- What is the nature of petals in Caryophyllaceae? Developmental evidence clarifies their evolutionary origin. [Journal Article]
- ABAnn Bot 2019 Jun 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Developmental evidence and character mapping reject the hypothesis that petaloids represent a staminodial whorl and suggest that they are independent structures equivalent to second-whorl petals of most Pentapetalae and present in the basal Caryophyllaceae. Heterochronic shifts, including a delay in petal development and acceleration of androecial growth, are responsible for the amalgamation of petals with the androecium as common stamen-petal primordia and their appearance as stamen-derived appendages. Selective pollinator pressure in Caryophyllaceae led to variable petal expansion or reduction and loss. This trend corresponds largely with the general tendency in the core Caryophyllales for petal loss and perianth reorganization.
- Lactate-stimulated ethanol oxidation: Revisiting an old hypothesis. [Journal Article]
- BPBiochem Pharmacol 2019; 164:283-288
- Liver slices from starved rats and incubated without other substrates oxidized ethanol at a rate of 4.1 µmols • h-1 • g-1. Addition of 10 mmols • L-1 lactate increased this rate 2-fold. 4-methylpyraz…
Liver slices from starved rats and incubated without other substrates oxidized ethanol at a rate of 4.1 µmols • h-1 • g-1. Addition of 10 mmols • L-1 lactate increased this rate 2-fold. 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP), an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibitor, drastically decreased the rate of ethanol oxidation, but did not inhibit the stimulation due to lactate. In the same context, liver acetaldehyde production, as the main by-product of ethanol oxidation, appeared to be much less inhibited by 4-MP in the presence of lactate. Aminotriazole (a catalase inhibitor), however, completely inhibited the stimulation. Furthermore, 2-hydroxybut-3-ynoate, an alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase inhibitor, completely abolished the stimulated ethanol oxidation promoted by lactate. Moreover, to determine the origin of the H2O2 produced, we did liver subcellular fractionation and then analyzed their content in peroxisomes, mitochondria and catalase. We observed that cytoplasm and peroxisomes appears to be the main producers of H2O2, and that the acceleration of ethanol oxidation by lactate is completely dependent on catalase. In conclusion, the H2O2 necessary to boost the catalase-dependent oxidation of ethanol appears to come from cytoplasm and peroxisomes, and is produced by the enzyme lactate oxidase.
- Enhanced radiocesium uptake by rice with fermented bark and ammonium salt amendments. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Radioact 2019; 202:59-65
- There are ongoing problems with radioactive cesium (Cs) contaminated agricultural soil after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, the behavior of Cs uptake by rice plant…
There are ongoing problems with radioactive cesium (Cs) contaminated agricultural soil after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, the behavior of Cs uptake by rice plants grown in soil sprayed with fermented bark amendment (FBA) was investigated. In rice cultivation by pot, the application of FBA resulted in the acceleration of Cs uptake by rice plants. This might be related to the reduction of oxidation reduction potential in the soil caused by spraying FBA. Also, when 0.1 wt% ammonium sulfate was used as a fertilizer in Cs-contaminated soil, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Cs taken up into rice straw was 1.4-times higher than that in soil sprayed with FBA. The Cs uptake effect was further enhanced by the combination of 1 wt% FBA with 0.1 wt% ammonium sulfate to soil where the BCF was enhanced to 1.8-times higher than that in soil sprayed with FBA alone. The enhanced uptake into rice was likely because of accelerated uptake of leachable forms of Cs based on the cation-exchange to NH4+ in soil; this was confirmed by the Cs fractionation by sequential extraction procedures. The phytoremediation capability of rice is considered to be lower than that of commonly used phytoremediation plants, but supplementation with FBA and ammonium salt could enhance Cs accumulation even for low-efficiency phytoremediation plants.
- Efficient determination of amphetamine and methylamphetamine in human urine using electro-enhanced single-drop microextraction with in-drop derivatization and gas chromatography. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chim Acta 2019 Jan 03; 1045:162-168
- An efficient method for the determination of amphetamine (AM) and methylamphetamine (MA) using electro-enhanced single-drop microextraction (EE-SDME) and gas chromatography has been developed. One ad…
An efficient method for the determination of amphetamine (AM) and methylamphetamine (MA) using electro-enhanced single-drop microextraction (EE-SDME) and gas chromatography has been developed. One advantage of this method is that the extraction efficiency is greatly enhanced by the electric field acceleration of the mass transfer of target analytes from the sample solution to the organic solvent drop. In addition, the extracted analytes were in situ derivatized with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) in the droplet, which further improved the sensitivity of this method. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors (EFs) for AM and MA were 247 and 782, respectively. The proposed method exhibited low limits of detection (0.27 μg/L for AM and 0.14 μg/L for MA) and good linearity over the concentration range between 1 and 2000 μg/L with regression coefficients (r2) of more than 0.99. The intra- and interday recoveries were from 89.6 to 96.2% and 82.7-90.5%, respectively, and the intra- and interday precisions (RSDs) were from 5.2 to 8.3% and 8.9-12.8%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of amphetamines in a urine sample.
- Optimized radiotherapy to improve clinical outcomes for locally advanced lung cancer. [Journal Article]
- RORadiat Oncol 2018 Aug 13; 13(1):147
- CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated IMRT for locally advanced lung cancer is associated with low toxicities and high LRC. Moderate hypofractionated RT, by decreasing the total treatment time, may be promising in improving clinical outcomes.
- Hyperfractionated or Accelerated Hyperfractionated Re-irradiation with ≥42 Gy in Combination with Paclitaxel for Secondary/Recurrent Head-and-Neck Cancer. [Case Reports]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(6):3653-3656
- CONCLUSIONS: Re-irradiation with 42.0-44.4 Gy given twice daily plus paclitaxel was well tolerated and achieved a favorable response. The results need to be confirmed in a prospective trial.
- Highly preserved roles of Brassica MIR172 in polyploid Brassicas: ectopic expression of variants of Brassica MIR172 accelerates floral transition. [Journal Article]
- MGMol Genet Genomics 2018; 293(5):1121-1138
- Functional characterization of regulatory genes governing flowering time is a research priority for breeding earliness in crop Brassicas. Highly polyploid genomes of Brassicas pose challenges in unra…
Functional characterization of regulatory genes governing flowering time is a research priority for breeding earliness in crop Brassicas. Highly polyploid genomes of Brassicas pose challenges in unraveling homeolog gene function. In Arabidopsis, five MIR172 paralogs control flowering time and floral organ identity by down-regulating AP2 and AP2-like genes. The impact of homeolog diversification on MIR172 loci, however, needs to be examined in morphologically diverse Brassicas. Herein, we analyze fractionation status and phylogeny of MIR172 and target AP2 from Brassicas and compare functionality of MIR172 variants representing distinct sub-genomes and progenitor genomes. Copy number analysis revealed higher retention of MIR172 loci relative to AP2 in diploid and amphi-diploid Brassica species. Dendrogram of 87 MIR172 sequences from Brassicaceae showed five major clusters corresponding to MIR172a-MIR172e which further separated into sub-genome and progenitor genome specific clades. Similar groupings were observed in the phylogeny of 11 Brassica AP2 and AP2-like genes. Over-expression of a pair of natural variants for each of MIR172b, MIR172d and MIR172e representing sub-genomes, progenitor genomes and species of Brassicas displayed floral acceleration in all transgenic lines indicating a strong selection pressure on MIR172. All gain-of-function lines, except 35S::MIR172e and 35S::MIR172e' displayed floral organ defects implying altered target spectrum of MIR172e relative to MIR172b and MIR172d. Expression of MIR172e caused marginal earliness in flowering time in B. juncea. In conclusion, this study demonstrates tightly preserved role of homeologs and natural variants of MIR172 family in mediating flowering in Brassicas and suggests their deployment for introgression of early flowering trait.
- The biological treatment planning evolution of clinical fractionated radiotherapy using high LET. [Review]
- IJInt J Radiat Biol 2018; 94(8):752-755
- Starting from the birth of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy in USA in the mid-1970s, the field has continuously evolved and to date over 20,000 patients have been treated with 12C ions …
Starting from the birth of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy in USA in the mid-1970s, the field has continuously evolved and to date over 20,000 patients have been treated with 12C ions worldwide. The purpose of this contribution is to review the advancements in clinical fractionated radiotherapy using high LET radiation in the last decades, with special focus on biological treatment planning. Along with technological developments for ion acceleration and beam delivery, progress in radiation biology and computational modeling has enabled a remarkable evolution in the planning capabilities of highly conformal, biologically optimized treatment with high LET radiation. In particular, recent efforts have provided the possibility of direct comparison between treatment plans obtained at different facilities with different biological models for the same ion species. This achievement represents an important step forward to gather better understanding of the remaining uncertainties in biological modeling and the impact of fractionation for optimal dose prescriptions, ultimately aiming to promote clinical exploitation of the anticipated, yet not fully demonstrated advantages of high LET-charged particles.
- PORTAF - postoperative radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer: accelerated versus conventional fractionation - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- TTrials 2017 Dec 20; 18(1):608
- CONCLUSIONS: For the primary endpoint of the study we postulate an increase in local tumor control from 70% to 85% after 36 months. Secondary endpoints are overall survival of patients; local recurrence-free and distant metastases-free survival after 36 months; acute and late toxicity and quality of life for both treatment methods.
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- Radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer-technical aspects and alternate fractionation. [Review]
- JRJ Radiat Res 2017 Jul 01; 58(4):495-508
- Early laryngeal, especially glottic, cancer is a good candidate for radiotherapy because obvious early symptoms (e.g. hoarseness) make earlier treatment possible and with highly successful localized …
Early laryngeal, especially glottic, cancer is a good candidate for radiotherapy because obvious early symptoms (e.g. hoarseness) make earlier treatment possible and with highly successful localized control. This type of cancer is also a good model for exploring the basic principles of radiation oncology and several key findings (e.g. dose, fractionation, field size, patient fixation, and overall treatment time) have been noted. For example, unintended poor outcomes have been reported during transition from 60Cobalt to linear accelerator installation in the 1960s, with usage of higher energy photons causing poor dose distribution. In addition, shell fixation made precise dose delivery possible, but simultaneously elevated toxicity if a larger treatment field was necessary. Of particular interest to the radiation therapy community was altered fractionation gain as a way to improve local tumor control and survival rate. Unfortunately, this interest ceased with advancements in chemotherapeutic agents because alternate fractionation could not improve outcomes in chemoradiotherapy settings. At present, no form of acceleration can potentially compensate fully for the lack of concurrent chemotherapy. In addition, the substantial workload associated with this technique made it difficult to add extra fractionation routinely in busy clinical hospitals. Hypofractionation, on the other hand, uses a larger single fractionation dose (2-3 Gy), making it a reasonable and attractive option for T1-T2 early glottic cancer because it can improve local control without the additional workload. Recently, Japan Clinical Oncology Group study 0701 reprised its role in early T1-T2 glottic cancer research, demonstrating that this strategy could be an optional standard therapy. Herein, we review radiotherapy history from 60Cobalt to modern linear accelerator, with special focus on the role of alternate fractionation.