- Fixation of the Fractured Lunate in Kienböck Disease. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hand Surg Am 2018 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography of the lunate in Kienböck disease is an important investigative tool. A coronal split fracture of these lunates can be salvageable by internal fixation. Revascularization of the lunate can be performed when the fragment is of sufficient size.
- Midterm Outcomes of the Use of a Spherical Ulnar Head Prosthesis for Failed Sauvé-Kapandji Procedures. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hand Surg Am 2018 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The midterm results of ceramic spherical UHP for failed SK procedures in this small patient series are encouraging.
- Treatment of Madelung Deformity With Vicker Ligament Release and Radial Physiolyses: A Case Series. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hand Surg Am 2018 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with early Madelung deformity, Vicker ligament release with radial physiolysis is a safe treatment option that theoretically has the potential to minimize the progression of radiographic deformity.
- Unique Variant of NOD2 Pediatric Granulomatous Arthritis With Severe 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-Mediated Hypercalcemia and Generalized Osteosclerosis. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Miner Res 2018 Jun 22
- Pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) refers to two formerly separate entities; autosomal dominant Blau syndrome (BS) and its sporadic phenocopy early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). In 2001 BS and in 200...
Pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) refers to two formerly separate entities; autosomal dominant Blau syndrome (BS) and its sporadic phenocopy early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). In 2001 BS and in 2005 EOS became explained by heterozygous mutations within the gene that encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also called caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15). NOD2 is a microbe sensor in leukocyte cytosol that activates and regulates inflammation. PGA is characterized by a triad of auto-inflammatory problems (dermatitis, uveitis, and arthritis) in early childhood, which suggests the causal NOD2/CARD15 mutations are activating defects. Additional complications of PGA were recognized especially when NOD2 mutation analysis became generally available. However, in PGA hypercalcemia is only briefly mentioned, and generalized osteosclerosis is not reported although NOD2 regulates NF-κB signaling essential for osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Herein, we report a 4-year-old girl with PGA uniquely complicated by severe 1,25(OH)2 D-mediated hypercalcemia, nephrocalcinosis, and compromised renal function together with radiological and histopathological features of osteopetrosis (OPT). The classic triad of PGA complications was absent although joint pain and an antalgic gait accompanied wrist, knee, and ankle swelling and soft non-tender masses over her hands, knees, and feet. MRI revealed tenosynovitis in her hands and suprapatellar effusions. Synovial biopsy demonstrated reactive synovitis without granulomas. Spontaneous resolution of metaphyseal osteosclerosis occurred while biochemical markers indicated active bone turnover. Anti-inflammatory medications suppressed circulating 1,25(OH)2 D, corrected the hypercalcemia, and improved her renal function, joint pain and swelling, and gait. Mutation analysis excluded idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, type 1, and known forms of OPT, and identified a heterozygous germline missense mutation in NOD2 common in PGA (c.1001G > A, p.Arg334Gln). Thus, radiological and histological findings of OPT and severe hypercalcemia from apparent extrarenal production of 1,25(OH)2 D can complicate NOD2-associated PGA. Although the skeletal findings seem inconsequential, treatment of the hypercalcemia is crucial to protect the kidneys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- A case report on rare occurrence of periosteal ganglion cyst in femoral intercondylar region. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Orthop Trauma 2018; 9(Suppl 2):S44-S48
- Ganglions are the cysts derived from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular tissue, commonly found around wrist and foot. Ganglion cysts are uncommon in Knee region and if present their occurrence ...
Ganglions are the cysts derived from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular tissue, commonly found around wrist and foot. Ganglion cysts are uncommon in Knee region and if present their occurrence is mostly incidental and benign. Based on their location, this could be extraarticular or intraarticular. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral region around joints are lesser common entity called Intraosseous ganglions. Rarer still is the lesion produced by myxomatous degeneration of periosteum of long bone, called periosteal ganglion. We here present a case of 35 year old Male with gradual onset, poorly localised pain behind left knee which was radiologically suggestive of periosteal ganglion, eroding the posterior aspect of femur and confirmed histopathologically following the excision of a lesion from posterior aspect of femoral condyles.
- TFCC Injuries: Meta-Analysis and Comparison of Diagnostic Imaging Modalities. [Journal Article]
- JWJ Wrist Surg 2018; 7(3):267-272
- Background Imaging of the triangular fibrocartilaginous complex (TFCC) remains difficult, as no single imaging modality demonstrates perfect sensitivity and specificity. Purpose This study performs...
Background Imaging of the triangular fibrocartilaginous complex (TFCC) remains difficult, as no single imaging modality demonstrates perfect sensitivity and specificity. Purpose This study performs a meta-analysis of multiple previous publications to guide noninvasive imaging selection for the diagnosis of TFCC injuries. Methods A literature search was performed and conducted. Studies were included that compared the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA), and computed tomography (CT)/computed tomographic arthrography (CTA) for the evaluation of TFCC injuries. All studies included either arthroscopic or open surgical findings as the "gold standard." A meta-analysis was performed comparing the diagnostic accuracy of MRA, MRI, and CT for the detection of TFCC injuries. Results Initial search returned 2,568 candidate articles. Studies were then reviewed and narrowed yielding a total of 28 independent studies (20 MRI, 9 MRA, 4 CT/CTA with some studies including multiple modalities) considered in the qualitative data synthesis. Pooling of the raw data in a meta-analysis demonstrated sensitivities of 0.76 (0.72-0.80), 0.78(0.70-0.84), and 0.89 (0.81-0.95) for MRI, MRA, and CT arthrogram, respectively, with specificities of 0.82 (0.77-0.86), 0.85 (0.77-0.92), and 0.89 (0.81-0.95), respectively. Additionally, across all imaging modalities, diagnostic accuracy was highest for central TFCC lesions versus peripheral lesions. Conclusion This study represents the largest meta-analysis to date to compare multiple imaging modalities for the diagnosis of TFCC injuries. Pooled data demonstrated that CTA and MRA had statistically equivalent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of TFCC injuries. Diagnostic accuracy was highest for central TFCC injuries.
- The Effect of Axial Loading on Ulnar Variance. [Journal Article]
- JWJ Wrist Surg 2018; 7(3):247-252
- Background Forearm rotation results in change in ulnar variance. Axial loading of the wrist is required to maintain daily activities. Change in ulnar variance during axial loading has not been inves...
Background Forearm rotation results in change in ulnar variance. Axial loading of the wrist is required to maintain daily activities. Change in ulnar variance during axial loading has not been investigated previously. Purpose To measure the change in ulnar variance on axially loaded wrists. Patients and Methods We examined 21 asymptomatic individuals and 24 patients with unilateral ulnar-sided wrist pain. All patients underwent standard neutral posteroanterior wrist radiographs without load and under axial loading on bilateral wrists. Axial loading was standardized at 18.1 kgf using an analog weight scale. A magnetic resonance (MR) arthrogram was obtained only in patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain. Beighton flexibility score was recorded on healthy volunteers. Change in ulnar variance between 0 and 18.1 kgf was compared for each wrist among all subjects. A correlation was sought between the change in ulnar variance, MR arthrogram findings, and physical examination. Results In individuals without wrist pain, on average, 0.4 mm increase in ulnar variance was measured between 0 and 18.1 kgf. There was no difference between the dominant and nondominant side. No correlation was found with increasing age. In contrast, patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain displayed an average increase of 0.8 mm in ulnar variance. Compared with the contralateral wrist, more than 1 mm increase in ulnar variance was correlated with intra-articular pathologies including dorsoulnar ligament disruption, central triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) perforation, and foveal detachment. Conclusion Compared with contralateral side, more than 1 mm increase in ulnar variance is suggestive of longitudinal instability or TFCC pathology. Level of Evidence Level II, diagnostic.
- Variation in Repair of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex. [Journal Article]
- JWJ Wrist Surg 2018; 7(3):243-246
- Background There is controversy regarding the value of repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Given that an acute tear of the TFCC associated with a displaced distal radius fracture...
Background There is controversy regarding the value of repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Given that an acute tear of the TFCC associated with a displaced distal radius fracture uncommonly benefits from repair, the role of repair in other settings is uncertain. Our impression is that TFCC repair is highly variable from surgeon-to-surgeon. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of TFCC repair in patients who had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the wrist obtained for ulnar-sided wrist pain, and that showed signal changes in the TFCC. We tested the primary null hypothesis that there are no demographic or surgeon factors associated with repair of the TFCC. Patients and Methods Three hundred and ninety-four patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain and an MRI scan showing changes in the TFCC were included in this retrospective study. No patients had instability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) recorded in the medical record. Surgical repair of TFCC tears was used as the primary outcome during statistical analysis to identify factors associated with repair. Results Out of 394 (6%), 25 patients underwent TFCC repair. We found that 10% of the treating surgeons (4 out of 41) performed 80% of the procedures (20 out of 25). Patients who discerned a trauma prior to their symptoms and patients whose MRI showed signal changes primarily in the ulnar portion of the TFCC were more likely to have surgical repair. Conclusion We found that the rate of TFCC repair varies substantially from surgeon-to-surgeon. The observation that repair is more likely to happen when patients perceive themselves as injured suggests that perception of injury affects how patients and surgeons consider treatment options. To help avoid surgeries based on surgeon bias or patient misperception, we suggest studying the effect of tools that provide simple, balanced, dispassionate, and empowering information (e.g., decision aids) that can limit surgeon-to-surgeon variation. Level of Evidence Level IV.
- Volar Locking Plate Fixation of Distal Radius Fractures: Splint versus Immediate Mobilization. [Journal Article]
- JWJ Wrist Surg 2018; 7(3):237-242
- Background The goal of this study was to demonstrate that the use of a splint after performing an osteosynthesis of the distal radius with a volar locking plate is unnecessary. The main hypothesis w...
Background The goal of this study was to demonstrate that the use of a splint after performing an osteosynthesis of the distal radius with a volar locking plate is unnecessary. The main hypothesis was that postoperative flexion of the wrist was greater without a splint. Secondary hypothesis was that patients who were allowed immediate mobilization got better results in terms of pain, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), strength, extension, pronation, and supination. Case Description Our series included 72 patients, aged 59 years in average of which 59 were female patients. All patients had been operated for a volar locking plate fixation of a distal radius fracture. The first 36 patients (group I) were immobilized by a splint at 30° of extension of the wrist for 2 weeks. The following 36 patients (group II) were not immobilized. Results At 3 months, all the average variables were better in the group without splint (group I: flexion 74.83%, extension 83.13%, pronation 92.07%, supination 88.11%, pain 1.72/10, Quick DASH 21.78/100, PRWE 22.97/100, strength 62.96%; group II: flexion 85.50%, extension 83.4%, pronation 92.96%, supination 92.96%, pain 1.28/10, Quick DASH 19.57/100, PRWE 20.56/100, strength 66.34%). No complication was reported. Conclusion Overall, our results demonstrate that wearing a splint after volar locking plate fixation of a distal radius fracture is unnecessary.
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- How Reliable is the Radiographic Diagnosis of Mild Madelung Deformity? [Journal Article]
- JWJ Wrist Surg 2018; 7(3):227-231
- Background Patients with Madelung deformity exhibit a spectrum of mild to severe deformity and distortion of wrist geometry. It may be difficult to reliably distinguish mild Madelung deformity from ...
Background Patients with Madelung deformity exhibit a spectrum of mild to severe deformity and distortion of wrist geometry. It may be difficult to reliably distinguish mild Madelung deformity from normal. Purpose This study thus tested the reliability of the diagnosis of mild Madelung deformity on a single posteroanterior (PA) radiograph. Materials and Methods An online survey was sent to hand and wrist surgeons of the Science of Variation Study Group for evaluation of 25 PA wrist radiographs comprising five adults with suspected mild Madelung deformity and 20 radiographs without any evident wrist pathology. Interobserver agreement was evaluated both via average percent agreement and Fleiss' kappa. To evaluate the relationship of rater characteristics and accuracy, a linear regression model was computed. Results The interobserver agreement among the 69 participating surgeons was low ( Κ = 0.12). The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.30, 0.86, and 0.75, respectively. The mean confidence was 7.4 ± 0.4 for mild Madelung and 7.8 ± 0.5 for normal ( p = 0.112). The observers' confidence level was the only factor which had a mild but significant effect on the accuracy of the ratings. Conclusion The diagnosis of mild Madelung deformity on a single PA radiograph is unreliable. Level of Evidence The level of evidence is II, diagnostic study.