- Modeling of cigarette smoke constituents - From intense to less intense smoking regime. [Journal Article]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Sep 15
- Since it was first required to measure and to report NFDPM and nicotine yields in a limited number of countries, there has been an increasing trend for more testing and reporting requirements. Histor...
Since it was first required to measure and to report NFDPM and nicotine yields in a limited number of countries, there has been an increasing trend for more testing and reporting requirements. Historically, the ISO 3308 smoking regime has been used to determine NFDPM and nicotine yields. However recommendations from the World Health Organization, now include the use of two smoking regimes such as the ISO 3308 and the WHO TobLabNet Official Method SOP01, the latter being considered as an intense smoking regime. Considering the increase in data produced and similarities between some smoke constituents formed during combustion, we explored possible correlations between emissions under intense and less intense smoking conditions. A set of 22 commercial cigarettes was tested. Eighty five smoke constituents were determined under both intense and less intense regimes. In addition 36 tobacco constituents, 14 cigarette design parameters and eight cigarette burning features were determined. A computational process was designed to implement multiple linear regression analyses enabling the identification of the best subsets of explanatory variables among emissions under intense conditions, cigarette design parameters, tobacco constituents and burning parameters. We succeeded in building simple linear models, involving four to six variables, while reaching satisfactory goodness of fit and R-squared values ranging from 0.87 to 1.00. Our findings suggest, in the range of products tested, that the additional data gained by using a second smoking regime does not necessarily increase the volume of information and consequently does not necessarily improve knowledge. This study supports the premise that the application of two smoking regimes does not produce a more comprehensive product characterisation compared to using one.
- A Delphi consultation to assess indicators of readiness to provide quality health facility-based Lymphoedema management services. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Sep 18; 12(9):e0006699
- CONCLUSIONS: The Delphi consultation provided an efficient and structured method for gaining consensus among lymphatic filariasis experts around key lymphoedema management quality indicators. The results from this analysis were used to refine the indicators included within the direct inspection protocol tool to ensure its ability to assess health facility readiness to provide quality lymphoedema management services.
- Nutritional quality of food as represented by the FSAm-NPS nutrient profiling system underlying the Nutri-Score label and cancer risk in Europe: Results from the EPIC prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- PMPLoS Med 2018; 15(9):e1002651
- CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.
- Frequent Genetic Mismatch between Vaccine Strains and Circulating Seasonal Influenza Viruses, Hong Kong, China, 1996-2012. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(10):1825-1834
- The World Health Organization selects influenza vaccine compositions biannually to cater to peaks in temperate regions. In tropical and subtropical regions, where influenza seasonality varies and epi...
The World Health Organization selects influenza vaccine compositions biannually to cater to peaks in temperate regions. In tropical and subtropical regions, where influenza seasonality varies and epidemics can occur year-round, the choice of vaccine remains uncertain. Our 17-year molecular epidemiologic survey showed that most influenza A(H3N2) (9/11) and B (6/7) vaccine strains had circulated in East Asia >1 year before inclusion into vaccines. Northern Hemisphere vaccine strains and circulating strains in East Asia were closely matched in 7 (20.6%) of 34 seasons for H3N2 and 5 (14.7%) of 34 seasons for B. Southern Hemisphere vaccines also had a low probability of matching (H3N2, 14.7%; B, 11.1%). Strain drift among seasons was common (H3N2, 41.2%; B, 35.3%), and biannual vaccination strategy (Northern Hemisphere vaccines in November followed by Southern Hemisphere vaccines in May) did not improve matching. East Asia is an important contributor to influenza surveillance but often has mismatch between vaccine and contemporarily circulating strains.
- External Quality Assessment for Zika Virus Molecular Diagnostic Testing, Brazil. [Letter]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2018; 24(10):1966
- Management and Follow-up Practices of Children with Unclassified Fever in Rural Ethiopia: Experiences of Health Extension Workers and Caregivers. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 17
- Different health-care management guidelines by the World Health Organization exist to help health workers in resource-limited settings treat patients. However, for children with unclassified fever an...
Different health-care management guidelines by the World Health Organization exist to help health workers in resource-limited settings treat patients. However, for children with unclassified fever and no danger signs, management guidelines are less clear and follow-up recommendations differ. Both "universal follow-up" for all children, irrespective of health status, and "conditional follow-up" only for children whose fever persists are recommended in different guidelines. It is unclear how feasible and acceptable these two different guidelines are among community health workers and caregivers of the sick child. This qualitative study was conducted in Ethiopia and was nested within a cluster-randomized controlled trial (cRCT). It aimed to determine health extension workers' (HEWs') and caregivers' experience of the management of febrile children and their perceptions of universal versus conditional follow-up recommendations. Seventeen HEWs and 20 caregivers were interviewed. The interviews revealed that HEWs' understanding of how to handle an unclassified fever diagnosis increased with the implementation of the cRCT in both study arms (universal versus conditional follow-up). This enabled HEWs to withhold medicines from children with this condition and avoid referral to health centers. Both follow-up recommendations had perceived advantages, while the universal follow-up provided an opportunity to see the child's health progress, the conditional follow-up advice allowed saving time and costs. The findings suggest that improved awareness of the unclassified fever condition can make HEWs feel more comfortable in managing these febrile children themselves and omitting unnecessary medication. Future community-level management guidelines should provide clearer instructions on managing fever where no malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea, or danger signs are present.
- Intake, sources and determinants of free sugars intake in Australian children aged 12-14 months. [Journal Article]
- MCMatern Child Nutr 2018 Sep 18; :e12692
- The consumption of free sugars is directly associated with adiposity and dental caries in early childhood, however intake data in the first two years of life is limited. This cross-sectional analysis...
The consumption of free sugars is directly associated with adiposity and dental caries in early childhood, however intake data in the first two years of life is limited. This cross-sectional analysis aims to identify major food sources of free sugars for Australian children aged 12-14 months, and investigate factors associated with meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) Guideline for sugars intake. Three days of non-consecutive dietary data were collected via a 24-hour recall and 2-day food record for 828 participants. Usual intake of energy, total sugars and free sugars were estimated, along with food group contributions to free sugars. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with exceeding the WHO conservative recommendation that <5% of energy should come from free sugars. Mean free sugars intake was 8.8 (SD 7.7, IQR 3.7-11.6) g/day, contributing 3.6% (SD 2.8, IQR 1.6-4.8) of energy. Only 2.4% of participants exceeded the WHO recommendation that <10% of energy should come from free sugars, with 22.8% of participants exceeding the <5% recommendation. Children from households with greater socioeconomic disadvantage (IRSAD <5, OR=1.94) and in the lowest income bracket (OR=2.10) were more likely to have intakes ≥5% of energy. Major food sources of free sugars were commercial infant foods (26.6%), cereal-based products (19.7%), namely sweet biscuits (8.3%) and cakes (7.6%), followed by yoghurt (9.6%), and fruit and vegetable beverages (7.4%). These findings highlight the substantial contribution of infant foods to free sugars intakes, and provide further evidence that dietary intakes are influenced by social determinants.
- Retention on ART and predictors of disengagement from care in several alternative community-centred ART refill models in rural Swaziland. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int AIDS Soc 2018; 21(9):e25183
- CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent implementation of three alternative community-centred ART models in the same region was feasible. Although a considerable proportion of patients returned back to clinical care, overall ART retention was high and should encourage programme managers to offer community-centred care models adapted to their specific setting.
- Sexually transmitted infections and HIV RNA levels in blood and anogenital compartments among Thai men who have sex with men before and after antiretroviral therapy: implication for Treatment as Prevention programme. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Int AIDS Soc 2018; 21(9):e25186
- CONCLUSIONS: STIs were extremely common among HIV-positive MSM prior to and after ART. ART effectively reduced HIV RNA in all compartments. The correlation between STIs and anogenital HIV RNA, especially prior to ART and likely until complete HIV RNA suppression from ART is achieved, points to the importance of integrating asymptomatic STIs screening into Treatment as Prevention programme for MSM.
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- Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) attenuates sperm hyperactivity and spontaneous acrosome reaction. [Journal Article]
- AAndrology 2018 Sep 17
- CONCLUSIONS: PON1 may have a positive effect on fertility via its ability to prevent early spontaneous sperm capacitation and AR before reaching the female genital tract.