- Disrupted structural and functional brain networks in Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- NANeurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 16; 75:71-82
- Studies have demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with abnormal connections in either functional connectivity networks (FCNs) or structural connect...
Studies have demonstrated that the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with abnormal connections in either functional connectivity networks (FCNs) or structural connectivity networks (SCNs). However, the FCN and SCN of AD have usually been examined separately, and the results were inconsistent. In this multimodal study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 patients with AD and 39 matched healthy controls (HCs). Graph-theory analysis was used to investigate the topological organization of the FCN and SCN simultaneously. Compared with HCs, both the FCN and SCN of patients with AD showed disrupted network integration (i.e., increased characteristic path length) and segregation (i.e., decreased intramodular connections in the default mode network). Moreover, the FCN, but not the SCN, exhibited a reduced clustering coefficient and reduced rich club connections in AD. The coupling (i.e., correlation) of the FCN and SCN in AD was increased in connections of the default mode network and the rich club. These findings demonstrated overlapping and distinct network disruptions in the FCN and SCN and a strengthened correlation between FCNs and SCNs in AD, which provides a novel perspective for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD.
- Dual use in the 21st century: emerging risks and global governance. [Journal Article]
- SMSwiss Med Wkly 2018 Nov 19; 148:w14688
- Dual use research of concern (DURC) is defined by the World Health Organization as "life sciences research that is intended for benefit, but which might easily be misapplied to do harm." Ethical and ...
Dual use research of concern (DURC) is defined by the World Health Organization as "life sciences research that is intended for benefit, but which might easily be misapplied to do harm." Ethical and policy discussions on DURC span the past three decades. Today, however, new and emerging technologies and associated sociocultural transformations within the scientific community are reshaping the current risk scenario. This paper identifies three major trends that are likely to characterise dual use dilemmas in the near future: the diversification of dual use domains, the digitalisation of potential threats and the proliferation of actors. This analysis illustrates an increasingly heterogeneous and fragmented risk scenario, which can hardly be effectively governed top-down from a centralised authority. We propose that in order to meet the critical challenges of dual use in the 21st century, a global and distributed governance is needed. In contrast to globally binding sets of legal mechanisms administered by a central and hierarchical authority supported by leading powers, we suggest a global and decentralised governance architecture encompassing multilevel, multipolar and bottom-up strategies that can stretch across a spectrum of stakeholders and scientific domains in an agile, proactive and adaptive manner. Finally, we discuss how Switzerland can take a leading role in the promotion and development of this global governance architecture.
- Undocumented migrants' life situations: an exploratory analysis of quality of life and living conditions in a sample of undocumented migrants living in Norway. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Nurs 2018 Dec 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Our respondents' poor quality of life was related to the complex interplay between possible exposures to traumatic experiences before and during flight and post-migration traumatisation in relation to our respondents' experiences of economic, social and acculturative hardship in Norway.Responses called for to improve undocumented migrants' quality of life and eliminate barriers to their health care appeal more to nurses as a professional group and to those in positions of authority than each individual nurse on duty. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Concentration, sources and human health risk of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bound PM2.5 ambient air, Tehran, Iran. [Journal Article]
- EGEnviron Geochem Health 2018 Dec 14
- The exposure to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) ambient air can result in some adverse health effect. In the current study, PM2.5 ambi...
The exposure to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) ambient air can result in some adverse health effect. In the current study, PM2.5 ambient air of Tehran metropolitan, Iran, was characterized by the aid of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques. Also, the human health risk of heavy metals and PAHs bound PM2.5 for adults and children was assessed using the Monte Carlo simulation method. According to our findings, a size range of 0.97-2.46 μm with an average diameter of 1.56 μm for PM2.5 was noted. The average concentration of PM2.5 in ambient air (8.29E+04 ± 2.94E+04 ng m-3) significantly (p < 0.05) was suppressed the national (2.50E+04 ng m-3), World Health Organization (2.50E+04 ng m-3) and Environmental Protection Agency (3.50E+04 ng m-3) standard limits. The rank order of heavy metals bound PM2.5 was determined as Al > Cu > Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn. The maximum concentration among 16 PAHs compounds investigated was correlated with Phenanthrene. Considering the principal component analysis, the main source of heavy metals (Ni, Pb and Cr) is vehicle combustion. Moreover, the rank order of exposure pathways based on their health risk was ingestion > inhalation > dermal contact. Moreover, the significant health risks for Tehran residents due to heavy metals bound PM2.5 [target hazard quotient > 1; carcinogenic risk > 1.00E-06)] were noted based on the health risk assessment. Excessive carcinogenic risk (ECR) of PAHs bound PM2.5 was 4.16E-07 that demonstrated that there is no considerable risk (ECR < 1.00E-06).
- [Image-based screening]. [Review]
- RRadiologe 2018 Dec 14
- Screening is a special issue in medical questions concerning disease prevention. Preconditions for screening are clearly defined by the World Health Organization. High prevalence, effectiveness of th...
Screening is a special issue in medical questions concerning disease prevention. Preconditions for screening are clearly defined by the World Health Organization. High prevalence, effectiveness of therapy, availability of accepted test procedure and consensus concerning the economic concerns are necessary for successful implementation of a screening program. Preventive diagnostic studies can only be understood if one is familiar with the statistical terms sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, incidence and bias (especially overdiagnosis and lead time bias). Aspects of radiation protection are especially important in asymptomatic volunteers. The new radiation protection law in Germany also gives the opportunity to define new screening procedures even with use of radiation exposure in individual prevention programs. Potential diseases for radiological secondary prevention with high mortality are malignant tumors (especially breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer) and cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke or aortic aneurysm).
- Characterization of Right Ventricular Deformation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Using Three-Dimensional Principal Strain Analysis. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Soc Echocardiogr 2018 Dec 11
- CONCLUSIONS: PS analysis using three-dimensional echocardiography provides comprehensive quantification of RV deformation and characterizes alterations occurring in PAH that are associated with WHO functional class.
- An overview of the immunogenicity and effectiveness of current human rabies vaccines administered by intradermal route. [Journal Article]
- VVaccine 2018 Dec 11
- Pre- as well as post-exposure prophylaxis plays an important role in controlling the number of deaths associated with human rabies. Rabies vaccines, classically injected intramuscularly, are now also...
Pre- as well as post-exposure prophylaxis plays an important role in controlling the number of deaths associated with human rabies. Rabies vaccines, classically injected intramuscularly, are now also administered by intradermal (ID) route. Vaccines to be administered by the ID route should meet the same quality, safety and efficacy specifications as vaccines for intramuscular (IM) use. The aim of this paper is to provide information based on publicly available data regarding the ID use of rabies vaccines and to identify potential needs for further analysis of the potency, immunogenicity and effectiveness of rabies vaccines administered by this route. A first literature search, focused on the immunogenicity of rabies vaccines given by ID route, identified 338 publications in the period 1997-2018, 40 of which were included in our analyses. A second search investigating the effectiveness of ID vaccination resulted in 371 hits for the period 2007-2018, of which 13 suitable publications were retained. The immunogenicity of current rabies vaccines was analyzed in 3 ways: proportion of subjects reaching the antibody threshold of 0.5 IU/ml after ID vaccination, relationship between potency and immunogenicity of the vaccine given intradermally, and comparison of antibody responses after IM or ID vaccination. Overall, vaccines administered intradermally were found immunogenic. Post-exposure prophylaxis by ID route appeared at least as immunogenic as by IM regimens. By contrast, ID pre-exposure prophylaxis trended towards lower antibody titers than IM vaccination, but the observation was not associated with any clinical relevance. Vaccine effectiveness was assessed by investigating survival after exposure. Data from more than 30,000 patients who sought rabies post-exposure prophylaxis did not indicate that current vaccines administered by ID route lack efficacy. These results support current recommendations for ID vaccination against rabies. However, published data on ID performance were associated with significant weaknesses that future research should better address.
- An Approach Towards Reducing Road Traffic Injuries and Improving Public Health Through Big Data Telematics: A Randomised Controlled Trial Protocol. [Journal Article]
- AIArch Iran Med 2018 Nov 01; 21(11):495-501
- Deaths due to road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major public health concern around the world. Developing countries are over-represented in these statistics. Punitive measures are traditionally empl...
Deaths due to road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major public health concern around the world. Developing countries are over-represented in these statistics. Punitive measures are traditionally employed to lower RTA related behavioural risk factors. These are, however, resource intensive and require infrastructure development. This is a randomised controlled study to investigate the effect of non-punitive behavioural intervention through peer-comparison feedback based on driver behaviour data gathered by an in-vehicle telematics device.
- Body Mass Index is Strongly Associated with Hypertension: Results from the Longevity Check-up 7+ Study. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2018 Dec 13; 10(12)
- The present study was undertaken to provide a better insight into the relationship between different levels of body mass index (BMI) and changing risk for hypertension, using an unselected sample of ...
The present study was undertaken to provide a better insight into the relationship between different levels of body mass index (BMI) and changing risk for hypertension, using an unselected sample of participants assessed during the Longevity Check-up 7+ (Lookup7+) project. Lookup7+ is an ongoing cross-sectional survey started in June 2015 and conducted in unconventional settings (i.e., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns) across Italy. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Specific health metrics are assessed through a brief questionnaire and direct measurement of standing height, body weight, blood glucose, total blood cholesterol, and blood pressure. The present analyses were conducted in 7907 community-living adults. According to the BMI cutoffs recommended by the World Health Organization, overweight status was observed among 2896 (38%) participants; the obesity status was identified in 1135 participants (15%), with 893 (11.8%) participants in class I, 186 (2.5%) in class II, and 56 (0.7%) in class III. Among enrollees with a normal BMI, the prevalence of hypertension was 45% compared with 67% among overweight participants, 79% in obesity class I and II, and up to 87% among participants with obesity class III (p for trend < 0.001). After adjusting for age, significantly different distributions of systolic and diastolic blood pressure across BMI levels were consistent. Overall, the average systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly and linearly across BMI levels. In conclusion, we found a gradient of increasing blood pressure with higher levels of BMI. The fact that this gradient is present even in the fully adjusted analyses suggests that BMI may cause a direct effect on blood pressure, independent of other clinical risk factors.
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- Two Extraordinary Sellar Neuronal Tumors: Literature Review and Comparison of Clinicopathologic Features. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Clin Pathol 2018 Dec 14
- CONCLUSIONS: In evaluating a sellar tumor with an uncommon morphology and neuroendocrine differentiation, an increased awareness of the unusual entities that may involve the sellar region and a judicious panel of immunohistochemical studies should improve the diagnosis.