- Chemical composition of Ocimum sanctum by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and its protective effects against smoke induced lung and neuronal tissue damage in rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2017 Apr 20; 91:1-12
- Smoke induced oxidative stress is known to cause various cancers and associated health problems including lung cancer. Herbal extracts have been reported as antioxidant supplements which attenuate fr...
Smoke induced oxidative stress is known to cause various cancers and associated health problems including lung cancer. Herbal extracts have been reported as antioxidant supplements which attenuate free radical induced oxidative damage of tissues, among which Ocimum sanctum has been reported as the elixir of life due to its innumerable health benefits. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of O. sanctum against cracker smoke induced lung and brain tissue damage. The results of the study demonstrate that O. sanctum regulates the hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as RBC, WBC, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine kinase. O. sanctum supplementation inhibited oxidative stress as analyzed by SOD, CAT enzyme levels and i-NOS, HSP-70 protein expression. O. sanctum administration also regulated neurotransmitter levels, such as serotonin, dopamine, and regulated acetylcholine esterase levels which play a vital role in neuronal function. Further O. sanctum treatment also preserved the morphology of lung and brain tissues of smoke stress induced rats as observed by histopathology and transmission electron microscope analysis. The biodistribution of O. sanctum was showed its accumulation in key tissues such as kidney, liver, lungs and heart. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of O. sanctum showed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids and fatty acids which might be responsible for the observed anti-stress effects.
- Impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 19
- Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabol...
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabolic syndrome such as that observed with type-2 diabetes. We previously reported that EDH-type relaxation was impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type-2 diabetes, however, the response was unclear in female OLETF rat. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if EDH-type relaxation was altered in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female OLETF rats compared to age-matched, control female Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats at age 50-59 weeks. We investigated concentration-relaxation curves for acetylcholine (at age 50-53 weeks), NS309 (an activator of small- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) (at age 50-53 weeks), and GSK1016790A (an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4, TRPV4) (at age 58 or 59 weeks) in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin to investigate EDH-type responses in the superior mesenteric artery. Obesity, mild hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia (i.e., increased total cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acids) were more frequent in OLETF rats than in age-matched LETO rats at age 50-53 weeks. Acetylcholine-, NS309-, and GSK1016790A-induced relaxations in arteries from OLETF rats were all significantly reduced compared to those in LETO rats. These results indicated that EDH-type relaxations were impaired in female OLETF rats. This novel experimental model may provide new insights into vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome in females.
- Inhibitory effects of pine nodule extract and its component, SJ-2, on acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis in bovine adrenal medullary cells. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Sci 2017 Apr 07
- Extract of pine nodules (matsufushi) formed by bark proliferation on the surface of trees of Pinus tabulaeformis or Pinus massoniana has been used as an analgesic for joint pain, rheumatism, neuralgi...
Extract of pine nodules (matsufushi) formed by bark proliferation on the surface of trees of Pinus tabulaeformis or Pinus massoniana has been used as an analgesic for joint pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, dysmenorrhea and other complaints in Chinese traditional medicine. Here we report the effects of matsufushi extract and its components on catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that matsufushi extract (0.0003-0.005%) and its component, SJ-2 (5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-trans-stilbene) (0.3-100 μM), but not the other three, concentration-dependently inhibited catecholamine secretion induced by acetylcholine, a physiological secretagogue. Matsufushi extract (0.0003-0.005%) and SJ-2 (0.3-100 μM) also inhibited (45)Ca(2+) influx induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner, similar to its effect on catecholamine secretion. They also suppressed (14)C-catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by acetylcholine. In Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, matsufushi extract (0.00003-0.001%) and SJ-2 (1-100 μM) directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine. The present findings suggest that SJ-2, as well as matsufushi extract, inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.
- Beneficial effect of tocilizumab in myasthenia gravis refractory to rituximab. [Journal Article]
- NDNeuromuscul Disord 2017 Mar 16
- Muscle fatigue associated with myasthenia gravis is caused by autoantibodies interfering with neuromuscular transmission. Immunomodulating treatment is widely used in moderate to severe myasthenia, a...
Muscle fatigue associated with myasthenia gravis is caused by autoantibodies interfering with neuromuscular transmission. Immunomodulating treatment is widely used in moderate to severe myasthenia, although the use of newer biological drugs except rituximab is rare. We describe the effect of tocilizumab, a blocker of interleukin-6 signalling, in two female myasthenia patients with high titres of serum acetylcholine receptor antibodies and insufficient response to rituximab. The first patient had been treated with high dose immunoglobulins regularly for several years and the second patient had been treated both with different oral immune suppressants and immunoglobulins before testing a low dose of rituximab without significant clinical effect. Subsequent treatment with tocilizumab resulted in clinical improvement within a few months. The first patient was switched back to rituximab, which resulted in worsening until tocilizumab was restarted. Tocilizumab can be a therapeutic option in cases not responding to rituximab.
- Principal cell types of sleep-wake regulatory circuits. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Neurobiol 2017 Apr 19; 44:101-109
- Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons which discharge maximally in association with distinct sleep-wake states are distributed through the brain, albeit in differing proportions. As s...
Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons which discharge maximally in association with distinct sleep-wake states are distributed through the brain, albeit in differing proportions. As studied using juxtacellular recording and labeling within the basal forebrain, four functional principal cell types are distinguished as: wake/paradoxical sleep (W/PS)-, slow wave sleep (SWS)-, W- and PS-max active. They are each comprised by both GABA and glutamate neurons, in addition to acetylcholine neurons belonging to the W/PS group. By their discharge profiles and interactions, the GABA and glutamate neurons of different groups are proposed to have the capacity to generate sleep-wake states with associated EEG and EMG activities, though to also be importantly regulated by neuromodulatory systems, each of which belong to one functional cell group.
- Discovery of potential inhibitor against human acetylcholinesterase: a molecular docking and molecular dynamics investigation. [Journal Article]
- CBComput Biol Chem 2017 Apr 12; 68:224-230
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system among elderly people. Human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), an important enzyme in neuronal signaling, is r...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system among elderly people. Human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), an important enzyme in neuronal signaling, is responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine which in turn prevents the post synaptic signal transmissions. hAChE has been an attractive target of drug discovery for the search of therapeutics against AD. In the recent past hAChE has become hot target for the investigation of new potential therapeutics. We performed virtual screening of entire database against hAChE. Further, the extra precision molecular docking was carried out to refine the docking results and the best complex was passed for molecular dynamics simulations in order of understanding the hAChE dynamics and its behavior in complex with the ligand which corroborate the outcomes of virtual screening. This also provides binding free energy data that establishes the ligands efficiency for inhibiting hAChE. The computational findings discussed in this paper provide initial information of inhibitory effects of ligand, (drugbank entry DB00983), over hAChE.
- A crosstalk between muscarinic and CRF2 receptors regulates cellular adhesion properties of human colon cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta 2017 Apr 18
- Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intes...
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction. Non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) and muscarinic receptors (mAChR) also contribute to alterations of epithelial cell functions. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which stress and ACh modulate epithelial cell adhesive properties. We show that ACh-induced activation of mAChR in HT-29 cells results in cell dissociation together with changes in cell-matrix contacts, which correlates with the acquisition of invasive potential consistent with a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mode of invasion. These processes result from mAChR subsequent stimulation of the cascade of src/Erk and FAK activation. ACh-induced secretion of laminin 332 leads to α3β1 integrin activation and RhoA-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that ACh-mediated effects on cell adhesion are blocked by astressin 2b, a CRF2 antagonist, suggesting that ACh action depends partly on CRF2 signaling. This is reinforced by the fact that ACh-mediated activation of mAChR stimulates both the synthesis and the release of CRF2 ligands in HT-29 cells (effects blocked by atropine). In summary, our data provides evidence for a novel intracellular circuit involving mAChR acting on CRF2-signaling that could mediate colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction and exacerbate mucosal inflammation.
- Effects of a common insecticide on wetland communities with varying quality of leaf litter inputs. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2017 Apr 18
- Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems,...
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination. Using the common insecticide malathion, we hypothesized that inputs of nutrient-rich and labile leaf litter (e.g., elm [Ulmus spp.] or maple [Acer spp.]) would reduce the negative effects of insecticides on wetland communities relative to inputs of recalcitrant litter (e.g., oak [Quercus spp.]). We exposed artificial wetland communities to a factorial combination of three litter species treatments (elm, maple, and oak) and four insecticide treatments (no insecticide, small weekly doses of 10 μg L(-1), and either early or late large doses of 50 μg L(-1)). Communities consisted of microbes, algae, snails, amphipods, zooplankton, and two species of tadpoles. After two months, we found that maple and elm litter generally induced greater primary and secondary production. Insecticides induced a reduction in the abundance of amphipods and some zooplankton species, and increased phytoplankton. In addition, we found interactive effects of litter species and insecticide treatments on amphibian responses, although specific effects depended on application regime. Specifically, with the addition of insecticide, elm and maple litter induced a reduction in gray tree frog survival, oak and elm litter delayed tree frog metamorphosis, and oak and maple litter reduced green frog tadpole mass. Our results suggest that attention to local forest composition, as well as the timing of pesticide application might help ameliorate the harmful effects of pesticides observed in freshwater systems.
- Tebuconazole alters morphological, behavioral and neurochemical parameters in larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2017 Apr 08; 180:483-490
- In this study, we evaluated the effects of tebuconazole on morphology and exploratory larvae behavior and adult locomotion. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of this fungicide on AChE activity and...
In this study, we evaluated the effects of tebuconazole on morphology and exploratory larvae behavior and adult locomotion. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of this fungicide on AChE activity and gene expression in zebrafish larvae and in the adult zebrafish brain. Tebuconazole (4 mg/L) increased the ocular distance in larvae and reduced the distance travelled, absolute turn angle, line crossing and time outside area in exposed larvae. Moreover, adult zebrafish that were exposed to this fungicide (4 and 6 mg/L) showed a decrease in distance travelled and mean speed when compared to the control group. However, tebuconazole did not alter the number of line crossings or time spent in the upper zone. Tebuconazole inhibited AChE activity at concentrations of 4 mg/L for larvae and 4 and 6 mg/L in the adult zebrafish brain. However, this fungicide did not alter AChE gene expression in the adult zebrafish brain but increased AChE mRNA transcript levels in larvae. These findings demonstrated that tebuconazole could modulate the cholinergic system by altering AChE activity and that this change may be associated with the reduced locomotion of these animals.
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- Correlations of TNF-α gene promoter polymorphisms with the risk of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis in a northern Chinese Han population. [Journal Article]
- CGCancer Gene Ther 2017 Apr 21
- This study was performed with the aim to investigate the correlations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene promoter polymorphisms with the risk of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis (T-MG) i...
This study was performed with the aim to investigate the correlations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene promoter polymorphisms with the risk of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis (T-MG) in a northern Chinese Han population. Between June 2005 and June 2015, 305 MG patients (150 males and 155 females, MG group) and 293 healthy volunteers (negative control (NC) group) were enrolled in this study. Among the MG patients, there were 121 patients with thymoma-associated MG (T-MG group) and 184 without T-MG (NT-MG group). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the serum TNF-α level. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was conducted to determine genotype and allele frequencies of TNF-α gene promoter -1031T/C, -857C/T and -863C/A. The haplotype was analyzed with the SHEsis software. Logistic regression analysis was performed for correlations between TNF-α gene promoter polymorphisms and the risk of T-MG. The T-MG group had higher frequencies of the CT/TT genotype and T allele of -857C/T than the NT-MG and NC groups. The frequencies of the CC genotype and C allele of -1031T/C were higher in the T-MG group than in the NT-MG and NC groups, and higher in male patients in the T-MG group than in male patients in the NC group. TTA and TTC haplotypes exhibited lower frequencies in the T-MG group than in the NT-MG group. The ocular MG patients exhibited lower frequencies of the TT genotype and T allele of -857C/T than the generalized MG patients did. The TNF-α level was elevated in the T-MG group compared with that in the NC and NT-MG groups, indicating that the TC+CC and CT+TT genotypes were increased compared with the TT and CC genotypes in the -1031T/C and -857C/T, respectively. Logistic regression analysis suggested that expressions of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, Osserman's classification, -1031T/C and -857C/T polymorphisms and the TTA haplotype were the independent risk factors for T-MG. These findings reveal that TNF-α -1031T/C and -857C/T polymorphisms and the TTA haplotype may be correlated with the occurrence of T-MG in a Northern Chinese Han population.Cancer Gene Therapy advance online publication, 21 April 2017; doi:10.1038/cgt.2017.13.