- Helicobacter pylori Infection: New Facts in Clinical Management. [Review]
- CTCurr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2018 Nov 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinical aspects of H. pylori infection have evolved over time and the therapeutic management requires continuous adaptation. A vaccine is still a non-fulfilled promise. The future will tell us more about the role of H. pylori in interactions with the gut microbiome.
- High Concentration of Aspirin Induces Apoptosis in Rat Tendon Stem Cells via Inhibition of the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 Nov 09; 50(6):2046-2059
- CONCLUSIONS: The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a vital role in aspirin-induced apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial/caspase-3 function. Elevating COX-2 levels may protect cells against apoptosis. More importantly, the results remind us to consider the apoptotic effect of aspirin on TSCs and tendon cells when aspirin is administered to treat tendinopathy. The relationship between the positive and negative effects of aspirin remains a subject for future study.
- Antithrombotic medications and their impact on fibrin clot structure and function. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol Pharmacol 2018; 69(4)
- Fibrin constitutes a major protein component of intravascular thrombi in all locations. Fibrin formation and its functions are essential for physiological hemostasis and the pathologic thrombosis. Fo...
Fibrin constitutes a major protein component of intravascular thrombi in all locations. Fibrin formation and its functions are essential for physiological hemostasis and the pathologic thrombosis. Formation of dense fibrin networks which are relatively resistant to lysis is observed in patients with venous or arterial thromboembolism, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and venous thromboembolism. Measures of clot characteristics, in particular clot permeability and clot lysis time, may predict arterial and venous recurrent thromboembolic events. Medications, including vitamin K antagonists (VKA), direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), and parenteral direct or indirect thrombin or activated factor X inhibitors increase clot permeability, reflecting fibrin network density, in association with enhanced efficiency of fibrinolysis. These effects are only in part related to decreased thrombin generation. There is evidence that aspirin can also favorably alter fibrin clot properties probably through acetylation of fibrinogen. No such effects were observed for P2Y12 inhibitors. Of note, plasma fibrin clot permeability has been shown to predict adverse clinical outcomes in patients receiving oral anticoagulants, which might have practical implications. The current review summarizes data on effects of antithrombotic agents on fibrin clot phenotype in cardiovascular disease.
- Optimal Antiplatelet Therapy in Moderate to Severe Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature. [Review]
- EJEur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2018 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive review outlines an evidence based approach to antiplatelet therapy in carotid stenosis patients. Future trials should randomise such patients to receive different antiplatelet regimens to assess their efficacy and safety and to optimise peri-procedural and long-term preventive treatment in this patient cohort.
- Integrated Bioinformatical Analysis for Identificating the Therapeutic Targets of Aspirin in Small Cell Lung Cancer. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomed Inform 2018 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: The integrated bioinformatical analysis could improve our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism about how aspirin working in SCLC. Integrated bioinformatical analysis may be considered as a new paradigm for guiding future studies about interaction in drugs and diseases.
- Two-stage screening for preterm preeclampsia at 11-13 weeks' gestation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Two-stage screening and biomarker testing for only part of the population will have financial benefits over conducting the test for the entire population.
- Sex-associated preventive effects of low-dose aspirin on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mouse offspring with over-nutrition in utero. [Journal Article]
- LILab Invest 2018 Nov 09
- Aspirin has been found to diminish hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia in both obese rodents and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to test whether low-dose aspirin can prevent obesi...
Aspirin has been found to diminish hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia in both obese rodents and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to test whether low-dose aspirin can prevent obesity and the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in high-risk subjects. We used offspring mice with maternal over-nutrition as a high-risk model of obesity and NAFLD. The offspring were given postnatal HF-diet and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to induce obesity and NAFLD, and were treated with or without a low dose of aspirin for 12 weeks (ASP or CTL groups). Aspirin treatment reduced body weight gain, reversed glucose intolerance, and depressed hepatic lipid accumulation in female, but not in male mice. Female mice displayed re-sensitized insulin/Akt signaling and overactivated AMPK signaling, with enhanced level of hepatic PPAR-γ, Glut4, and Glut2, while male mice only enhanced hepatic PPAR-α and PPAR-γ levels. The female ASP mice had inhibited p44/42 MAPK activity and enhanced Pten expression, while male displayed activated p38 MAPK signaling. Furthermore, the female but not the male ASP mice reduced Wnt-signaling activity via both the epigenetic regulation of Apc expression and the post-transcriptional regulation of β-catenin degradation. In summary, our study demonstrates a sex-associated effect of low-dose aspirin on obesity and NAFLD prevention in female but not in male mice.
- Comment on 'New drug candidates for depression - a nationwide population-based study'. [Letter]
- APActa Psychiatr Scand 2018 Nov 09
- I would like to comment on an interesting article by Kessing et al. entitled 'New drug candidates for depression - a nationwide population-based study'(1). It presents a long-term study aimed to scre...
I would like to comment on an interesting article by Kessing et al. entitled 'New drug candidates for depression - a nationwide population-based study'(1). It presents a long-term study aimed to screen the Danish population register for the possible association between the exposure to certain clinically approved drugs: such as statins, high-dose aspirin and non aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which possess anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective properties, and the rate of incident depression. Although there has been increasing evidence that suppressing the ongoing inflammatory process could facilitate the response of patients with refractory depression to standard antidepressant drugs (2), Kessing et al. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Factors Associated with False Positive Fecal Immunochemical Tests in a Large German Colorectal Cancer Screening Study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cancer 2018 Nov 09
- In recent years fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have been offered as a primary screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a growing number of countries. This study aims to identify factors assoc...
In recent years fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have been offered as a primary screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a growing number of countries. This study aims to identify factors associated with apparently false positive results of FITs. In this cross-sectional study within the German population-based screening colonoscopy program, participants were invited to provide a stool sample for FIT prior to colonoscopy. 4656 participants aged 50-79 years with no known history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and no findings of neoplasms at screening colonoscopy were included in the current analyses. Main outcome measures were rates and factors associated with apparently false positive FIT results. Apparently false positive FIT results were found for 378 participants (8.1%). Male sex (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.03, 1.62), age ≥ 65 years (OR=1.27, 95%CI 1.01, 1.59), a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR=1.81, 95%CI 1.36, 2.40), current smoking (OR=1.63, 95%CI 1.18, 2.25), use of aspirin (OR=1.36, 95%CI 1.02, 1.82) and a new diagnosis of IBD (OR=9.13, 95%CI 2.18, 38.19) or other non-neoplastic findings (OR=1.86, 95%CI 1.37, 2.51) at screening colonoscopy were independently associated with significantly increased odds of a positive FIT. Although considered false-positive in the context of CRC screening, the identified factors associated with apparently false positive FIT results are known risk factors for and may point to conditions other than colorectal neoplasms that may be potential sources of gastrointestinal bleeding, potentially requiring further medical follow up. The study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS-ID: DRKS00008737). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Perioperative point of care platelet function testing and postoperative blood loss in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. [Journal Article]
- PPlatelets 2018 Nov 09; :1-7
- Postoperative coagulopathic bleeding is common in cardiac surgery and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Platelet function is affected by multiple factors, including patient and proce...
Postoperative coagulopathic bleeding is common in cardiac surgery and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Platelet function is affected by multiple factors, including patient and procedural characteristics. Point-of-care (POC) multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) can rapidly detect and quantify platelet dysfunction and could contribute to optimal patient blood management. In patients undergoing CABG and heart valve surgery platelet function was assessed using POC MEA at four different perioperative timepoints in response to stimulation with four specific receptor agonists (ADP, AA, COL, TRAP). Postoperative bleeding was recorded during 24 h after surgery. Regression analyses were performed to establish associations between perioperative platelet function and postoperative blood loss. Ninety-nine patients were included in the study. Fifty-nine patients (60%) were on antiplatelet therapy (APT) at time of surgery. ADP- and AA-induced platelet aggregation declined during CPB and after decannulation from CPB, with a maximum decrease of 55% for ADP (35 vs. 77 AU at baseline; P < 0.001) and 78% for ASPI (14 vs. 64 AU at baseline; P < 0.001). A linear relationship was present between ADP-induced platelet aggregometry at baseline and postoperative blood loss (r = -0.249; P = 0.015). In aspirin users, the maximum decline in platelet function between baseline and CPB decannulation was related to postoperative blood loss (r = 0.308; P = 0.037). In multivariate analysis, a reduced ADP platelet function prior to surgery remained associated with postoperative blood loss (r = -0.239; P = 0.012). Reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation at baseline is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in high-risk cardiac surgery patients.