- Air Quality Inside Police Drug Safes and Drug Storage Areas. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2018 Feb 15
- Storage of drug-based evidence inside sealed safes may allow chemical vapors to accumulate, creating concerns of drug exposure by inhalation, or the possibility of cross-contamination of drug evidenc...
Storage of drug-based evidence inside sealed safes may allow chemical vapors to accumulate, creating concerns of drug exposure by inhalation, or the possibility of cross-contamination of drug evidence. Air samples were taken from inside eight drug safes and one small storage room at nine city and country police stations, as well as a large centralized drug evidence storage vault, in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Sorbent tubes containing charcoal were used to determine whether any drug residues could be detected in the air, and to identify the types of chemicals present. Carbon traps were extracted and analyzed by LC-MS-MS for a suite of 22 licit and illicit drug residues and 2 metabolites. Carbon traps and SPME fibers were also analyzed by GC-MS for general volatile organic compound (VOC) residues. No detectable drug residues, either as airborne dust or vapor, were found in the safes, the storage room or the large central repository vault. No drugs were detected in any of the 34 urine samples collected at 8 of the 10 sampling locations, while only one of the five hair samples was positive for cocaine (9 pg/mg) provided by police exhibit officers at 3 of the 10 sampling locations. VOC analysis identified a variety of solvents associated with drug manufacture, plasticisers, personal care products and volatiles associated with plants such as cannabis. The results indicate that strong chemical odours emanating from drug safes are unlikely to be drug residues due to low volatility of drugs, and are more likely VOCs associated with their manufacture or from plant growing operations. Consideration should be given to the quality of air flow in rooms in which safes are housed and the use of air filtering inside safes to reduce the likelihood of VOC accumulation, and therefore the risk of human exposure.
- Effect of activated charcoal hemoperfusion on renal function in patients with paraquat poisoning. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 15(3):2688-2692
- The present study retrospectively analyzed 19 patients diagnosed with paraquat (PQ) poisoning with the aim to investigate the effect of activated charcoal hemoperfusion on renal function and PQ elimi...
The present study retrospectively analyzed 19 patients diagnosed with paraquat (PQ) poisoning with the aim to investigate the effect of activated charcoal hemoperfusion on renal function and PQ elimination. The results indicated that 7 patients died and 12 survived. Non-oliguric renal failure occurred in all of the 7 patients who died. Among the 12 surviving patients, 10 had normal renal function and 2 developed non-oliguric renal failure. There was a linear correlation between plasma and urine paraquat concentration prior to and during activated charcoal hemoperfusion. The equation parameters together with the correlation coefficient on admission were as follows: Y=0.5820+1.7348X (R2=0.678; F=35.768; P<0.0001). The equation parameters together with the correlation coefficient were as follows during activated charcoal hemoperfusion: Y=0.6827+1.2649X (R2=0.626; F=50.308; P<0.0001). Therefore, it was concluded that in patients with normal renal function, the elimination kinetics of PQ by the kidneys were only associated with the plasma PQ concentration. Activated charcoal hemoperfusion had little effect on avoiding acute kidney injury in patients with severe PQ poisoning.
- Establishment of colonic dialysis model in uremic rats by right nephrectomy and left partial nephrectomy. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Urol 2018 Feb 07
- CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of CD establishment in a rat model. Unfortunately, the amount of protein loss, elevation of blood glucose levels, and electrolyte disturbance were not evaluated in the current study because of the limited amount of blood samples. Disturbance of these factors might be a cause of mortality in experimental groups undergoing CD while a significant decrease in BUN and creatinine levels was obtained.CD with an efficient PD solution through a MACE stoma may be a valuable option when conventional methods are not available.
- Screening of physicochemical treatment processes for reducing toxicity of hair care products wastewaters. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Manage 2018 Feb 14; 212:349-356
- Toxicity reduction in wastewaters from small hair care products manufacturing companies using coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation or flotation, membrane separation and powdered activated charcoal ...
Toxicity reduction in wastewaters from small hair care products manufacturing companies using coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation or flotation, membrane separation and powdered activated charcoal adsorption was evaluated. Raw wastewater composition varied widely within and especially between companies, but all exhibited high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis (EC(I)50; 48 h < 0.02-0.33%). Coagulation with aluminum sulfate and polyaluminum chloride aided by cationic or anionic polymers, as well as filtration on ultra (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes efficiently removed turbidity (>99%) and oil and grease (>99%) and all treated samples exhibited similar dissolved organic matter contents. However, elimination of acute toxicity was only achieved after UF on submerged hollow fiber membrane, while other membrane modules (tubular UF and NF) produced filtrates with residual toxicities equal to or higher than the wastewater samples treated by coagulation processes. Adsorption removed up to 90% of the soluble COD remaining after coagulation or membrane processes, but did not eliminate acute toxicity, possibly because of the presence of activated charcoal or substances leached from it in the treated samples. The results indicate the need for further studies to develop treatment strategies that can guarantee non-toxic effluents at costs compatible with those of the simple manufacturing processes used at small-scale cosmetics manufacturing plants.
- Modified release paracetamol overdose: a prospective observational study (ATOM-3). [Journal Article]
- CTClin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Feb 16; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: Drug regulatory authorities are considering restrictions on MR paracetamol preparations. Following an acute MR paracetamol overdose, this study found that many patients had a persistently elevated paracetamol concentrations, many required prolonged treatment and some developed liver injury despite early acetylcysteine treatment. Furthermore, activated charcoal and increased acetylcysteine did not appear to significantly alter the risk of liver injury. Hence, research into better treatment strategies is required.
- Carbon-Based Nanomaterials/Allotropes: A Glimpse of Their Synthesis, Properties and Some Applications. [Review]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2018 Feb 13; 11(2)
- Carbon in its single entity and various forms has been used in technology and human life for many centuries. Since prehistoric times, carbon-based materials such as graphite, charcoal and carbon blac...
Carbon in its single entity and various forms has been used in technology and human life for many centuries. Since prehistoric times, carbon-based materials such as graphite, charcoal and carbon black have been used as writing and drawing materials. In the past two and a half decades or so, conjugated carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, activated carbon and graphite have been used as energy materials due to their exclusive properties. Due to their outstanding chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, carbon nanostructures have recently found application in many diverse areas; including drug delivery, electronics, composite materials, sensors, field emission devices, energy storage and conversion, etc. Following the global energy outlook, it is forecasted that the world energy demand will double by 2050. This calls for a new and efficient means to double the energy supply in order to meet the challenges that forge ahead. Carbon nanomaterials are believed to be appropriate and promising (when used as energy materials) to cushion the threat. Consequently, the amazing properties of these materials and greatest potentials towards greener and environment friendly synthesis methods and industrial scale production of carbon nanostructured materials is undoubtedly necessary and can therefore be glimpsed as the focal point of many researchers in science and technology in the 21st century. This is based on the incredible future that lies ahead with these smart carbon-based materials. This review is determined to give a synopsis of new advances towards their synthesis, properties, and some applications as reported in the existing literatures.
- Feasibility of using low-cost, byproduct materials as sorbents to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Technol 2018 Feb 13; :1-26
- This work investigates the sorption of heavy metals by low-cost, byproducts such as charcoal fines (CF), waste green sand (WGS), and rice husk ash (RHA), in order to examine the feasibility of their ...
This work investigates the sorption of heavy metals by low-cost, byproducts such as charcoal fines (CF), waste green sand (WGS), and rice husk ash (RHA), in order to examine the feasibility of their use as alternative filter materials for metal-contaminated waters. The sorption of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was investigated in batch experiments and sorption isotherms were constructed. The three byproducts showed high metal removal efficiencies (>95%, regardless of the metal concentration tested). The highest metal sorption distribution coefficients were obtained for CF, with maximum values within the 105-106L kg-1range for all the target metals. The sorption isotherms were satisfactorily fitted using the Freundlich equation and a linear model, the latter only being valid for initial metal concentrations lower than 0.4 mmol L-1. Sorption reversibility was very low, with desorption yields lower than 2% and desorption distribution coefficients often higher than 106L kg-1. The values of the sorption and desorption parameters indicated that the use of these materials, especially charcoal fines, could constitute a low-cost alternative for the remediation of contaminated waters.
- Engineering strategies for enhancing C. vulgaris ESP-31 lipid production using effluents of coke-making wastewater. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biosci Bioeng 2018 Feb 07
- Microalgae cultivation using wastewater is an approach for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biofuels/chemicals productions. In this study, three microalgae species Chorella vulgaris ESP-31, Chor...
Microalgae cultivation using wastewater is an approach for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biofuels/chemicals productions. In this study, three microalgae species Chorella vulgaris ESP-31, Chorella sorokiniana CY-1 and Scenedesmus sp. were cultivated using coke-making wastewater generated from a steel-making company. Of these, C.vulgaris ESP-31 had the best tolerance towards wastewater, with maximal biomass concentration of 2.82 g/l and lipid productivity of 32.3 mg/l/d. The highest biomass concentration 3.98 g/l and lipid productivity of 47.1 mg/l/d was obtained in 20% wastewater. Immobilization approach was applied to boost biomass growth and lipid production. Both maximal biomass growth (5.17 g/l) and lipid productivity (68.4 mg/l/d) was significantly enhanced with activated charcoal addition. Semi-batch cultivation resulted in stable biomass production and lipid productivity of 5.18 g/l and 77.3 mg/l/d, respectively. This study has revealed that C. vulgaris ESP-31 is a potential candidate for growth in coke making wastewater and biofuel production.
- Determining factors for levels of volatile organic compounds measured in different microenvironments of a heavy traffic urban area. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2018 Jan 29; 627:290-303
- The levels of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a congested urban area of Hanoi were characterized in a winter and a transitional period in 2015. Monitoring was conducted at two ro...
The levels of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a congested urban area of Hanoi were characterized in a winter and a transitional period in 2015. Monitoring was conducted at two roads simultaneously with traffic flows and one ambient site together with meteorology. Hourly and bi-hourly BTEX samples collected using charcoal tubes were analyzed by GC-FID. BTEX levels in winter, 131 ± 71 μg/m3in heavy traffic Truong Chinh (TC) road, 101 ± 29 μg/m3in small residential Nguyen Ngoc Nai (NN) road, and 30 ± 15 μg/m3in the ambient air site (AA, about 150 m from each road) were 1.3-2.1 times higher than the respective levels in the transitional period. Hourly benzene levels exceeded the Vietnam national standard more frequently at TC (45%) than at NN (32%) and least at AA (5%) out of 120-180 measurements, respectively. Roadside hourly levels well reflected the diurnal traffic flow pattern and higher BTEX levels were measured at TC than NN. The ambient site exhibited lower BTEX levels and different diurnal patterns, with more pronounced evening peaks than morning rush hour peaks. BTEX pollution rose showed a strong influence of wind to levels measured at AA. Species ratios (T/B and X/E) showed typical ranges for traffic emissions at roadsides. Ratios for AA and NN after midnight with no vehicles operating showed the aging effects with typical low X/E ratios. Multivariate analysis results suggested association of gasoline vehicles with BTEX at roadsides. Backward trajectory analysis indicated potential regional transport of long-lived benzene associated with continental airmass categories. BTEX at TC our study were 2-3 times lower for every species compared to those previously reported, showing results of fuel quality and vehicle technologies improvement. Health risks of people working at the roadside also reduced by about 3 times during the 10 years.
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- Bamboo- and pig-derived biochars reduce leaching losses of dibutyl phthalate, cadmium, and lead from co-contaminated soils. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2018 Feb 03; 198:450-459
- Biochar effect on the potential mobility of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in co-contaminated soils is not well investigated. A laboratory leaching study was conducted to evalua...
Biochar effect on the potential mobility of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in co-contaminated soils is not well investigated. A laboratory leaching study was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochars derived from bamboo (BB) and pig (PB) on the leachability of DBP, Cd, and Pb through soil columns packed with two soils with low or high organic carbon content (LOC; 0.35% C: HOC; 2.24% C) and spiked with DBP, Cd, and Pb. Application of PB to the LOC soil significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the leaching loss by up to 88% for DBP, 38% for Cd, and 71% for Pb, whereas its impact was insignificant in the HOC soil. The higher efficacy of PB in reducing the leaching of DBP, Cd, and Pb in the LOC soil than that of BB might be related to PB's higher specific surface area, surface alkalinity, pH, and mineral contents compared to those of BB. Co-contamination of Cd and Pb enhanced leaching of DBP in the LOC soil treated with PB, possibly by competition for the sorption sites. Leaching of DBP, Cd, and Pb were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the LOC soil than in the HOC soil. This study revealed that the effectiveness of biochars was dependent on the soil organic carbon content. Application of PB to the LOC soil was effective in reducing the leaching risk of DBP, Cd, and Pb.