- Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in adults: time-course of atrial and ventricular remodeling and effects on exercise capacity. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Jun 15
- Investigate ventricular and atrial remodeling following atrial septal defect (ASD) closure and examine if pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) and right ventricular (RV) volume predict improvemen…
Investigate ventricular and atrial remodeling following atrial septal defect (ASD) closure and examine if pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio (QP/QS) and right ventricular (RV) volume predict improvement, determined as percentage of predicted oxygen uptake (VO2%). Long-term cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data on atrial and ventricular remodeling after ASD-closure is limited and treatment effect on exercise capacity is debated. Sixteen patients undergoing transcatheter ASD closure and 16 age and sexmatched controls were studied. CMR was performed before treatment, the day after and 3 and 12 months later. Exercise test with gas analysis was performed before and 12 months after treatment. QP/QS decreased from 2.1 ± 0.5 to 1.4 ± 0.3 at day 1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 at 3 and 12 months. Left ventricular (LV) volumes increased and normalized on day 1 whereas left atrial volumes were unchanged. RV and right atrial volumes decreased the first 3 months. LV and RV volumes had not equalized at 12 months (RV/LV ratio 1.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.01) and RV ejection fraction remained decreased compared to controls. Improvement of VO2% after ASD closure (P < 0.01) was inversely related to QP/QS at rest (r = - 0.56, P < 0.05) but unrelated to RV end-diastolic volume (P = 0.16). Following transcatheter ASD closure, LV adaptation is rapid and RV adaptation is prolonged, with decreased systolic RV function. Patients with smaller shunts had larger improvement in VO2% suggesting patients with defects of borderline hemodynamic significance might benefit from closure. This may be due to impaired LV diastolic function influencing shunt size and exercise capacity following ASD closure.
- Adaptive Evolution Patterns in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas. [Journal Article]
- MBMar Biotechnol (NY) 2019 Jun 15
- Estimation of adaptive evolution rates at the molecular level is important in evolutionary genomics. However, knowledge of adaptive evolutionary patterns in Mollusca is very scarce, especially for oy…
Estimation of adaptive evolution rates at the molecular level is important in evolutionary genomics. However, knowledge of adaptive evolutionary patterns in Mollusca is very scarce, especially for oysters. Such information would help clarify how oysters adapt to pathogen-rich and dynamically changing intertidal environments. In this study, we characterized the patterns of adaptive evolution in the Crassostrea gigas genome, using population diversity analysis and congeneric comparison. Our analysis revealed that gene expression patterns were positively associated with adaptive evolution rates, which suggested that positive selection played an important role in gene evolution. The genes with more exons and alternative splicing events had higher adaptive evolution rates. The rates of adaptive evolution in immune-related and stress-response genes were higher than those in other genes, suggesting that these groups of genes experienced strong positive selection. This study represents the first analysis of adaptive evolution rates in oysters and the first comprehensive study of a Mollusca species. These results provide a system-level investigation of association between adaptive evolution rates with some intrinsic genetic factors. They also suggest that adaptation to pathogens and environmental stressors are important forces driving the adaptive evolution of genes.
- Metabolite signatures of grasspea suspension-cultured cells illustrate the complexity of dehydration response. [Journal Article]
- PPlanta 2019 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: This represents the first report deciphering the dehydration response of suspension-cultured cells of a crop species, highlighting unique and shared pathways, and adaptive mechanisms via profiling of 330 metabolites. Grasspea, being a hardy legume, is an ideal model system to study stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. In this study, we investigated the dehydration-responsive metabolome in grasspea suspension-cultured cells (SCCs) to identify the unique and shared metabolites crucial in imparting dehydration tolerance. To reveal the dehydration-induced metabolite signatures, SCCs of grasspea were exposed to 10% PEG, followed by metabolomic profiling. Chromatographic separation by HPLC coupled with MRM-MS led to the identification of 330 metabolites, designated dehydration-responsive metabolites (DRMs), which belonged to 28 varied functional classes. The metabolome was found to be constituted by carboxylic acids (17%), amino acids (13.5%), flavonoids (10.9%) and plant growth regulators (10%), among others. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed predominance of metabolites involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, secondary metabolism and osmotic adjustment. Exogenous application of DRMs, arbutin and acetylcholine, displayed improved physiological status in stress-resilient grasspea as well as hypersensitive pea, while administration of lauric acid imparted detrimental effects. This represents the first report on stress-induced metabolomic landscape of a crop species via a suspension culture system, which would provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of stress responses and adaptation in crop species.
- Lead toxicity induced phytotoxic effects on mung bean can be relegated by lead tolerant Bacillus subtilis (PbRB3). [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Jun 04; 234:70-80
- Being a primary toxic heavy metal, lead (Pb) contamination presents an imposing environmental and public health concern worldwide. A Bacillus subtilis PbRB3, displaying higher Pb tolerance, was isola…
Being a primary toxic heavy metal, lead (Pb) contamination presents an imposing environmental and public health concern worldwide. A Bacillus subtilis PbRB3, displaying higher Pb tolerance, was isolated from the textile effluent. The bacterial culture was able to remove >80% of Pb from culture solution. Upon screening in the presence of Pb, PbRB3 strain exhibited significant plant growth promoting potential. A 3 weeks long pot experiment was established to examine the capability of PbRB3 strain for physiological and biochemical traits, and Pb accumulation tendency of mung bean at 250 and 500 mg kg-1 of Pb toxicity, respectively. With respect to control treatments, photosynthetic pigments, protein synthesis, net assimilation rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were significantly constrained by Pb toxicity levels. Intrinsic and instantaneous water use efficiencies were considerably improved in inoculated plants under Pb toxicity. Compared to inoculated control, significantly higher superoxide dismutase activity in both Pb toxicity treatments, while higher malondialdehyde contents only at Pb500 treatment was recorded with PbRB3 inoculation. Catalase activity between Pb250 and Pb500 treatments was comparable at both inoculation level. Moreover, PbRB3 inoculation led to significantly higher peroxidase activity under Pb toxicity treatments compared to inoculated control. The PbRB3 inoculation led to comparable differences in root Pb content between Pb250 and Pb500 treatments. These results suggest that inoculation of Pb tolerant, Bacillus subtilis PbRB3, could be employed to improve mung bean growth potential and adaptation against Pb toxicity, and thereby accelerated Pb rhizoaccumulation from metal contaminated environment.
- Adaptation of semi-continuous anaerobic sludge digestion to humic acids. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2019 Jun 07; 161:329-334
- Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a technology for recovering chemical energy as methane from excess sludge/waste. Unfortunately, humic acids (HA) contained in excess sludge can have the effects of inhibit…
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a technology for recovering chemical energy as methane from excess sludge/waste. Unfortunately, humic acids (HA) contained in excess sludge can have the effects of inhibiting the efficiency of energy conversion. Based on a batch experiment, the impact of HA on a semi-continuous AD process was sequentially investigated, with the impact on the associated enzymes and microorganisms being measured. The results of this semi-continuous experiment indicate that the inhibition of the microbial community increased with an increased HA:VSS ratio. Long-term cultivation did not result in the adaption of methane production to the presence of HA. Moreover, at HA:VSS = 20%, the strongest inhibition (74.3%) on energy conversion efficiency was observed in the semi-continuous experiment, which was two-fold higher than that recorded in the batch experiment. This is attributed to serious and irreversible inhibition of both acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms, as well as the physical-chemical reactions between HA and the associated enzymes which, it was concluded, were the dominant mechanisms of inhibition in the batch experiment.
- Mechanism of oxytetracycline removal by aerobic granular sludge in SBR. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2019 Jun 06; 161:308-318
- In this study, oxytetracycline (OTC) as a target pollutant in swine wastewater was removed by aerobic granular sludge (AGS). The removal rate of 300 μg/L OTC in aerobic granular sludge sequencing bat…
In this study, oxytetracycline (OTC) as a target pollutant in swine wastewater was removed by aerobic granular sludge (AGS). The removal rate of 300 μg/L OTC in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (AGSBR) increased to 88.00% in 33 days and maintained stable. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total phosphorus (TP) in wastewater were also efficiently removed. The removal of OTC mainly depended on the adsorption and biodegradation of AGS, and the biodegradation was increased obviously after AGS adaptation to OTC. The degradation products of OTC were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The analysis of metagenome sequencing revealed that the enzymes, such as glycosyl transferases (GTs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs) and auxiliary activities (AAs), may play an important role in the removal of OTC. The Lefse analysis showed that the Flavobacteriia, Flavobacteriales, Cryomorphaceae and Fluviicola were four kinds of microbes with significant difference in OTC feed reactor, which are considered to be drug-resistant bacteria in AGSBR. Furthermore, the dynamics of microbial community changed significantly at three levels, including the enrichment of drug-resistant microorganisms and the microorganisms that gradually reduced or even disappeared under the pressure of OTC.
- Estimation of heat-related morbidity from weather data: A computational study in three prefectures of Japan over 2013-2018. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2019 Jun 13; 130:104907
- In recent years, the rates of heat-related morbidity and mortality have begun to increase with the increase in global warming; in this context, it is noteworthy that the number of patients transporte…
In recent years, the rates of heat-related morbidity and mortality have begun to increase with the increase in global warming; in this context, it is noteworthy that the number of patients transported by ambulance in heat-related cases in Japan reached 95,137 in 2018. The estimation of heat-related morbidity forms a key factor in proposing and implementing suitable intervention strategies and ambulance availability and arrangements. Heat-related morbidity is known to be fairly correlated to metrics related to ambient conditions, thus necessitating the exploration of new metrics to more accurately estimate morbidity. In this study, we use an integrated computational technique relating to thermodynamics and thermoregulation to estimate daily peak core temperature elevation and daily water loss, which are linked to heat-related illnesses, from weather data of three different prefectures in Japan (Tokyo, Osaka, and Aichi). The correlations of the computed core temperature elevation and water loss as well as conventional ambient conditions are investigated in terms of number of patients suffering from heat-related illnesses transported by ambulance from 2013 to 2018. The estimated water loss per the proposed computation yields better correlation with the number of patients transported by ambulance. In particular, the weight-sum daily water loss for two to three successive days is found to be an important metric for predicting the number of patients transported by ambulance. For the same ambient conditions, morbidity is found to decrease to 0.4 owing to heat adaption at the end of summer (60 days) as compared with that at the end of the rainy season. Thus, the weighted sum of water loss and daily average ambient temperature for successive days can be used as better metrics than conventional weather data for the application of intervention strategies and planning of ambulance arrangements for heat-related morbidity.
- Facial Donor Restoration: One-Step Technique. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oral Maxillofac Surg 2019 May 21
- CONCLUSIONS: The presented one-step technique proposed for facial restoration of the DC had a short learning curve, low costs, and accurate and predictable results.
- Adaptive evolution of Gluconobacter oxydans accelerates the conversion rate of non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose biomass. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019 Jun 08; 289:121623
- Gluconobacter oxydans is capable of oxidizing various lignocellulose derived sugars into the corresponding sugar acids including glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and mannose, but simultaneous ut…
Gluconobacter oxydans is capable of oxidizing various lignocellulose derived sugars into the corresponding sugar acids including glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and mannose, but simultaneous utilization of these sugars is difficult. This study attempted an adaptive evolution of G. oxydans by alternate transfer in inhibitors containing hydrolysate and inhibitors free hydrolysate for intensifying sugars simultaneous utilization. After 420 days' continuous culture, the conversion rate of all non-glucose sugars significantly improved by several folds and achieved complete conversion of lignocellulose-derived sugars to the corresponding sugar acids. The significant up-regulation of mGDH gene in the adapted G. oxydans strain (more than 40-fold greater than the parental) was considered as the decisive factor for the improvement of strain performance. This evolution adaptation strategy also could be used to accelerate robust sugars utilization for other fermented strains in lignocellulose biorefinery.
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- Novelty detection improves performance of reinforcement learners in fluctuating, partially observable environments. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Theor Biol 2019 Jun 12
- Evolved and engineered organisms must adapt to fluctuating environments that are often only partially observed. We show that adaptation to a second environment can be significantly harder after adapt…
Evolved and engineered organisms must adapt to fluctuating environments that are often only partially observed. We show that adaptation to a second environment can be significantly harder after adapting to a first, completely unrelated environment, even when using second-order learning algorithms and a constant learning rate. In effect, there is a lack of fading memory in the organism's performance. However, organisms can adapt well to the second environment by incorporating a simple novelty detection algorithm that signals when the environment has changed and reinitializing the parameters that define their behavior if so. We propose that it may be fruitful to look for signs of this novelty detection in biological organisms, and to engineer novelty detection algorithms into artificial organisms.