- Rapid Detection of Adulterants in Whey Protein Supplement by Raman Spectroscopy Combined with Multivariate Analysis. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 May 16; 24(10)
- The growing demand for whey protein supplements has made them the target of adulteration with cheap substances. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy in tandem with chemometrics was proposed to simultaneousl…
The growing demand for whey protein supplements has made them the target of adulteration with cheap substances. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy in tandem with chemometrics was proposed to simultaneously detect and quantify three common adulterants (creatine, l-glutamine and taurine) in whey protein concentrate (WPC) powder. Soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built based on two spectral regions (400-1800 cm-1 and 500-1100 cm-1) to classify different types of adulterated samples. The most effective was the SIMCA model in 500-1100 cm-1 with an accuracy of 96.9% and an error rate of 5%. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for each adulterant were developed using two different Raman spectral ranges (400-1800 cm-1 and selected specific region) and data pretreatment methods. The determination coefficients (R2) of all models were higher than 0.96. PLSR models based on typical Raman regions (500-1100 cm-1 for creatine and taurine, the combination of range 800-1000 cm-1 and 1300-1500 cm-1 for glutamine) were superior to models in the full spectrum. The lowest root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.21%, 0.33%, 0.42% for creatine, taurine and glutamine, and the corresponding limit of detection (LOD) values for them were 0.53%, 0.71% and 1.13%, respectively. This proves that Raman spectroscopy with the help of multivariate approaches is a powerful method to detect adulterants in WPC.
- [Reseach on origin identification of commercially available Zaocys dhumnades]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019; 44(7):1321-1326
- Through market investigation, the adulteration of Zaocys dhumnades on markets was found out, and samples of authentic and adulterated Z. dhumnades on markets were collected. The origin and properties…
Through market investigation, the adulteration of Zaocys dhumnades on markets was found out, and samples of authentic and adulterated Z. dhumnades on markets were collected. The origin and properties of the adulterated Z. dhumnades were studied in order to provide reference for the identification of Z. dhumnades. The counterfeit Z. dhumnades sold on markets were as follows: Ptyas korros, P. mucosus, Najanaja atra, Sinonatrix annularis, Dinodon septentrionalis, etc. It is found that there existed a obvious difference between the traits of the Z. dhumnades and counterfeits. Genuine Z. dhumnades with "sword ridge" "iron tail", strongly ribbed scales and other features, is the key point to identify the difference from adulterants.
- Hemorrhagic Soft Tissue Upper Airway Obstruction From Brodifacoum-Contaminated Synthetic Cannabinoid. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Med 2019 May 08
- More than 60 types of cannabinoids are found in nature; the remaining are chemically synthesized analogs of natural cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids were first reported in the United States in 20…
More than 60 types of cannabinoids are found in nature; the remaining are chemically synthesized analogs of natural cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids were first reported in the United States in 2008. These compounds are usually smoked by users and are sold under various names. Synthesized products have clinical effects that are similar to the effects of cannabis, which include tachycardia, conjunctival injection, nystagmus, vomiting, and ataxia. In cases of acute overdose, hyperthermia, acute kidney injury, seizures, and rhabdomyolysis can occur.
- Status of Indian medicinal plants in the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the future of Ayurvedic drugs: Shouldn't think about Ayurvedic fundamentals? [Review]
- JIJ Integr Med 2019 Apr 30
- The present market for herbal drugs is estimated about ₹40 billion, which is expected to increase by 16% in next 3-4 years. The current production of many Ayurvedic herbs is less than their market de…
The present market for herbal drugs is estimated about ₹40 billion, which is expected to increase by 16% in next 3-4 years. The current production of many Ayurvedic herbs is less than their market demand, which incentivizes adulteration in the Ayurvedic drug supply chain. The present work aims to highlight the most used Ayurvedic plants that have been listed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature's "red list" of endangered or vulnerable plants. The future of Ayurvedic medicines from these listed plants is uncertain, as the collection of herbs from their natural habitat is prohibited and their cultivation does not meet market demands. Many of these plants, such as Taxus baccata and T. wallichiana, are endangered and are only grown in their natural habitats; their cultivation in other areas is impractical. This is the present state, and will worsen as demand continues to grow, with increasing populations and increasing adoption of this system of medicine. It is possible that in coming years most of the Ayurvedic drugs will be adulterated, and will cause only side effects rather than the therapeutic effects. The Ayurvedic fundamentals are under-explored areas where the Ayurvedic practitioners and research scientists can work together. The scientific work on the basic principles will unravel many unknown or little-known facts of this ancient science. Hence, the present review emphasizes the conservation of Ayurvedic herbs, minimization of the use of medicinal plants and the promotion of the research based on Ayurvedic fundamentals.
- Sub-Parts-per-Trillion Level Detection of Analytes by Superhydrophobic Preconcentration Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SHPPSI MS). [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chem 2019 May 22
- A new kind of ambient ionization method named superhydrophobic preconcentration paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (SHPPSI MS) is introduced, where superhydrophobicity and paper spray mass spec…
A new kind of ambient ionization method named superhydrophobic preconcentration paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (SHPPSI MS) is introduced, where superhydrophobicity and paper spray mass spectrometry (PS MS) are coupled. The SHPPSI MS requires only microliter amounts of analyte solutions, allows easy sampling procedure, and provides high sensitivity for a diverse array of analytes. It can be used to detect food adulteration at extremely low concentrations. The experimental methodology involves modifying one of the surfaces of a triangularly cut filter paper to make it acquire low surface energy by drop casting a green and ecofriendly superhydrophobic coating material over it followed by drying. A micrometer scale defect was made at close proximity to one of the tips of the paper using a pin. Preconcentration of the sample was accomplished by allowing a 10 μL droplet of an aqueous solution of the analyte to stand at the defect followed by drying naturally. The dried paper was used as the substrate for paper spray mass spectrometry by eluting the analyte with a suitable solvent. This novel technique was used to detect melamine in adulterated milk, whose detection at the ppt level in milk normally needs sophisticated instruments, a larger amount of sample, and a complex sampling procedure, including further purification and separation. The SHPPSI MS detects melamine directly from milk at the sub-ppb level by simply putting a microdroplet of adulterated milk at the substrate and eluting the sample with methanol. This paper-based technique can be a promising tool for direct sensing of analytes such as drugs in body fluids, pesticides in water and soil, etc.
- Molecular identification of medicinal plants with amplicon length polymorphism using universal DNA barcodes of the atpF-atpH, trnL and trnH-psbA regions. [Journal Article]
- 3B3 Biotech 2019; 9(5):188
- Amplification success and species discrimination efficiency of universal DNA barcode primers (trnH-psbA, trnL, ycf1b, atpF-atpH, matK and rbcL) was evaluated in 46 representative medicinal plant spec…
Amplification success and species discrimination efficiency of universal DNA barcode primers (trnH-psbA, trnL, ycf1b, atpF-atpH, matK and rbcL) was evaluated in 46 representative medicinal plant species of 28 families on agarose gel. The results showed that amplicons length polymorphism revealed by the primers atpF-atpH, trnH-psbA and trnL can simultaneously discriminate all the 46 species under study precisely. Some of the plant species included in this study are used as potential adulterants to other plant species. We were able to successfully discriminate the plant species from their potential substitute. Vitex negundo is an adulterant of Ocimum sanctum which has been successfully discriminated by all these three markers. Another example of adulteration between Bacopa monnieri and Centella asiatica was successfully discriminated by atpF-atpH, trnL and trnH-psbA on the basis of variability in amplicon length of these two medicinal herbs. Further, Cassia tora and Cassia fistula are also adulterants for each other and variability in amplicon length between these two species was revealed by atpF-atpH and trnH-psbA markers. A colour code distance matrix based on amplicon length polymorphism was designed to select primers which can effectively discriminate plants species on the basis of their amplicon length. Discrimination of plant species with the universal markers on agarose gel is a noble and inexpensive approach as it does not require sequencing of amplicons. This procedure will provide a way for the development of diagnostic markers to identify adulteration not only in herbal drug formulations but also in food material.
- Detection of buffalo milk adulteration with cow milk by capillary electrophoresis analysis. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2019 May 02
- The addition of cow milk during the production of buffalo mozzarella is a common fraud in dairy industries because of the lower price and greater availability of cow milk throughout the year. The aim…
The addition of cow milk during the production of buffalo mozzarella is a common fraud in dairy industries because of the lower price and greater availability of cow milk throughout the year. The aim of this study was to develop a new, rapid, and robust capillary electrophoresis method for detecting and quantifying cow milk in buffalo milk by exploiting cow α-lactalbumin as a marker of adulteration. In particular, a linear calibration curve was generated, using a training set of calibrators consisting of 7 series of 17 buffalo/bovine whey mixtures, obtained after casein precipitation, with increasing percentages of cow whey. The capillary electrophoresis method showed high linearity (R2 = 0.968), repeatability [relative standard deviation (RSD) = 2.11, 3.02, 4.38, and 1.18%, respectively for 5, 10, 20, and 50% of buffalo/bovine whey mixtures], and intermediate precision (RSD = 2.18, 2.49, 5.09, and 3.19%, respectively, for 5, 10, 20, and 50% buffalo/bovine whey mixtures). Moreover, the minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk was 1%, and the limit of quantification was 3.1%.
- Validated Identity Test Method for Ginkgo biloba NHPs Using DNA-Based Species-Specific Hydrolysis PCR Probe. [Journal Article]
- JAJ AOAC Int 2019 May 02
- Background: There is considerable risk of adulteration of Ginkgo biloba herbal products in the natural health product (NHP) industry. Authentication of G. biloba products is challenging because of t…
Background: There is considerable risk of adulteration of Ginkgo biloba herbal products in the natural health product (NHP) industry. Authentication of G. biloba products is challenging because of the standard, complex, analytical chemistry methods that may be too costly and not appropriate for both raw and finished products. Objective: We sought to develop and validate an alternative method to authenticate G. biloba herbal dietary supplements, based on the use of a species-specific hydrolysis PCR probe assay. Methods: A species-specific hydrolysis probe assay was developed, validated, and evaluated for the performance of the assay in accurately identifying the species of interest using the following analytical validation criteria: (1) specificity (accuracy) in identifying the target species ingredient, while not identifying other nontarget species, (2) sensitivity in detecting the smallest amount of the target material, and (3) reliability (repeatability and reproducibility) in detecting the target species in raw materials on a real-time PCR platform. Results: The species-specific hydrolysis probe assay was successfully developed for raw materials of G. biloba. The specificity of the assay was 100% to the target species. Efficiency of the assay was observed to be 99%, and the reliability of the assay was 100% for the raw/starting materials. Conclusions and Highlights: The method developed in this study is simple, rapid, and easy for supplement manufacturers to perform in their laboratories to ensure that their G. biloba supplements are authentic.
- Improved continuous locality preserving projection for quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by using laser-induced fluorescence. [Journal Article]
- AOAppl Opt 2019 Mar 20; 58(9):2340-2349
- An optimized dimensionality reduction technique is proposed as the improved continuous locality preserving projection (ICLPP), which was developed by modifying and optimizing the weighting functions …
An optimized dimensionality reduction technique is proposed as the improved continuous locality preserving projection (ICLPP), which was developed by modifying and optimizing the weighting functions and weighting factors of the continuous locality preserving projection (CLPP) algorithm. With only one adjustable parameter, this optimized technique not only enhances CLPP's capability of maintaining the continuity of the massive data, but also results in better simplicity and adaptability of the algorithm. In this paper, the performance of ICLPP is validated through quantification analysis of the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with low-cost oils based on laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Through cross validation and comparative studies, ICLPP, combined with the regression algorithm, is employed to predict and screen adulteration in EVOO, and is found to generally outperform other state-of-the-art dimensionality reduction algorithms, especially for prediction of adulterants at low level (<10%). It is evidenced that the ICLPP-based framework is superior in detecting adulteration by using spectral data.
New Search Next
- SERS detection of urea and ammonium sulfate adulterants in milk with coffee ring effect. [Journal Article]
- FAFood Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2019; 36(6):851-862
- In the current work, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@AgNPs) with coffee ring effect was employed to simultaneousl…
In the current work, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@AgNPs) with coffee ring effect was employed to simultaneously ascertain urea and ammonium sulfate (AmS) in milk. A small drop (2 µL) of milk with adulterants was dried on a gold-coated slide to examine concentrations ranging from 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/dL based on spectra ranging from 400 to 1500 cm.-1 A uniform distribution of analytes, with enhanced Raman signals was detected in a small region (maximum 1.9 mm) of coffee ring across the centre of coffee ring pattern. Nanoparticles with core (Au) diameter of 26 nm and shell thickness (Ag) of 6.5 nm were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. A strong Raman peak at 980 cm-1 was assigned to AmS, while that at 1001 cm-1 was ascribed to urea. With AuNPs, coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9873 and 0.9859 were achieved for urea and AmS, respectively, while for Au@AgNPs values of 0.9827 and 0.9855 were obtained for urea and AmS, respectively. This study revealed that SERS based on coffee ring effect has the potential to be further exploited for detecting other banned and hazardous adulterants in milk and milk products.