- Cyanobacterial lectins characteristics and their role as antiviral agents. [Review]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2017 Apr 21; 102:475-496
- Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploite...
Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited for establishment of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence stage of viruses and thus helpful in eliminating wide spread viral infections. Here the review focuses on the haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity and characteristics of cyanobacterial lectins. Cyanobacterial lectins exhibiting high specificity towards mannose or complex glycans have potential role as anti-viral agents. Prospective role of cyanobacterial lectins in targeting various diseases of worldwide concern such as HIV, hepatitis, herpes, influenza and ebola viruses has been discussed extensively. The review also lays emphasis on recent studies involving structural analysis of glycan-lectin interactions which in turn influence their mechanism of action. Altogether, the promising approach of these cyanobacterial lectins provides insight into their use as antiviral agents.
- Association of Serum Autotaxin Levels with Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Apr 20; 7:46705
- Metabolized by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme considered to be associated with liver damage. We sought to clarify the diagnostic ability of ATX for liver fib...
Metabolized by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme considered to be associated with liver damage. We sought to clarify the diagnostic ability of ATX for liver fibrosis in 593 biopsy-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The diagnostic accuracy of ATX was compared with clinical parameters and the established fibrosis biomarkers Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2-binding protein, FIB-4 index, AST-to-platelet ratio, and Forn's index. Median ATX levels were consistently higher in female controls and patients than in their male counterparts (P < 0.01). Serum ATX concentration increased significantly according to liver fibrosis stage in overall and both genders (P < 0.001). The cutoff values of ATX for prediction of fibrosis stages ≥F1, ≥F2, ≥F3, and F4 were 0.8, 1.1, 1.3, and 1.7 mg/L, respectively, in male patients and 0.9, 1.7, 1.8, and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, in female patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ATX to diagnose fibrosis of ≥F2 (0.861) in male patients was superior to those of FIB-4 index and Forn's index (P < 0.001), while that in female patients (0.801) was comparable with those of the other markers. ATX therefore represents a novel non-invasive biomarker for liver fibrosis in HCV-infected patients.
- Network analysis of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins and their binding sites in adult chicken retina and choroid. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anat 2017 Apr 20
- The highly ordered multilayered organization of the adult chicken retina is a suitable test model for examining zonal distribution of the members of a bioeffector family. Based on the concept of the ...
The highly ordered multilayered organization of the adult chicken retina is a suitable test model for examining zonal distribution of the members of a bioeffector family. Based on the concept of the sugar code, the functional pairing of glycan epitopes with cognate receptors (lectins) is emerging as a means to explain the control of diverse physiological activities. Having recently completed the biochemical characterization of all seven adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins present in chicken, it was possible to establish how the individual characteristics of their expression profiles add up to shape the galectin network, which until now has not been defined at this level of complexity. This information will also have relevance in explaining the region-specific presence of glycan determinants in the retina, as illustrated in the first part of this study using a panel of nine plant/fungal agglutinins. The following systematic monitoring of the galectins yielded patterns for which quantitative and qualitative differences were detected. Obviously, positivity in distinct layers is not confined to a single protein of this family, e.g. CG-1A, CG-3 or CG-8. These results underline the requirement for network analysis for these proteins that can functionally interact in additive or antagonistic modes. Labeling of the tissue galectins facilitated profiling of their accessible binding sites. It also revealed differences among the galectin family members, highlighting the ability of this method to define binding properties on the level of tissue sections. Methodologically, the detection of endogenous lectins intimates that cognate glycans can become inaccessible, a notable caveat for lectin histochemical studies.
- Carbohydrate Analog Microarrays for Identification of Lectin-Selective Ligands. [Journal Article]
- CChembiochem 2017 Apr 19
- Fifty five mono- and disaccharide analogs were prepared and used for construction of microarrays to uncover lectin-selective ligands. The microarray study shows that two disaccharide analogs, 28' and...
Fifty five mono- and disaccharide analogs were prepared and used for construction of microarrays to uncover lectin-selective ligands. The microarray study shows that two disaccharide analogs, 28' and 44', selectively bind to S. tuberosum lectin (STL) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), respectively. The results of cell studies also indicate that 28' and 44' selectively block binding of STL and WGA to mammalian cells unlike a natural ligand LacNAc that suppresses binding of both STL and WGA to cells.
- Serum levels of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein reflect the severity of chronic pancreatitis. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dig Dis 2017 Apr 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Serum WFA(+) -M2BP level is a useful marker for grading CP severity.
- Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Concanavalin A Binding to Self-Assembled Monolayers of Mannosides on Gold Wire Electrodes. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Electroanal Chem (Lausanne) 2016 Nov 01; 780:311-320
- The interactions of the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolated mono-, di-, and tri-mannosides were studied on the surface of gold wires using electrochemical...
The interactions of the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolated mono-, di-, and tri-mannosides were studied on the surface of gold wires using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The SAMs of mannosides were prepared either pure or along with thiolated triethylene glycol (TEG) at different molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:9, and 1:19) to better understand and optimize the interaction conditions. The charge-transfer resistance of the [Fe(CN)6](3-)/(4-) redox probe was compared before and after the interaction at different concentrations of Con A to determine the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and limit of detection (LOD). Values of Kd were found in the nanomolar range showing multivalent interactions between mannosides and Con A, and LOD was found ranging from 4-13 nM depending on the type of mannoside SAM used. Analysis using the Hill equation suggests negative cooperativity in the binding behavior. Peanut agglutinin was used as a negative control, and cyclic voltammetry was used to further support the experiments. We have found that neither the pure nor the widely dispersed monolayers of mannosides provide the conditions for optimal binding of Con A. The binding of Con A to these SAMs is sensitive to the molar ratio of the mannoside used to prepare the SAM and to the structure of the mannoside. A simple cleaning method has also been shown to regenerate the used gold wire electrodes. The results from these experiments contribute to the development of simple, cheap, selective, and sensitive EIS-based bioassays, especially for lectin-carbohydrate interactions.
- Serum WFA(+) -M2BP levels predict liver fibrosis, development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and overall survival: A meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Apr 12
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum WFA(+) -M2BP is a reliable predictor for liver fibrosis staging and a good substitute for liver biopsy. It is also useful for predicting both hepatocellular carcinoma development and overall survival. (246 words).
- Pathogenicity and transmission of a swine influenza A(H6N6) virus. [Journal Article]
- EMEmerg Microbes Infect 2017 Apr 12; 6(4):e17
- Subtype H6 influenza A viruses (IAVs) are commonly detected in wild birds and domestic poultry and can infect humans. In 2010, a H6N6 virus emerged in southern China, and since then, it has caused sp...
Subtype H6 influenza A viruses (IAVs) are commonly detected in wild birds and domestic poultry and can infect humans. In 2010, a H6N6 virus emerged in southern China, and since then, it has caused sporadic infections among swine. We show that this virus binds to α2,6-linked and α2,3-linked sialic acids. Mutations at residues 222 (alanine to valine) and 228 (glycine to serine) of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) affected its receptor-binding properties. Experiments showed that the virus has limited transmissibility between ferrets through direct contact or through inhalation of infectious aerosolized droplets. The internal genes of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, which is prevalent in swine worldwide, increases the replication efficiency of H6N6 IAV in the lower respiratory tract of ferrets but not its transmissibility between ferrets. These findings suggest H6N6 swine IAV (SIV) currently poses a moderate risk to public health, but its evolution and spread should be closely monitored.
- WGA-Alexa Conjugates for Axonal Tracing. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Protoc Neurosci 2017 Apr 10; 79:1.28.1-1.28.24
- Anatomical labeling approaches are essential for understanding brain organization. Among these approaches are various methods of performing tract tracing. However, a major hurdle to overcome when mar...
Anatomical labeling approaches are essential for understanding brain organization. Among these approaches are various methods of performing tract tracing. However, a major hurdle to overcome when marking neurons in vivo is visibility. Poor visibility makes it challenging to image a desired neuronal pathway so that it can be easily differentiated from a closely neighboring pathway. As a result, it becomes impossible to analyze individual projections or their connections. The tracer that is chosen for a given purpose has a major influence on the quality of the tracing. Here, we describe the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) tracer conjugated to Alexa fluorophores for reliable high-resolution tracing of central nervous system projections. Using the mouse cerebellum as a model system, we implement WGA-Alexa tracing for marking and mapping neural circuits that control motor function. We also show its utility for marking localized regions of the cerebellum after performing single-unit extracellular recordings in vivo. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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- Endothelial colony forming cells and mesenchymal progenitor cells form blood vessels and increase blood flow in ischemic muscle. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Apr 10; 7(1):770
- Here we investigated whether endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) and mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC) form vascular networks and restore blood flow in ischemic skeletal muscle, and whether host...
Here we investigated whether endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) and mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC) form vascular networks and restore blood flow in ischemic skeletal muscle, and whether host myeloid cells play a role. ECFC + MPC, ECFC alone, MPC alone, or vehicle alone were injected into the hind limb ischemic muscle one day after ligation of femoral artery and vein. At day 5, hind limbs injected with ECFC + MPC showed greater blood flow recovery compared with ECFC, MPC, or vehicle. Tail vein injection of human endothelial specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I demonstrated an increased number of perfused human vessels in ECFC + MPC compared with ECFC. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed ECFC persisted for 14 days in ECFC + MPC-injected hind limbs. Flow cytometric analysis of ischemic muscles at day 2 revealed increased myeloid lineage cells in ECFC + MPC-injected muscles compared to vehicle-injected muscles. Neutrophils declined by day 7, while the number of myeloid cells, macrophages, and monocytes did not. Systemic myeloid cell depletion with anti-Gr-1 antibody blocked the improved blood flow observed with ECFC + MPC and reduced ECFC and MPC retention. Our data suggest that ECFC + MPC delivery could be used to reestablish blood flow in ischemic tissues, and this may be enhanced by coordinated recruitment of host myeloid cells.