- Prevention of acute liver injury by suppressing plasma kallikrein-dependent activation of latent TGF-β. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Sep 12
- Acute liver injury (ALI) is highly lethal acute liver failure caused by different etiologies. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine and a well-recognized inducer of apopt...
Acute liver injury (ALI) is highly lethal acute liver failure caused by different etiologies. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine and a well-recognized inducer of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in hepatocytes. Latent TGF-β is activated partly through proteolytic cleavage by a serine protease plasma kallikrein (PLK) between the R58 and L59 residues of its propeptide region. Recently, we developed a specific monoclonal antibody to detect the N-terminal side LAP degradation products ending at residue R58 (R58 LAP-DPs) that reflect PLK-dependent TGF-β activation. This study aimed to explore the potential roles of PLK-dependent TGF-β activation in the pathogenesis of ALI. We established a mouse ALI model via the injection of anti-Fas antibodies (Jo2) and observed increases in the TGF-β1 mRNA level, Smad3 phosphorylation, TUNEL-positive apoptotic hepatocytes and R58-positive cells in the liver tissues of Jo2-treated mice. The R58 LAP-DPs were observed in/around F4/80-positive macrophages, while macrophage depletion with clodronate liposomes partly alleviated the Jo2-induced liver injury. Blocking PLK-dependent TGF-β activation using either the serine proteinase inhibitor FOY305 or the selective PLK inhibitor PKSI-527 or blocking the TGF-β receptor-mediated signaling pathway using SB431542 significantly prevented Jo2-induced hepatic apoptosis and mortality. Furthermore, similar phenomena were observed in the mouse model of ALI with the administration of acetaminophen (APAP). In summary, R58 LAP-DPs reflecting PLK-dependent TGF-β activation may serve as a biomarker for ALI, and targeting PLK-dependent TGF-β activation has potential as a therapeutic strategy for ALI.
- Acute Appendicitis: Efficient Diagnosis and Management. [Journal Article]
- AFAm Fam Physician 2018 Jul 01; 98(1):25-33
- Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain in adults and children, with a lifetime risk of 8.6% in males and 6.7% in females. It is the most common nonobstetric surgical em...
Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain in adults and children, with a lifetime risk of 8.6% in males and 6.7% in females. It is the most common nonobstetric surgical emergency during pregnancy. Findings from the history, physical examination, and laboratory studies aid in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Right lower quadrant pain, abdominal rigidity, and periumbilical pain radiating to the right lower quadrant are the best signs for ruling in acute appendicitis in adults. Absent or decreased bowel sounds, a positive psoas sign, a positive obturator sign, and a positive Rovsing sign are most reliable for ruling in acute appendicitis in children. The Alvarado score, Pediatric Appendicitis Score, and Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score incorporate common clinical and laboratory findings to stratify patients as low, moderate, or high risk and can help in making a timely diagnosis. Recommended first-line imaging consists of point-of-care or formal ultrasonography. Appendectomy via open laparotomy or laparoscopy is the standard treatment for acute appendicitis. However, intravenous antibiotics may be considered first-line therapy in selected patients. Pain control with opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and acetaminophen should be a priority and does not result in delayed or unnecessary intervention. Perforation can lead to sepsis and occurs in 17% to 32% of patients with acute appendicitis. Prolonged duration of symptoms before surgical intervention raises the risk. In moderate- to high-risk patients, surgical consultation should be accomplished quickly to reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from perforation.
- Lixisenatide reduces chylomicron triacylglycerol due to increased clearance. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Sep 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Lixisenatide reduced [13C]oleate concentration, derived from a single meal in CM-TAG, as well as glucose Rameal, through delayed gastric emptying. However day-long CM production, measured with repeated meal-feeding, was not reduced by lixisenatide and decreased CM-TAG concentration was due to increased CM-TAG clearance.
- Over-the-Counter Drugs and Other Substances Used in Attempted Suicide Presented to Emergency Departments in Montreal, Canada. [Journal Article]
- CCrisis 2018 Sep 14; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: Reasons for the suicide method choice were not available.OTC drugs, in particular acetaminophen, are frequently used in suicide attempts. Accessibility to these drugs may be an important contributor.
- Postoperative pain management in patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a narrative review. [Review]
- SSScoliosis Spinal Disord 2018; 13:17
- Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most invasive surgical procedures performed in children and adolescents. Because of the extensive surgical incision and massi...
Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most invasive surgical procedures performed in children and adolescents. Because of the extensive surgical incision and massive tissue trauma, posterior spinal fusion causes severe postoperative pain. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioids has been the mainstay of postoperative pain management in these patients. However, the use of systemic opioids is sometimes limited by opioid-related side effects, resulting in poor analgesia. To improve pain management while reducing opioid consumption and opioid-related complications, concurrent use of analgesics and analgesic modalities with different mechanisms of action seems to be rational. The efficacy of intrathecal opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as components of multimodal analgesia in scoliosis surgery has been well established. However, there is either controversy or insufficient evidence regarding the use of other analgesic methods, such as continuous ketamine infusion, perioperative oral gabapentin, acetaminophen, continuous wound infiltration of local anesthetics, a single dose of systemic dexamethasone, and lidocaine infusion in this patient population. Moreover, appropriate combinations of analgesics have not been established. The aim of this literature review is to provide detailed information of each analgesic technique so that clinicians can make appropriate choices regarding pain management in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion.
- Reduced length of stay and hospitalization costs among inpatient hysterectomy patients with postoperative pain management including IV versus oral acetaminophen. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0203746
- CONCLUSIONS: Compared to oral APAP, managing post-hysterectomy pain with IV APAP is associated with shorter LOS and lower total hospitalization costs.
- Wheezing after the use of acetaminophen and or ibuprofen for first episode of bronchiolitis or respiratory tract infection. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0203770
- CONCLUSIONS: Children who are prescribed antipyretics for a first episode of bronchiolitis may have less subsequent wheezing than those who are not. We found fewer visits for subsequent wheezing for those prescribed ibuprofen, and ibuprofen combined with acetaminophen, compared with acetaminophen alone.
- Severe Acute Liver Injury Following Therapeutic Doses of Acetaminophen in a Patient With Spinal Muscular Atrophy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ther 2018 Sep 07
- Acetaminophen-induced acute pancreatitis: A case report and literature review. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Clin Cases 2018 Sep 06; 6(9):291-295
- Acute pancreatitis is rarely associated with drugs. Acetaminophen overdose is a well-known cause of hepatic toxicity, but drug-induced pancreatitis is rarely reported, especially after mild overdose....
Acute pancreatitis is rarely associated with drugs. Acetaminophen overdose is a well-known cause of hepatic toxicity, but drug-induced pancreatitis is rarely reported, especially after mild overdose. A 32-year-old woman presented with nausea and vomiting for 12 h, but no abdominal pain following an overdose of eight Tylenol tablets containing acetaminophen (325 mg acetaminophen per tablet). Laboratory results on admission showed abnormal amylase and lipase levels but completely normal liver function. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed mild swelling of the pancreas without fluid collection around the pancreas. The patient complained of severe abdominal pain five days after admission when attempting to drink water and liquids. Eight days after admission, fluid around the pancreas was observed by computed tomography. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with acetaminophen-induced acute pancreatitis after exclusion of common causes. Routine treatment for pancreatitis and N-acetylcysteine were administered to prevent disease progression. The patient was discharged in good condition.
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- Perioperative Intravenous Acetaminophen in Pediatric Tonsillectomies. [Journal Article]
- HPHosp Pharm 2018; 53(5):316-320
- Purpose: This study investigated the effect of perioperative intravenous (IV) acetaminophen on opioid requirements in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy at a single center. Methods: This r...
Purpose: This study investigated the effect of perioperative intravenous (IV) acetaminophen on opioid requirements in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy at a single center. Methods: This retrospective chart review included patients who were less than 18 years old and underwent an outpatient tonsillectomy procedure. Patients who received non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved dosing of IV acetaminophen, without documented weights, and on chronic pain medications at the time of the procedure were excluded. The primary outcome was opioid requirements postoperatively prior to discharge measured as morphine equivalents per kilogram. Descriptive statistics were used to compare differences between groups. A multivariate analysis was performed, accounting for differences between groups in baseline and procedural characteristics. Results: In total, 157 patients were included in this study, of whom 55 had received IV acetaminophen and 102 had not. The average IV acetaminophen dose for was 14.5 mg/kg for patients weighing less than 50 kg (n = 22); the remaining patients received the maximum 1 g dose. Patients who received IV acetaminophen were less likely to be administered postoperative opiates as compared with those did not (45.5% vs 63.7%, odds ratio = 0.48, P = .036). There was a trend toward a decrease in total amount of opiates administered with IV acetaminophen (0 vs 0.033 µg/kg, P = .61). After adjusting for age and documented pain assessment, IV acetaminophen administration remained a significant factor for postoperative opiate administration. Conclusions: Perioperative administration of IV acetaminophen was associated with less frequent administration of symptom-directed opiates in pediatric tonsillectomies. This finding indicates that the agent may have an opioid-sparing effect in this patient population.