively inexpensive. The formulation for that preparation and comments from the patient, the pharmacist who suggested its use, the prescriber, and the compounder who prepared it are included. Many clinicians are unaware of the benefits of compounded low-dose naltrexone in treating autoimmune diseases. We hope that this case report will encourage compounding pharmacists to consider and suggest it as an alternative therapy for patients who cannot tolerate or afford manufactured medications to treat psoriasis.
- Assessment of Likelihood Ratio for Four Contact Dermatitis Symptoms of Vinca Minor. [Journal Article]
- HHomeopathy 2018; 107(3):209-217
- CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to attribute any of the four assessed symptoms clearly to VM. Though non-significant, a high LR was observed for "itching amelioration in open air" (symptom 3). Symptoms in the homeopathic materia medica for VM are perhaps over-represented. More research of this nature is warranted.
- Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 05 15; 115(20):E4690-E4699
- Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While s...
Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325, having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP, was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications.
- A weeping ulcer that vanished with a 'SMILE'. [Journal Article]
- BRBlood Res 2018; 53(1):8
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- A new flavonoid from Stellera chamaejasme L., stechamone, alleviated 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in a murine model. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2018; 59:113-119
- Stellera chamaejasme L. (family Thymelaeaceae), also known as 'Langdu', has been traditionally used to treat of skin-related diseases, such as, psoriasis and skin ulcers. The aim of this study was to...
Stellera chamaejasme L. (family Thymelaeaceae), also known as 'Langdu', has been traditionally used to treat of skin-related diseases, such as, psoriasis and skin ulcers. The aim of this study was to identify the biologically active component of S. chamaejasme and evaluate its preventive effects on IL-4 and mast cell degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells and on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-treated SKH-1 hairless mice. A novel flavonoid, genkwanin 5-O-xylosyl(1 → 2)glucoside (named stechamone), and three known compounds (umbelliferone, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside) were isolated from the aerial parts of S. chamaejasme using chromatographic methods. Of these four compounds, stechamone most potently inhibited IL-4 production and mast cell degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. Topical application of 0.5% stechamone improved atopic skin symptoms, including, erythema (redness), pruritus (itching), exudation (weeping), excoriation (peeling), and lichenification (skin thickening) in DNCB-treated AD mice by accelerating skin barrier recovery function and suppressing inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, stechamone attenuated DNCB-induced increases in IL-4 (an inflammatory TH2 cytokine) expression and in serum IgE levels in our murine model of AD. DNCB induced AD-like skin lesions, but treatment with stechamone exhibited strong anti-atopic activity by regulating skin barrier function and reducing inflammatory responses. The results obtained suggest stechamone is a potential anti-atopic agent and treatment for skin inflammatory diseases.