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680 results
  • Very High Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) in Serum of an Overweight Female Adolescent Without a Tumor. [Case Reports]
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020; 11:240.Iliev DI, Braun R, … Binder G
  • Introduction: An increase of serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate (DHEAS) is observed in premature adrenarche and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Very high DHEAS levels are typical for adrenal tumors. Approximately 74% of DHEAS is hydrolyzed to DHEA by the steroid sulfatase (STS). The reverse reaction is DHEA sulfation. Besides these two enzyme reactions, the DHEAS transported through the …
  • Disorders of Pubertal Onset. [Review]
    Prim Care. 2020 Jun; 47(2):189-216.Elchuri SV, Momen JJ
  • Evaluation of the child with abnormal pubertal development can be challenging for the primary care provider. Understanding the factors associated with timing of pubertal onset and the normal sequence of pubertal changes is useful in evaluation of children with puberty disorders. A thorough workup includes assessment of growth rate, Tanner staging, and rate of pubertal progression, in addition to …
  • 11-Oxygenated androgens in health and disease. [Review]
    Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2020 May; 16(5):284-296.Turcu AF, Rege J, … Rainey WE
  • The adrenal gland is a source of sex steroid precursors, and its activity is particularly relevant during fetal development and adrenarche. Following puberty, the synthesis of androgens by the adrenal gland has been considered of little physiologic importance. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate, DHEAS, are the major adrenal androgen precursors, but they are biologically inactive. The s…
  • DHEAS and Human Development: An Evolutionary Perspective. [Journal Article]
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020; 11:101.Campbell B
  • Adrenarche, the post-natal rise of DHEA and DHEAS, is unique to humans and the African Apes. Recent findings have linked DHEA in humans to the development of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDPFC) between the ages of 4-8 years and the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) from 7 to 12 years of age. Given the association of the LDLPFC with the 5-to-8 transition and the rTPJ with mentalizi…
  • Tracking of Serum DHEAS Concentrations from Age 1 to 6 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
    J Endocr Soc. 2020 Feb 01; 4(2):bvaa012.Liimatta J, Jääskeläinen J, … Pekkanen J
  • CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum DHEAS concentrations already at age 1 year are associated with those at age 6 years. Also, shorter birth length and rapid catch-up growth in length by age 1 year are associated with higher DHEAS concentrations at age 6 years. These results corroborate the early origin of adrenarche and strongly suggest that part of adrenarchal programming already takes place by the end of infancy.
  • Adipokines: A gear shift in puberty. [Review]
    Obes Rev. 2020 Jun; 21(6):e13005.Nieuwenhuis D, Pujol-Gualdo N, … Kiliaan AJ
  • In this review, we discuss the role of adipokines in the onset of puberty in children with obesity during adrenarche and gonadarche and provide a clear and detailed overview of the biological processes of two major players, leptin and adiponectin. Adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, seem to induce an early onset of puberty in girls and boys with obesity by affecting the hypothalamic-pi…
  • Classifying Pubertal Development Using Child and Parent Report: Comparing the Pubertal Development Scales to Tanner Staging. [Journal Article]
    J Adolesc Health. 2020 Jan 20 [Online ahead of print]Koopman-Verhoeff ME, Gredvig-Ardito C, … Carskadon MA
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that the PDS is reliable and generally tracks with Tanner staging (for both self and parent report). Low absolute agreement indicates that PDS categories do not map directly to specific Tanner stages, partly because a premature adrenarche is often misinterpreted by parents and pediatricians alike. However, three broad categories showed better agreement and are generally adequate for most applications in child and adolescent research.
  • Molecular and Environmental Mechanisms Regulating Puberty Initiation: An Integrated Approach. [Review]
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019; 10:828.Livadas S, Chrousos GP
  • The mechanisms underlying the initiation of puberty, one of the cornerstones of human evolution, have not been fully elucidated as yet. However, recently, an accumulating body of evidence has helped unravel several critical aspects of the process. It is clear that a change in the pattern of pituitary gonadotropin secretion serves as a hormonal trigger for puberty induction. This change is directl…
  • Abnormal linear growth in paediatric adrenal diseases: Pathogenesis, prevalence and management. [Review]
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2020 Feb; 92(2):98-108.Minnetti M, Caiulo S, … Savage MO
  • Abnormal adrenal function can interfere with linear growth, potentially causing either acceleration or impairment of growth in paediatric patients. These abnormalities can be caused by direct effects of adrenal hormones, particularly glucocorticoids and sex steroids, or be mediated by indirect mechanisms such as the disturbance of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and aromatiza…
  • Cyclic Cushing's Disease in the Prepubertal Period-A Case Report and Review of Literature. [Case Reports]
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019; 10:701.Wȩdrychowicz A, Hull B, … Starzyk JB
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic presentations of CD in the prepubescent age group could cause difficulties in diagnosis because of atypical signs and symptoms, which can be absent in the remission phase. Decreases in height percentiles and velocities obtained from the growth chart, as well as fluctuations in weight, and signs of androgenization can allow the clinician to suspect cycling CD in prepubertal patients. Confirmation of cyclic CD diagnosis is only possible during periods of relapse (hypercortisolemic state) and should be investigated according to the current diagnostic standard.
  • Long-term care, from neonatal period to adulthood, of children born small for gestational age. [Review]
    Clin Pediatr Endocrinol. 2019; 28(4):97-103.Hwang IT
  • Children born small for gestational age (SGA) face an increased risk of health problems in later life, particularly persistent short stature, neurocognitive dysfunction, impaired renal and pulmonary function, decreased bone density, sensorineural hearing loss, premature adrenarche, and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance appears to be a key component underlying these metabolic complications. L…
  • Developmental changes in the endocrine stress response in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). [Journal Article]
    J Comp Physiol B. 2019 Dec; 189(6):659-672.Takeshita RSC, Mendonça RS, … Huffman MA
  • Non-invasive measures of stress are crucial for captive and conservation management programs. The adrenal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) has recently been adopted as a stress marker, but there is little investigation of its relationship to glucocorticoids (GC), well-known indicators of stress. This study examined the influence of age, reproductive state and environment on GC and D…
  • Cardiometabolic Risk Profile Among Young Adult Females With a History of Premature Adrenarche. [Journal Article]
    J Endocr Soc. 2019 Oct 01; 3(10):1771-1783.Liimatta J, Utriainen P, … Jääskeläinen J
  • CONCLUSIONS: PA does not seem to be associated with MetS, dyslipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, or low-grade inflammation in young adult women. However, some women with PA may be at an increased risk of unfavorable glucose metabolism, which is associated with increased central adiposity at adult age rather than determined by prepubertal factors.
  • Clinical, biochemical and gender characteristics of 97 prepubertal children with premature adrenarche. [Journal Article]
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Nov 26; 32(11):1247-1252.Santos-Silva R, Costa C, … Fontoura M
  • Background Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined as the appearance of clinical signs of androgen action associated with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ≥40 μg/dL, before age 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys, without breast or testicular enlargement. The aim of this study was to characterize a population of prepubertal Caucasian children with PA and to compare them with regard …
  • Hypoprolactinemia as a clue to diagnosis of mild central hypothyroidism due to IGSF1 deficiency [Journal Article]
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2019 Aug 26 [Online ahead of print]Papadimitriou A, Papadopoulou A, … Papaevangelou V
  • Loss-of-function mutations of IGSF1 are an X-linked cause of central hypothyroidism (CeH) and hypoprolactinemia. A currently 15.2 year-old boy presented at the age of 7.69 years for evaluation of obesity. Previous thyroid function evaluation suggested CeH (FT4 0.6 ng/ml, TSH 2.2 mIU/L) but his physician took no action. At presentation he was clinically and biochemically euthyroid, prepubertal, ob…
  • Atypical Presentation of Swyer Syndrome. [Journal Article]
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2019 Dec; 32(6):645-647.Dural O, Evruke I, … Akhan SE
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report reminds us the possibility of diagnosis of Swyer syndrome in the presence of normal pubertal development and normal sex steroid levels considered to be produced by gonadoblastoma.
  • StatPearls: Delayed Puberty [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Tang Christine C Palms West Hospital Damian Middey M Palms West Hospital BOOK
  • Puberty can be a stressful and concerning time for adolescents and their families, as it represents a period of significant emotional and physical changes to the body. Puberty normally occurs between the ages of 8 to 13 years for females and 9 to 14 years for males. In females, the first sign of true puberty is breast development or thelarche. In males, the first sign is testicular enlargement, w…
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