- Broken heart in elderly patients: two clinical observations. [Case Reports]
- ACAging Clin Exp Res 2012; 24(1):97-103
- Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (idiopathic or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome [ABS]) is a reversible condition frequently precipitated by a stressful trigger that clinically mimics a…
Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (idiopathic or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome [ABS]) is a reversible condition frequently precipitated by a stressful trigger that clinically mimics an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Characteristically, hypokinesis or akinesis occurs in the mid- and apical segments of the left ventricle in the absence of epicardial coronary lesions. Preserved or hyperdynamic function of the basal myocardial segments results in apical ballooning, assuming the shape of a Japanese pot used to catch octopus (a takotsubo). We report on 2 well over 70 years old women (78 and 82 years) admitted to the emergency room with chest pain. Clinical signs, ECG alterations and high troponin I in both patients imposed urgent diagnostic testing and management. The electrocardiographic findings were consistent with acute myocardial infarction and transthoracic echocardiography showed in both simultaneous apical akinesia and a hyperkinetic basal area with a moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary angiography, performed on an emergency basis, in both cases revealed minimal luminal irregularities, with no evidence of plaque rupture or thrombus. The wall motion abnormality extended beyond the distribution of any single coronary artery, making it less likely that an occlusive thrombus had spontaneously dissolved or that intermittent vasospasm had occurred. Taken together, these findings were consistent with ABS, and critical observations on coronary angiography indicated the diagnosis by exclusion. The patients were seen in the clinic 4 weeks after discharge. They had had no recurrent chest pain, and had returned to the normal life they had had before the cardiovascular event. A repeat echocardiography showed a normalized estimated ejection fraction in both patients. ABS is a diagnosis of exclusion and its incidence is probably underestimated in elderly patients in whom coronary angiography is not common.
- Atypical Takotsubo syndrome during anagrelide therapy. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2009; 10(7):546-9
- Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor utilized in the treatment of essential thrombocythemia. Anagrelide can be responsible for positive inotropic and chonotropic activity of the cardiovasc…
Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor utilized in the treatment of essential thrombocythemia. Anagrelide can be responsible for positive inotropic and chonotropic activity of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, it can induce vasospam directly on the epicardial coronary arteries. In the literature, it is well reported that this inhibitor can determine serious cardiovascular side effects, including congestive heart failure, arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who developed a mid-ventricular Takotsubo syndrome while on anagrelide therapy. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as left ventricular ballooning syndrome, is characterized by a reversible ventricular contractile dysfunction with akinesis and expansion of apical segments and hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Recently, atypical cases with akinesia and dilation of mid-ventricular segment and hypercontraction of the apical segments, also called mid-ventricular and inverted Takotsubo syndrome, have been described. Even though the pathogenesis of Takotsubo syndrome is poorly understood, several mechanisms have been proposed, including catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning, and ischemia-mediated stunning due to multivessel epicardial or microvascular spasm. We think that in our case, the adverse response of anagrelide therapy was determined, by accumulated dosage of the drug, through an intensive inotropic stimulation and a sympathetic hyperactivation in a vulnerable myocardium. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports of an association between anagrelide therapy and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
- A case of transient mid-ventricular akinesia (a variant form of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) followed with I-123-beta-metyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid and I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine myocardial scintigraphy. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cardiol 2009; 53(1):140-5
- A 67-year-old woman without history of heart disease was admitted with chest oppression. Her electrocardiogram (ECG) at the time of admission showed ST segment elevation in leads V2-V6. Cardiac ultra…
A 67-year-old woman without history of heart disease was admitted with chest oppression. Her electrocardiogram (ECG) at the time of admission showed ST segment elevation in leads V2-V6. Cardiac ultrasound revealed severe hypokinesis in mid to apical portion of anterior wall. Emergent coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries. Left ventriculography (LVG) revealed akinesis of mid portion of anterior and inferior wall with hyperkinesis of apex and basal portion of anterior and inferior wall. Cardiac ultrasound examination 3 months later revealed improvement in LV contraction without mid-ventricular akisesia. The LVG performed 6 months later showed no focal asynergy. In I-123-beta-metyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy the discrepancy of uptake between apical and anterior and inferior wall of mid region (more uptake in apex) was reduced. Using I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine myocardial scintigraphy in acute phase, decreased uptake in the mid portion of anterior and inferior to lateral wall was seen in early and delayed images and that persisted through 6 months. As these findings resembled those of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy other than affected region, it is possible to say that basically they belong to same entity of disease but they are different in their phenotype.
- Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in two female patients: two case reports. [Journal Article]
- CJCases J 2008 Nov 18; 1(1):325
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients with tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy present with features consistent with an acute coronary syndrome and as such the syndrome is probably under-diagnosed. It may be with the introduction of primary percutaneous coronary intervention more cases are identified, sparing patients the risks of unnecessary thrombolytic therapy. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy should be considered in all patients presenting with acute onset chest pain and elevated cardiac biomarkers.
- [Atypical takotsubo cardiomyopathy with preservation of apical contraction: a case report including pathological findings]. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cardiol 2005; 46(6):237-42
- A 60-year-old woman presented with sudden chest and back pain. Electrocardiography suggested anterior myocardial infarction but coronary angiography revealed no significant stenosis in the coronary a…
A 60-year-old woman presented with sudden chest and back pain. Electrocardiography suggested anterior myocardial infarction but coronary angiography revealed no significant stenosis in the coronary artery. Left ventriculography revealed akinesis of the mid ventricle and preserved contraction of the apical wall. The clinical condition of atypical left ventricular akinesia was suggested to be the same as conventionally reported typical takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Repeated left ventriculography revealed the abnormal wall motion had disappeared. The findings of endomyocardial biopsy were compatible with takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Although the clinical presentation of the left ventricle is atypical, the pathological findings may be the same as typical takatsubo cardiomyopathy.
- Apical ballooning syndrome in a postoperative patient with normal microvascular perfusion by myocardial contrast echocardiography. [Case Reports]
- EEchocardiography 2005; 22(7):606-10
- Apical ballooning syndrome is classically described as transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, marked LV akinesia, and normal or near-normal coronary arteries. The etiology is unclear and there …
Apical ballooning syndrome is classically described as transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, marked LV akinesia, and normal or near-normal coronary arteries. The etiology is unclear and there is limited information based on case reports and small case series. We describe a 35-year-old woman who underwent surgical hepatectomy and developed apical ballooning syndrome in the postoperative period. The novel use of myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in this setting demonstrated intact microvascular perfusion and lack of coronary flow-limiting abnormalities despite apical akinesis. In select patients with similar clinical presentations, performing MCE is safe and may be pursued as an alternative to invasive coronary angiography.
- ECG-gated 18F-FDG positron emission tomography. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Cardiovasc Imaging 2002; 18(5):363-72
- CONCLUSIONS: ECG-gated metabolic PET with pixel-based Fourier smoothing provides reliable data on regional function. Assessment of metabolism and function makes complete judgement of segmental status feasible within a single study without any transfer artefacts or test-to-test variability. The results indicate the presence of considerable amounts of viable myocardium in regions with an uptake of 40-50% 18F-FDG.
- Abnormal septal motion after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation: no evidence for myocardial ischaemia by exercise radionuclide angiography. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Nucl Med 1990; 17(5):252-6
- To evaluate interventricular septal motion and left ventricular function after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation, we studied 12 patients at rest and during exercise by radionu…
To evaluate interventricular septal motion and left ventricular function after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation, we studied 12 patients at rest and during exercise by radionuclide angiography after a mean of 19 (range 12-36) months after operation (group I). Twenty patients with chronic aortic regurgitation without aortic valve replacement served as controls (group II). None of the patients had coronary artery disease as documented by arteriography. Abnormal interventricular septal motion at rest was seen in 11 patients of group I, of whom 8 showed hypokinesis and 3 akinesis. During exercise, the interventricular septal wall motion improved in 4 patients, worsened in 3 patients and did not change in 5 patients. All patients of group II had normal interventricular septal motion at rest. During exercise, 5 patients showed septal wall hypokinesia together with apical and posterolateral wall motion abnormalities. The left ventricular ejection fraction at rest was 62% +/- 20% in group I and 66% +/- 8% in group II (not significant). During exercise, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 59% +/- 24% in group I and 68% +/- 13% in group II (not significant). We conclude that abnormal interventricular septal motion at rest is commonly found in patients with aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation. During exercise, septal wall motion in the patients with aortic valve replacement shows a variable response from complete normalization to akinesia. These findings are mostly associated with a normal global left ventricular function both at rest and during exercise, which precludes myocardial ischaemia as a primary cause for abnormal septal wall motion after aortic valve replacement.
- The effect of hyaluronidase on akinesia during cataract surgery. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- OSOphthalmic Surg 1989; 20(5):325-6
- The ability of hyaluronidase to improve akinesis in retrobulbar anesthesia was evaluated in a double-masked study. Forty consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery were anesthetized with 3 ml o…
The ability of hyaluronidase to improve akinesis in retrobulbar anesthesia was evaluated in a double-masked study. Forty consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery were anesthetized with 3 ml of a 1:1 mixture of 4.0% lidocaine and 0.75% bupivacaine solution. In a predetermined randomized fashion, 2 ml of hyaluronidase (300 USP units) were added to half of the syringes, and 2 ml of saline to the remaining half. The level of akinesia was graded in six different positions of gaze. Seventy percent of the hyaluronidase group exhibited complete akinesis, while only 40% of the control group did. The mean scores for four out of six positions of gaze were significantly higher in the hyaluronidase patients than in the control group. Similarly, the hyaluronidase subjects showed a significantly higher sum score for the six sectors than did the control subjects (p = .0001). These results show that hyaluronidase significantly enhances akinesia. It is therefore recommended that it be included in the anesthetic regimen for such surgeries.
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- [Reversibility of akinetic segments in coronary heart disease]. [Journal Article]
- ZKZ Kardiol 1984; 73(9):568-77
- Akinetic wall segments not exhibiting contractions following nitroglycerin administration or in a post-extrasystolic beat are usually considered to consist of scar tissue; i.e. even by re-established…
Akinetic wall segments not exhibiting contractions following nitroglycerin administration or in a post-extrasystolic beat are usually considered to consist of scar tissue; i.e. even by re-established or improved blood supply following aorto-coronary bypass surgery no functional improvement is expected. In the present study, the pre- and postoperative ventriculograms (RAO projection) of 24 patients undergoing bypass surgery were analyzed. Ventriculography was routinely performed following sublingual nitroglycerin and a post-extrasystolic contraction. In each patient the akinetic segment had received a bypass graft which was found to be patent on reangiography. In 7 of 24 patients (29%) the formerly akinetic segment exhibited improved contraction postoperatively; in 17 patients the segment remained akinetic. Global ejection fraction rose in the group of patients with improved akinesia from 47 +/- 10 to 65 +/- 10% (p less than 0.05). In the patients with unchanged contraction pattern, ejection fraction was found to be 56 +/- 12% prior to surgery and 54 +/- 16% after surgery (n.s.). The increase in ejection fraction was more pronounced in those patients showing improvement of anterior wall akinesia (from 39 to 72%) than it was in patients exhibiting improved inferior wall akinesis (from 54 to 59%). According to these findings, the regional ejection fraction was found to be higher postoperatively in patients with former anterior wall akinesis (78%) than in those showing inferior wall contraction abnormalities (49%). End-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volume changes postoperatively did not reach statistical significance, although end-systolic volume showed a clear trend to decrease (preoperative: 114 +/- 54 ml/1.73 m2; postoperative: 79 +/- 29 ml/1.73 m2; n.s.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)