- Sargassum hystrix as a Source of Functional Food to Improve Blood Biochemistry Profiles of Rats under Stress. [Journal Article]
- PNPrev Nutr Food Sci 2019; 24(2):150-158
- This study was conducted to determine the influence of Sargassum hystrix powder (SHP) as an alternative source of functional food for treating in vivo stress by measuring levels of glucose, triacylgl…
This study was conducted to determine the influence of Sargassum hystrix powder (SHP) as an alternative source of functional food for treating in vivo stress by measuring levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and cortisol, and liver histopathology. Wistar rats aged 3 months and weighing 150~200 g were divided into 7 groups: normal control, fasting control, negative control (stress without adaptogen), and 4 experimental conditions (stress+0.18 mg/kg diazepam, stress+450 mg/kg pellet, stress+mixture of pellet with SHP 450 mg/kg, and stress+450 mg/kg of SHP). Intake of liquids and and body weight were measured daily. Blood samples were collected on day 0 (baseline), day 5, and day 10 to analyze levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and cortisol. On day 10, rats were euthanized and livers were collected to observe the severity of inflammation. The results indicated that rats receiving SHP 450 mg/kg and the mixture of pellet with SHP 450 mg/kg showed a similar ability as those receiving diazepam 0.18 mg/kg to cope with stress, indicated by an improvement in all blood biochemistry parameters. Supplementation with SHP 450 mg/kg can be used as an alternative source of functional food for overcoming oxidative stress, as indicated by its ability to improve levels of blood glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and cortisol, and to improve liver histology by decreasing severity of liver inflammation.
- LIR Motif-Containing Hyperdisulfide β-Ginkgotide is Cytoprotective, Adaptogenic, and Scaffold-Ready. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jun 30; 24(13)
- Grafting a bioactive peptide onto a disulfide-rich scaffold is a promising approach to improve its structure and metabolic stability. The ginkgo plant-derived β-ginkgotide β-gB1 is a highly unusual m…
Grafting a bioactive peptide onto a disulfide-rich scaffold is a promising approach to improve its structure and metabolic stability. The ginkgo plant-derived β-ginkgotide β-gB1 is a highly unusual molecule: Small, hyperdisulfide, and found only in selected ancient plants. It also contains a conserved 16-amino-acid core with three interlocking disulfides, as well as a six-amino-acid inter-cysteine loop 2 suitable for grafting peptide epitopes. However, very little is known about this recently-discovered family of molecules. Here, we report the biophysical and functional characterizations of the β-ginkgotide β-gB1 from G. biloba. A circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis at 90 °C and proteolytic treatments of β-gB1 supported that it is hyperstable. Data mining revealed that the β-gB1 loop 2 contains the canonical LC3 interacting region (LIR) motif crucial for selective autophagy. Cell-based assays and pull-down experiments showed that β-gB1 is an adaptogen, able to maintain cellular homeostasis through induced autophagosomes formation and to protect cells by targeting intracellular proteins from stress-mediated damage against hypoxia and the hypoxia-reoxygenation of induced cell death. This is the first report of an LIR-containing peptide natural product. Together, our results suggest that the plant-derived β-ginkgotide is cytoprotective, capable of targeting intracellular proteins, and holds promise as a hyperdisulfide scaffold for engineering peptidyl therapeutics with enhanced structural and metabolic stability.
- Effects of Rhodiola rosea and Panax ginseng on the Metabolic Parameters of Rats Submitted to Swimming. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Food 2019 May 31
- Adaptogen-based plant formulations play an important role in traditional medicine and have been used in medical practice to increase the resistance of individuals. Rhodiola rosea (RR) and Panax ginse…
Adaptogen-based plant formulations play an important role in traditional medicine and have been used in medical practice to increase the resistance of individuals. Rhodiola rosea (RR) and Panax ginseng (PG) exhibit adaptogenic properties and are related to the recovery of homeostasis and strengthen systems impaired by stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of RR and PG on metabolic profile and muscle damage parameters in Wistar rats submitted to swimming. Animals were divided according to the following: G1: control group; G2: group that was submitted to swimming; G3: group treated with PG; G4: group treated with PG and submitted to swimming; G5: treated with RR; and G6: treated with RR and submitted to swimming. At the end of the experimental protocol, groups G2, G4, and G6 practiced swimming for a period five times longer than during the previous 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were investigated, and no significant results were found in the groups. Nevertheless, animals treated with PG and RR reduced the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). Our findings demonstrate that both PG and RR produced a significant reduction in the levels of CPK and LDH after physical stress, suggesting that they can be used to improve physical performance. For these reasons, we may say that these plants may be used to minimize the stress promoted by the practice of physical exercises.
- Effects of a standardized extract of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) on depression and anxiety symptoms in persons with schizophrenia participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- ACAnn Clin Psychiatry 2019; 31(2):123-129
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that WSE may hold promise in the treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia. While the mechanism of its clinical efficacy requires more exploration, the data suggest.
- Flavonoid Analysis and Antioxidant Activities of the Bryonia alba L. Aerial Parts. [Journal Article]
- AAntioxidants (Basel) 2019 Apr 20; 8(4)
- Bryonia alba L. is the only Bryonia species found in Romanian flora, being known as a remedy for inflammatory pathologies or for its hepatoprotective and adaptogen activities. The present investigati…
Bryonia alba L. is the only Bryonia species found in Romanian flora, being known as a remedy for inflammatory pathologies or for its hepatoprotective and adaptogen activities. The present investigation studied the flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of the aerial parts of this species. Flavonoid profile was evaluated by HPLC coupled with Diode Array Detection (DAD), while antioxidant capacity was assessed by various methods, testing different antioxidant mechanisms: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity), FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma), TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance method) and SNPAC (silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity). Cytotoxicity was tested on human cancerous and healthy cell lines. Anti-plasmodial tests were performed on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Whole organism toxicity was assessed on zebrafish larvae. The HPLC-DAD analysis proved the presence of lutonarin, saponarin, isoorientin, and isovitexin as the major flavonoids in the composition of tested samples. Significant results were obtained for all antioxidant capacity assays. The cytotoxicity tests proved the absence of cellular and parasitic toxicity and these results were confirmed by the lack of toxicity on the zebrafish larvae model. This study proves a promising potential of the aerial parts of Bryonia alba L. as antioxidant agents.
- Effects of anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic herbal extracts on gene expression of eicosanoids signaling pathways in isolated brain cells. [Journal Article]
- PPhytomedicine 2019 Mar 10; :152881
- CONCLUSIONS: Every single plant tested in this study revealed a specific "signature" on eicosanoid signaling-related gene expression, regardless of their common features as anti-inflammatory or adaptogenic activity. Further studies of the combination of Rhodiola with Withania (Adaptra) for the treatment of Alzheimer disease are required.
- Hydrogen gas: from clinical medicine to an emerging ergogenic molecule for sports athletes 1. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Apr 10; :1-11
- H2 has been clinically demonstrated to provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which makes it an attractive agent in exercise medicine. Although exercise provides a multiplicity of benefit…
H2 has been clinically demonstrated to provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which makes it an attractive agent in exercise medicine. Although exercise provides a multiplicity of benefits including decreased risk of disease, it can also have detrimental effects. For example, chronic high-intensity exercise in elite athletes, or sporadic bouts of exercise (i.e., noxious exercise) in untrained individuals, result in similar pathological factors such as inflammation, oxidation, and cellular damage that arise from and result in disease. Paradoxically, exercise-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species largely mediate the benefits of exercise. Ingestion of conventional antioxidants and anti-inflammatories often impairs exercise-induced training adaptations. Disease and noxious forms of exercise promote redox dysregulation and chronic inflammation, changes that are mitigated by H2 administration. Beneficial exercise and H2 administration promote cytoprotective hormesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, ATP production, increased NAD+/NADH ratio, cytoprotective phase II enzymes, heat-shock proteins, sirtuins, etc. We review the biomedical effects of exercise and those of H2, and we propose that hydrogen may act as an exercise mimetic and redox adaptogen, potentiate the benefits from beneficial exercise, and reduce the harm from noxious exercise. However, more research is warranted to elucidate the potential ergogenic and therapeutic effects of H2 in exercise medicine.
- The outline of stress pathophysiology and pharmacodynamic action of plant-based eustressors - adaptogens. [Editorial]
- PMPol Merkur Lekarski 2019 Mar 28; 46(273):103-108
- In modern pharmaceutical market, there is an increasing number of preparations declaring some stress-protective and stress-relieving effects and delaying aging processes. It is an answer to the fast …
In modern pharmaceutical market, there is an increasing number of preparations declaring some stress-protective and stress-relieving effects and delaying aging processes. It is an answer to the fast lifestyle, high social and professional requirements contributing to the increased burden and stress. Chronic stress leads to numerous disorders. For that reason, methods for relieving adverse stress symptoms and allowing an easier adaptation to stress are still being investigated. One of the phytopharmacological methods of stress reduction is the use of "adaptogens" - plants containing active constituents that regulate mechanisms enabling a better adaptation to stress ("eustressors"). In general, the use of adaptogen-based preparations increases the non-specific phase of stress resistance, facilitating the achievement and prolonged maintenance of the, socalled, allostasis. Conducted studies revealed some detailed effects of adaptogens on a molecular level, that allow broadening their pharmacodynamic description. In this short review, the phenomenon of stress with its neuroendocrine background, examples of plants with adaptogenic activity, dietary supplements containing these kinds of plants, and some aspects of adaptogen's pharmacodynamic action have been briefly discussed.
- Rhodiola species: A comprehensive review of traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicity, and clinical study. [Review]
- MRMed Res Rev 2019 Jan 16
- Rhodiola species, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, have long been used as an adaptogen, tonic, antidepressant, and antistress medicine or functional food in Asia and Europe. Due to the valuable …
Rhodiola species, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, have long been used as an adaptogen, tonic, antidepressant, and antistress medicine or functional food in Asia and Europe. Due to the valuable application, the growing demand of Rhodiola species has led to a rapid decrease in resource content. This review aims to summarize the integrated research progress of seven mainstream Rhodiola species. We first outline both traditional and current use of Rhodiola for the treatment of various diseases. A detailed summary and comparison of chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical studies of various Rhodiola species highlight recent scientific advances and gaps, which gives insights into the understanding of Rhodiola application and would be helpful to improve the situation of biological resources and diversities of Rhodiola plants.
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- Cannabis sativa L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids: Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer. [Review]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2018; 2018:1691428
- In the last decades, a lot of attention has been paid to the compounds present in medicinal Cannabis sativa L., such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and their effects on in…
In the last decades, a lot of attention has been paid to the compounds present in medicinal Cannabis sativa L., such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and their effects on inflammation and cancer-related pain. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) currently recognizes medicinal C. sativa as an effective treatment for providing relief in a number of symptoms associated with cancer, including pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety. Several studies have described CBD as a multitarget molecule, acting as an adaptogen, and as a modulator, in different ways, depending on the type and location of disequilibrium both in the brain and in the body, mainly interacting with specific receptor proteins CB1 and CB2. CBD is present in both medicinal and fibre-type C. sativa plants, but, unlike Δ9-THC, it is completely nonpsychoactive. Fibre-type C. sativa (hemp) differs from medicinal C. sativa, since it contains only few levels of Δ9-THC and high levels of CBD and related nonpsychoactive compounds. In recent years, a number of preclinical researches have been focused on the role of CBD as an anticancer molecule, suggesting CBD (and CBD-like molecules present in the hemp extract) as a possible candidate for future clinical trials. CBD has been found to possess antioxidant activity in many studies, thus suggesting a possible role in the prevention of both neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In animal models, CBD has been shown to inhibit the progression of several cancer types. Moreover, it has been found that coadministration of CBD and Δ9-THC, followed by radiation therapy, causes an increase of autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. In addition, CBD is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to increase apoptosis in different types of cancer models. These activities seem to involve also alternative pathways, such as the interactions with TRPV and GRP55 receptor complexes. Moreover, the finding that the acidic precursor of CBD (cannabidiolic acid, CBDA) is able to inhibit the migration of breast cancer cells and to downregulate the proto-oncogene c-fos and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) highlights the possibility that CBDA might act on a common pathway of inflammation and cancer mechanisms, which might be responsible for its anticancer activity. In the light of all these findings, in this review we explore the effects and the molecular mechanisms of CBD on inflammation and cancer processes, highlighting also the role of minor cannabinoids and noncannabinoids constituents of Δ9-THC deprived hemp.