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- β-Caryophyllene as a Potential Protective Agent Against Myocardial Injury: The Role of Toll-Like Receptors. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 May 19; 24(10)
- Myocardial infarction (MI) remains one of the major causes of mortality around the world. A possible mechanism involved in myocardial infarction is the engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). This …
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains one of the major causes of mortality around the world. A possible mechanism involved in myocardial infarction is the engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). This study was intended to discover the prospective cardioprotective actions of β-caryophyllene, a natural sesquiterpene, to ameliorate isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction through HSP-60/TLR/MyD88/NFκB pathway. β-Caryophyllene (100 or 200 mg/kg/day orally) was administered for 21 days then MI was induced via ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 20th and 21st days. The results indicated that ISO induced a significant infarcted area associated with several alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) indices and caused an increase in numerous cardiac indicators such as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cardiac tropinine T (cTnT). In addition, ISO significantly amplified heat shock protein 60 (HSP-60) and other inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α, IL-Iβ, and NFκB, and affected TLR2 and TLR4 expression and their adaptor proteins; Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF). On the other hand, consumption of β-caryophyllene significantly reversed the infarcted size, ECG and BP alterations, ameliorated the ISO elevation in cardiac indicators; it also notably diminished HSP-60, and subsequently TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, and TRIF expression, with a substantial reduction in inflammatory mediator levels. This study revealed the cardioprotective effect of β-caryophyllene against MI through inhibiting HSP-60/TLR/MyD88/NFκB signaling pathways.
- CHID1 positively regulates RLR antiviral signaling by targeting the RIG-I/VISA signalosome. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Virol 2019; 91(9):1668-1678
- Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) belongs to the RIGI-like receptors (RLRs), a class of primary pattern recognition receptors. It senses viral double-strand RNA in the cytoplasm and delivers the…
Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) belongs to the RIGI-like receptors (RLRs), a class of primary pattern recognition receptors. It senses viral double-strand RNA in the cytoplasm and delivers the activated signal to its adaptor virus-induced signaling adapter (VISA), which then recruits the downstream TNF receptor-associated factors and kinases, triggering a downstream signal cascade that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antiviral interferons (IFNs). However, the mechanism of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that chitinase domain-containing 1 (CHID1), a member of the chitinase family, positively regulates the RLR antiviral signaling pathway by targeting the RIG-I/VISA signalosome. CHID1 overexpression enhances the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-кB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) triggered by Sendai virus (SeV) by promoting the polyubiquitination of RIG-I and VISA, thereby potentiating IFN-β production. CHID1 knockdown in human 239T cells inhibits SeV-induced activation of IRF3 and NF-κB and the induction of IFN-β. These results indicate that CHID1 positively regulates RLR antiviral signal, revealing the novel mechanism of the RIG-I antiviral signaling pathway.
- The TLR4 adaptor TRAM controls the phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria by interacting with the Rab11-family interacting protein 2. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2019; 15(3):e1007684
- Phagocytosis is a complex process that eliminates microbes and is performed by specialised cells such as macrophages. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed on the surface of macrophages and recogn…
Phagocytosis is a complex process that eliminates microbes and is performed by specialised cells such as macrophages. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed on the surface of macrophages and recognizes Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, TLR4 has been suggested to play a role in the phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we have used primary human macrophages and engineered THP-1 monocytes to show that the TLR4 sorting adapter, TRAM, is instrumental for phagocytosis of Escherichia coli as well as Staphylococcus aureus. We find that TRAM forms a complex with Rab11 family interacting protein 2 (FIP2) that is recruited to the phagocytic cups of E. coli. This promotes activation of the actin-regulatory GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. Our results show that FIP2 guided TRAM recruitment orchestrates actin remodelling and IRF3 activation, two events that are both required for phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria.
- Innate immune response in patients with acute Zika virus infection. [Journal Article]
- MMMed Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 16
- Innate immunity receptors (Toll-like receptors/TLRs and RIG-like receptors/RLRs) are important for the initial recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV), modulation of protective immune response, and IFN-α an…
Innate immunity receptors (Toll-like receptors/TLRs and RIG-like receptors/RLRs) are important for the initial recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV), modulation of protective immune response, and IFN-α and IFN-β production. Immunological mechanisms involved in protection or pathology during ZIKV infection have not yet been determined. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression of innate immune receptors (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5/MDA-5, and retinoic acid inducible gene/RIG-1), its adapter molecules (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88/Myd88, Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor-Inducing IFN-β/TRIF), and cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ) in the acute phase of patients infected by ZIKV using real-time PCR in peripheral blood. Patients with acute ZIKV infection had high expression of TLR3, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ when compared to healthy controls. In addition, there was a positive correlation between TLR3 expression compared to IFN-α and IFN-β. Moreover, viral load is positively correlated with TLR8, RIG-1, MDA-5, IFN-α, and IFN-β. On the other hand, patients infected by ZIKV showed reduced expression of RIG-1, TLR8, Myd88, and TNF-α molecules, which are also involved in antiviral immunity. Similar expressions of TLR7, TLR9, MDA-5, TRIF, IL-6, and IL-12 were observed between the group of patients infected with ZIKV and control subjects. Our results indicate that acute infection (up to 5 days after the onset of symptoms) by ZIKV in patients induces the high mRNA expression of TLR3 correlated to high expression of IFN-γ, IFN-α, and IFN-β, even though the high viral load is correlated to high expression of TLR8, RIG-1, MDA-5, IFN-α, and IFN-β in ZIKV patients.
- An improved and robust method to efficiently deplete repetitive elements from complex plant genomes. [Journal Article]
- PSPlant Sci 2019; 280:455-460
- Genome size and complexity often present major challenges to genome-based approaches in crop plants and other agricultural species. For instance, repetitive sequences comprise 80% to 90% of the genom…
Genome size and complexity often present major challenges to genome-based approaches in crop plants and other agricultural species. For instance, repetitive sequences comprise 80% to 90% of the genome of hexaploid wheat, which has a haploid genome size of approximately 17 Gb. In this study, we developed an improved design and procedure for short-read library preparation that uses a modified adaptor and duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) for the efficient elimination of highly repeated sequence elements within genomes. The improved adapter, which has a hairpin-like form for stability, was constructed from truncated sequences adjacent to the original Illumina TruSeq adapter and can be converted to a full-length adapter structure during PCR amplification. Using the hairpin-structured adaptor, we prepared randomly sheared genomic libraries from rice and diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat cultivars and evaluated the efficiency of DSN for the enzymatic depletion of repetitive elements. According to real-time quantitative PCR analysis, the relative abundances of 18S and 25S ribosomal DNA decreased respectively to 1.15% and 3.54% in rice and 1.70%-1.95% and 14.71%-20.01% in the three wheat cultivars. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of a diploid wheat cultivar, KU104-1, indicated that DSN treatment with the designed hairpin-structured adapter dramatically reduced highly repetitive elements, such as Ty1-Copia and Ty3-Gypsy retrotransposons and DNA transposons, within the genome, while sequencing reads derived from low-copy genes and protein coding sequences increased more than 50%. Our new procedure should be useful not only for wheat genomes but also for other agricultural plant species with relatively large and complex genomes.
- [Development of Novel Immobilization Adapter for Head and Neck Radiotherapy with Low-attenuation Material]. [Journal Article]
- NHNihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2019; 75(2):167-173
- CONCLUSIONS: The HMA was able to provide absorption dose and calculation errors lower than a commercially released adapter. It can also provide more accurate dose delivery for radiotherapy in head and neck because of the low absorption characteristics.
- Molecular basis for autoinhibition of RIAM regulated by FAK in integrin activation. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 02 26; 116(9):3524-3529
- RAP1-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM) mediates RAP1-induced integrin activation. The RAS-association (RA) segment of the RA-PH module of RIAM interacts with GTP-bound RAP1 and phosphoinositol 4,5 …
RAP1-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM) mediates RAP1-induced integrin activation. The RAS-association (RA) segment of the RA-PH module of RIAM interacts with GTP-bound RAP1 and phosphoinositol 4,5 bisphosphate but this interaction is inhibited by the N-terminal segment of RIAM. Here we report the structural basis for the autoinhibition of RIAM by an intramolecular interaction between the IN region (aa 27-93) and the RA-PH module. We solved the crystal structure of IN-RA-PH to a resolution of 2.4-Å. The structure reveals that the IN segment associates with the RA segment and thereby suppresses RIAM:RAP1 association. This autoinhibitory configuration of RIAM can be released by phosphorylation at Tyr45 in the IN segment. Specific inhibitors of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) blocked phosphorylation of Tyr45, inhibited stimulated translocation of RIAM to the plasma membrane, and inhibited integrin-mediated cell adhesion in a Tyr45-dependent fashion. Our results reveal an unusual regulatory mechanism in small GTPase signaling by which the effector molecule is autoinhibited for GTPase interaction, and a modality of integrin activation at the level of RIAM through a FAK-mediated feedforward mechanism that involves reversal of autoinhibition by a tyrosine kinase associated with integrin signaling.
- Scaffolding adapter protein Gab1 impairs bFGF-induced bio-activity via affecting PI3K-AKT pathway. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2019 Jan-Feb,; 33(1):53-62
- The role of Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) in bFGF-activated PI3K-AKT pathway of endothelial cells remains largely unknown. To elucidate this role, a set of studies with siRNA knockdown of Gab1 was …
The role of Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) in bFGF-activated PI3K-AKT pathway of endothelial cells remains largely unknown. To elucidate this role, a set of studies with siRNA knockdown of Gab1 was performed. Knockdown of Gab1 using siRNA was performed in fused endothelial cell line EA.hy926 and the low level of Gab1 was confirmed with quantitative R-T PCR and Western blotting. Effects of Gab1 down-regulation were examined on several aspects: bFGF-induced AKT phosphorylation, proliferation, migration and vessel tubing formation of EA.hy926 cells. The bFGF-induced AKT phosphorylation of wild-type EA.hy926 cells was both dose-dependent and time dependent with a peak at 10 ng/ml and about 30 min after bFGF treatment. The AKT activation was significantly reduced in Gab1 siRNA-treated EA.hy926 cells. The blocking of Gab1-AKT path resulted in a set of biological alterations of EA.hy926 cells: (i) reduced proliferation; (ii) impaired migration; (iii) decreased vessel tubing formation in both 2D and 3D culture. All data support that Gab1 is associated with angiogenesis function of EA.hy926 endothelium cells via PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.
- Human sperm DNA damage has an effect on immunological interaction between spermatozoa and fallopian tube. [Journal Article]
- AAndrology 2019; 7(2):228-234
- CONCLUSIONS: Damage-associated molecular patterns from DNA damage activate TLR signaling pathway in human fallopian tubes and result in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This situation may provide pathologic environment for capacitation, fertilization, embryo development, and implantation in female reproductive tract and can be one of the mechanisms of infertility in men with high DF.
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- The central adaptor molecule TRIF influences L. sigmodontis worm development. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2019; 118(2):539-549
- Worldwide approximately 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (Lf), provoked by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. This disease can lead to massive swelling of …
Worldwide approximately 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (Lf), provoked by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. This disease can lead to massive swelling of the limbs (elephantiasis) and disfigurement of the male genitalia (hydrocele). Filarial induced immune regulation is characterised by dominant type 2 helper T cell and regulatory immune responses. In vitro studies have provided evidence that signalling via Toll-like receptor-mediated pathways is triggered by filarial associated factors. Nevertheless, until now, less is known about the role of the adapter molecule TRIF during in vivo infections. Here, we used the rodent-specific nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis to investigate the role of TLR signalling and the corresponding downstream adapter and regulatory molecules TRIF, MyD88, IRF1 and IRF3 during an ongoing infection in semi-susceptible C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, lack of the central adapter molecule TRIF led to higher worm burden and reduced overall absolute cell numbers in the thoracic cavity (the site of infection) 30 days post-infection. In addition, frequencies of macrophages and lymphocytes in the TC were increased in infected TRIF-/- C57BL/6 mice, whereas frequencies of eosinophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were reduced. Nevertheless, cytokine levels and regulatory T cell populations remained comparable between TRIF-deficient and wildtype C57BL/6 mice upon 30 days of L. sigmodontis infection. In summary, this study revealed a crucial role of the adapter molecule TRIF on worm recovery and immune cell recruitment into the site of infection 30 days upon L. sigmodontis infection in C57BL/6 mice.