- Symbiotic microbiota may reflect host adaptation by resident to invasive ant species. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2019 Jul 19; 15(7):e1007942
- Exotic invasive species can influence the behavior and ecology of native and resident species, but these changes are often overlooked. Here we hypothesize that the ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum,…
Exotic invasive species can influence the behavior and ecology of native and resident species, but these changes are often overlooked. Here we hypothesize that the ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum, living in areas that have been invaded by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, displays behavioral differences to interspecific competition that are reflected in both its trophic position and symbiotic microbiota. We demonstrate that T. melanocephalum workers from S. invicta invaded areas are less aggressive towards workers of S. invicta than those inhabiting non-invaded areas. Nitrogen isotope analyses reveal that colonies of T. melanocephalum have protein-rich diets in S. invicta invaded areas compared with the carbohydrate-rich diets of colonies living in non-invaded areas. Analysis of microbiota isolated from gut tissue shows that T. melanocephalum workers from S. invicta invaded areas also have different bacterial communities, including a higher abundance of Wolbachia that may play a role in vitamin B provisioning. In contrast, the microbiota of workers of T. melanocephalum from S. invicta-free areas are dominated by bacteria from the orders Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Enterobacteriales that may be involved in sugar metabolism. We further demonstrate experimentally that the composition and structure of the bacterial symbiont communities as well as the prevalence of vitamin B in T. melanocephalum workers from S. invicta invaded and non-invaded areas can be altered if T. melanocephalum workers are supplied with either protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich food. Our results support the hypothesis that bacterial symbiont communities can help hosts by buffering behavioral changes caused by interspecies competition as a consequence of biological invasions.
- Incompatible and sterile insect techniques combined eliminate mosquitoes. [Journal Article]
- NatNature 2019 Jul 17
- The radiation-based sterile insect technique (SIT) has successfully suppressed field populations of several insect pest species, but its effect on mosquito vector control has been limited. The relate…
The radiation-based sterile insect technique (SIT) has successfully suppressed field populations of several insect pest species, but its effect on mosquito vector control has been limited. The related incompatible insect technique (IIT)-which uses sterilization caused by the maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia-is a promising alternative, but can be undermined by accidental release of females infected with the same Wolbachia strain as the released males. Here we show that combining incompatible and sterile insect techniques (IIT-SIT) enables near elimination of field populations of the world's most invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus. Millions of factory-reared adult males with an artificial triple-Wolbachia infection were released, with prior pupal irradiation of the released mosquitoes to prevent unintentionally released triply infected females from successfully reproducing in the field. This successful field trial demonstrates the feasibility of area-wide application of combined IIT-SIT for mosquito vector control.
- Review of Dancing Parasites in Lymphatic Filariasis. [Review]
- UIUltrasound Int Open 2019; 5(2):E65-E74
- Lymphatic filariasis is an infection transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes with filarial nematodes of the species Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi und B. timori . It is prevalent in tropical cou…
Lymphatic filariasis is an infection transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes with filarial nematodes of the species Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi und B. timori . It is prevalent in tropical countries throughout the world, with more than 60 million people infected and more than 1 billion living in areas with the risk of transmission. Worm larvae with a length of less than 1 mm are transmitted by mosquitoes, develop in human lymphatic tissue to adult worms with a length of 7-10 cm, live in the human body for up to 10 years and produce millions of microfilariae, which can be transmitted further by mosquitoes. The adult worms can be easily observed by ultrasonography because of their size and fast movements (the so-called "filarial dance sign"), which can be differentiated from other movements (e. g., blood in venous vessels) by their characteristic movement profile in pulsed-wave Doppler mode. Therapeutic options include (combinations of) ivermectin, albendazole, diethylcarbamazine and doxycycline. The latter depletes endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria from the worms and thus sterilizes and later kills the adult worms (macrofilaricidal or adulticidal effect).
- Herbivore range expansion triggers adaptation in a subsequently-associated third trophic level species and shared microbial symbionts. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 16; 9(1):10314
- Invasive species may change the life history strategies, distribution, genetic configuration and trophic interactions of native species. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., is an invasive h…
Invasive species may change the life history strategies, distribution, genetic configuration and trophic interactions of native species. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., is an invasive herbivore attacking cultivated and wild brassica plants worldwide. Here we present phylogeographic analyses of P. xylostella and one of its major parasitoids, Cotesia vestalis, using mitochondrial markers, revealing the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of these two species. We find evidence that C. vestalis originated in Southwest China, then adapted to P. xylostella as a new host by ecological sorting as P. xylostella expanded its geographic range into this region. Associated with the expansion of P. xylostella, Wolbachia symbionts were introduced into local populations of the parasitoid through horizontal transfer from its newly associated host. Insights into the evolutionary history and phylogeographic system of the herbivore and its parasitoid provide an important basis for better understanding the impacts of biological invasion on genetic configuration of local species.
- AI- modelling of molecular identification and feminization of wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti. [Journal Article]
- PBProg Biophys Mol Biol 2019 Jul 11
- CONCLUSIONS: From our analysis, we have concluded that the genetic control strategy is a promising technique and the role of Wolbachia infected male mosquitos, in genetic control strategies, can be better interpreted in an inexpensive manner with the aid of a theoretical model.
- Endosymbiotic Bacteria Are Prevalent and Diverse in Agricultural Spiders. [Journal Article]
- MEMicrob Ecol 2019 Jul 12
- Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts are common in arthropods, but their distribution and prevalence are poorly characterized in many host taxa. Initial surveys have suggested that vertically…
Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts are common in arthropods, but their distribution and prevalence are poorly characterized in many host taxa. Initial surveys have suggested that vertically transmitted symbionts may be particularly common in spiders (Araneae). Here, we used diagnostic PCR and high-throughput sequencing to evaluate symbiont infection in 267 individual spiders representing 14 species (3 families) of agricultural spiders. We found 27 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are likely endosymbiotic, including multiple strains of Wolbachia, Rickettsia, and Cardinium, which are all vertically transmitted and frequently associated with reproductive manipulation of arthropod hosts. Additional strains included Rickettsiella, Spiroplasma, Rhabdochlamydia, and a novel Rickettsiales, all of which could range from pathogenic to mutualistic in their effects upon their hosts. Seventy percent of spider species had individuals that tested positive for one or more endosymbiotic OTUs, and specimens frequently contained multiple symbiotic strain types. The most symbiont-rich species, Idionella rugosa, had eight endosymbiotic OTUs, with as many as five present in the same specimen. Individual specimens within infected spider species had a variety of symbiotypes, differing from one another in the presence or absence of symbiotic strains. Our sample included both starved and unstarved specimens, and dominant bacterial OTUs were consistent per host species, regardless of feeding status. We conclude that spiders contain a remarkably diverse symbiotic microbiota. Spiders would be an informative group for investigating endosymbiont population dynamics in time and space, and unstarved specimens collected for other purposes (e.g., food web studies) could be used, with caution, for such investigations.
- Author Correction: The Wolbachia mobilome in Culex pipiens includes a putative plasmid. [Published Erratum]
- NCNat Commun 2019 Jul 12; 10(1):3153
- An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
- Molecular evidence of bacteria in Melophagus ovinus sheep keds and Hippobosca equina forest flies collected from sheep and horses in northeastern Algeria. [Journal Article]
- CIComp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019; 65:103-109
- The sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus, and the forest fly, Hippobosca equina, are parasitic dipteran insects of veterinary importance. As hematophagous insects, they might be considered as potential vecto…
The sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus, and the forest fly, Hippobosca equina, are parasitic dipteran insects of veterinary importance. As hematophagous insects, they might be considered as potential vectors of diseases which may be transmissible to humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to present initial primary data about these two species in Algeria. To do so, we conducted a molecular survey to detect the presence of bacterial DNA in flies collected in Algeria. A total of 712 flies including, 683 Melophagus ovinus and 29 Hippobosca equina were collected from two regions in northeastern Algeria. Monitoring the monthly kinetics of M. ovinus infestations showed something resembling annual activity, with a high prevalence in January (21.67%) and May (20.94%). Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that for 311 tested flies, 126 were positive for the Bartonella spp. rRNA intergenic spacer gene and 77 were positive for Anaplasmataceae. A random selection of positive samples was submitted for sequencing. The DNA of Bartonella chomelii and Bartonella melophagi were amplified in, respectively, five and four H. equina. 25 M. ovinus positive samples were infected by Bartonella melophagi. Amplification and sequencing of the Anaplasma spp. 23S rRNA gene revealed that both species were infected by Wolbachia sp. which had previously been detected in Cimex lectularius bed bugs. Overall, this study expanded knowledge about bacteria present in parasitic flies of domestic animals in Algeria.
- Co-infection of bacteria and protozoan parasites in Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in the Alsace region, France. [Journal Article]
- TTTicks Tick Borne Dis 2019 Jun 08
- Fifty nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Alsace, France, identified by morphological criteria and using MALDI-TOF MS, were tested by PCR to detect tick-associated bacteria and protozoan parasi…
Fifty nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Alsace, France, identified by morphological criteria and using MALDI-TOF MS, were tested by PCR to detect tick-associated bacteria and protozoan parasites. Seventy percent (35/50) of ticks contained at least one microorganism; 26% (9/35) contained two or more species. Several human pathogens were identified including Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (4%), Borrelia afzelii (2%), Borrelia garinii (2%), Borrelia valaisiana (4%), Borrelia miyamotoi (2%), Rickettsia helvetica (6%) and "Babesia venatorum" (2%). Bartonella spp. (10%) and a Wolbachia spp. (8%) were also detected. The most common co-infections involved Anaplasmataceae with Borrelia spp. (4%), Anaplasmataceae with Bartonella spp. (6%) and Anaplasmataceae with Rickettsia spp. (6%). Co-infection involving three different groups of bacteria was seen between bacteria of the family Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia spp. and Bartonella spp. (2%). Results highlight the panel of infectious agents carried by Ixodes ricinus. Co-infection suggests the possibility of transmission of more than one pathogen to human and animals during tick blood feeding.
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- [Wolbachia bacteria inhibits mosquito infection by various human pathogens]. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci (Paris) 2019 Jun-Jul; 35(6-7):584-585