- Probing the cholinergic system to understand neurodegenerative diseases. [Journal Article]
- FMFuture Med Chem 2017 Jan 18
- The Therapeutic Effectiveness of Delayed Fetal Spinal Cord Tissue Transplantation on Respiratory Function Following Mid-Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. [Journal Article]
- NNeurotherapeutics 2017 Jan 17
- Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading c...
Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of delayed transplantation of fetal spinal cord (FSC) tissue on respiratory function in rats with mid-cervical spinal cord injury. Embryonic day-14 rat FSC tissue was transplanted into a C4 spinal cord hemilesion cavity in adult male rats at 1 week postinjury. The histological results showed that FSC-derived grafts can survive, fill the lesion cavity, and differentiate into neurons and astrocytes at 8 weeks post-transplantation. Some FSC-derived graft neurons exhibited specific neurochemical markers of neurotransmitter (e.g., serotonin, noradrenalin, or acetylcholine). Moreover, a robust expression of glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic fibers was observed within FSC-derived grafts. Retrograde tracing results indicated that there was a connection between FSC-derived grafts and host phrenic nucleus. Neurophysiological recording of the phrenic nerve demonstrated that phrenic burst amplitude ipsilateral to the lesion was significantly greater in injured animals that received FSC transplantation than in those that received buffer transplantation under high respiratory drives. These results suggest that delayed FSC transplantation may have the potential to repair the injured spinal cord and promote respiratory functional recovery after mid-cervical spinal cord injury.
- Trachyspermum ammi Seeds Supplementation Helps Reverse Scopolamine, Alprazolam and Electroshock Induced Amnesia. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurochem Res 2017 Jan 17
- The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/...
The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w) on learning and memory of mice. A total of 306 mice divided in 51 equal groups were employed in the study. Passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and Object recognition Task (ORT) were employed as exteroceptive models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), serum cholesterol, brain monoaldehyde (MDA), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and brain nitrite were estimated and Alprazolam, Scopolamine and Electroshock induced amnesia was employed to describe the actions. Treatment of TASP significantly increased step down latency of PAA and significantly increased discrimination index of ORT in groups with or without amnesia when compared to respective control groups. Furthermore, TASP administration resulted in significant fall in brain AChE activity, brain MDA level and brain nitrite level with simultaneous rise in brain GSH level, thereby decreased oxidative damage. A significant decrease in serum cholesterol was also observed. Ajowan supplementation may prove a remedy for the management of cognitive disorders owing to have pro-cholinergic, antioxidant and hypo-lipidemic activities.
- Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Improves Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by Toxoplasma gondii Infection. [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Parasitol 2016 Apr-Jun; 11(2):177-185
- CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii infection through increasing AChE reduces the level of Acetylcholine (Ach) and consequently affects learning and memory activity in infected hosts, whereas, donepezil as an AChE inhibitor improves these impairments by restoring ACh levels at synapses of neurons in brain.
- Ocimum sanctum Linn. stimulate the expression of choline acetyltransferase on the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- VWVet World 2016; 9(12):1348-1354
- CONCLUSIONS: Our observation indicates that HCMECs is one of the noncholinergic cells which is produced ChAT. The administrated of O. sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract may stimulate and restore the expression of ChAT on the deteriorating cells of HCMECs, thus its may give nerve protection and help the production of acetylcholine.
- Neuroendocrinology of mast cells: Challenges and Controversies. [Review]
- EDExp Dermatol 2017 Jan 17
- Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and ute...
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP). Moreover, MC can synthesize and release most of their neurohormonal triggers, including adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), CRH, endorphins, HKA, leptin, melatonin, NT, SP and VIP. Animal experiments have shown that diencephalic MC increase in number during courting in doves, while stimulation of brain and nasal MC leads to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that MC reactivity exhibits diurnal variations and it is interesting that melatonin appears to regulate MC secretion. However, the way MC change their phenotype or secrete specific molecules selectively at different pathophysiological settings still remains unknown. Mast cells developed over 500 million years ago and may have served as the original prototype neuroimmunoendocrine cell and then evolved into a master regulator of such interactions, especially since most of the known diseases involve neuroinflammation that worsens with stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Selective antagonism of muscarinic receptors is neuroprotective in peripheral neuropathy. [Journal Article]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2017 Jan 17
- Sensory neurons have the capacity to produce, release, and respond to acetylcholine (ACh), but the functional role of cholinergic systems in adult mammalian peripheral sensory nerves has not been est...
Sensory neurons have the capacity to produce, release, and respond to acetylcholine (ACh), but the functional role of cholinergic systems in adult mammalian peripheral sensory nerves has not been established. Here, we have reported that neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons that were maintained under subsaturating neurotrophic factor conditions operates under cholinergic constraint that is mediated by muscarinic receptor-dependent regulation of mitochondrial function via AMPK. Sensory neurons from mice lacking the muscarinic ACh type 1 receptor (M1R) exhibited enhanced neurite outgrowth, confirming the role of M1R in tonic suppression of axonal plasticity. M1R-deficient mice made diabetic with streptozotocin were protected from physiological and structural indices of sensory neuropathy. Pharmacological blockade of M1R using specific or selective antagonists, pirenzepine, VU0255035, or muscarinic toxin 7 (MT7) activated AMPK and overcame diabetes-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. These antimuscarinic drugs prevented or reversed indices of peripheral neuropathy, such as depletion of sensory nerve terminals, thermal hypoalgesia, and nerve conduction slowing in diverse rodent models of diabetes. Pirenzepine and MT7 also prevented peripheral neuropathy induced by the chemotherapeutic agents dichloroacetate and paclitaxel or HIV envelope protein gp120. As a variety of antimuscarinic drugs are approved for clinical use against other conditions, prompt translation of this therapeutic approach to clinical trials is feasible.
- Long-term follow-up for treatment of erectile dysfunction post-radical prostatectomy using nerve grafts and end-to-side somatic-autonomic neurorraphy: A new technique. [Journal Article]
- BIBJU Int 2017 Jan 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Sixty percent of cases achieved full penetration, on average, thirteen months after reinnervation surgery. One may observe that patients previously submitted to radiotherapy presented slower recuperation of erectile function. One may conclude that penile reinnervation surgery is a viable technique, with effective results, and could offer itself as a new treatment modality for erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and M-currents underlie efferent-mediated slow excitation in calyx-bearing vestibular afferents. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci 2017 Jan 16
- Stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons excites calyx and dimorphic (CD) afferents. This excitation consists of fast and slow components that differ over 100-fold in activation kinetics and respon...
Stimulation of vestibular efferent neurons excites calyx and dimorphic (CD) afferents. This excitation consists of fast and slow components that differ over 100-fold in activation kinetics and response duration. In turtle, efferent-mediated fast excitation arises in CD afferents when the predominant efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) activates calyceal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs); however, it is unclear whether the accompanying efferent-mediated slow excitation is also attributed to cholinergic mechanisms. To identify synaptic processes underlying efferent-mediated slow excitation, we recorded from CD afferents innervating the turtle posterior crista during electrical stimulation of efferent neurons, in combination with pharmacological probes and mechanical stimulation. Efferent-mediated slow excitation was unaffected by nAChR compounds that block efferent-mediated fast excitation, but mimicked by muscarine and antagonized by atropine, indicating that it requires ACh and muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) activation. Efferent-mediated slow excitation or muscarine application enhanced the sensitivity of CD afferents to mechanical stimulation, suggesting mAChR activation increases afferent input impedance by closing calyceal potassium channels. These observations were consistent with suppression of a muscarinic-sensitive K(+)-current, or M-current. Immunohistochemistry for putative M-current candidates suggested turtle CD afferents express KCNQ3, KCNQ4, and ERG1-3 potassium channel subunits. KCNQ channels were favored as application of the selective antagonist XE991 mimicked and occluded efferent-mediated slow excitation in CD afferents. These data highlight an efferent-mediated mechanism for enhancing afferent sensitivity. They further suggest that the clinical effectiveness of mAChR antagonists in treating balance disorders may also target synaptic mechanisms in the vestibular periphery, and that KCNQ channel modulators might offer similar therapeutic value.
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- Pharmacological properties of SAK3, a novel T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel enhancer. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropharmacology 2017 Jan 13
- T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (T-VGCCs) function in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain and sleep. However, their role in cognitive function remains unclear. We previously reported that the ...
T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (T-VGCCs) function in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, pain and sleep. However, their role in cognitive function remains unclear. We previously reported that the cognitive enhancer ST101, which stimulates T-VGCCs in rat cortical slices, was a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic. Here, we introduce a more potent T-VGCC enhancer, SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2',4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2'H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo [1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate), and characterize its pharmacological properties in brain. Based on whole cell patch-clamp analysis, SAK3 (0.01-10 nM) significantly enhanced Cav3.1 currents in neuro2A cells ectopically expressing Cav3.1. SAK3 (0.1-10 nM nM) also enhanced Cav3.3 but not Cav3.2 currents in the transfected cells. Notably, Cav3.1 and Cav3.3 T-VGCCs were localized in cholinergic neurve systems in hippocampus and in the medial septum. Indeed, acute oral administration of SAK3 (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.), but not ST101 (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly enhanced acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampal CA1 region of naïve mice. Moreover, acute SAK3 (0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) administration significantly enhanced hippocampal ACh levels in olfactory-bulbectomized (OBX) mice, rescuing impaired memory-related behaviors. Treatment of OBX mice with the T-VGCC-specific blocker NNC 55-0396 (12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonized both enhanced ACh release and memory improvements elicited by SAK3 administration. We also observed that SAK3-induced ACh releases were significantly blocked in the hippocampus from Cav3.1 knockout (KO) mice. These findings suggest overall that T-VGCCs play a key role in cognition by enhancing hippocampal ACh release and that the cognitive enhancer SAK3 could be a candidate therapeutic in Alzheimer's disease.