- DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN VITRO RNAI TO INVESTIGATE GENE FUNCTION IN BRUGIA MALAYI. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Egypt Soc Parasitol 2016; 46(3):717-728
- The RNA interference (RNAi) has the ability to turn off individual gene expression. So, it affords a remarkably specific tool for studying the effects of genes. It is regarded as a direct approach fo...
The RNA interference (RNAi) has the ability to turn off individual gene expression. So, it affords a remarkably specific tool for studying the effects of genes. It is regarded as a direct approach for determining such gene/genes functions and offers a valuable tool for modern drug discovery. The study aimed to develop in vitro RNAil in Brugia malayi with particular interest to study the function of Brugia malayi avr-14 (Bm-avr-14) and Brugia malayi f-tubulin (Bm-fi-tubulin) genes. Bm-avr-14 is a gene encoding glutamate gated chloride channel (GluCl) which binds ivermectin and Bm-β-tubulin is a gene encoding β-tubulin which binds albendazole. Adult female worms were soaked in heterogeneous short interfering RNA (hsiRNA) with interest to study the role of two genes Bm-avr-14 and Bm-β-tubulin. Then, we assessed the knock down effects of target genes using worminator system and real time PCR. We found that worms treated with hsiRNA of Bm-avr-14 had a significant reduction in microfilariae (mf) production in comparison with untreated worms or worms treated with hsiRNA of green fluorescent protein (GFP). No significant reduction in mf production with Bm-β-tubulin gene was obtained. There were no changes in the movement of adults treated with either Bm-avr-14 or Bm- β-tubulin hsiRNAs. Inconsistent RNAi mediated suppression was achieved with Bm-avr-14 and Bm-β- tubulin using real time PCR. The data may be helpful in assessment of drug target potential of genes.
- Case Report: A Common Source Outbreak of Anisakidosis in the United States and Postexposure Prophylaxis of Family Collaterals. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 17
- We present a case of intussusception with complete small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakidosis requiring surgical resection. A 30-year-old man presented with acute onset of severe abdom...
We present a case of intussusception with complete small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakidosis requiring surgical resection. A 30-year-old man presented with acute onset of severe abdominal pain 3 days after eating home-cured salmon gravlax. Despite surgery, the patient developed recurrent abdominal pain on two occasions with evidence of continued inflammation proximal to the surgical anastomosis. He was then treated with albendazole and prednisone, and symptoms improved. A decision was made to prophylactically treat two asymptomatic family members who also consumed home-cured gravlax with albendazole, resulting in one individual passing an intact Anisakis worm in her stool. We suggest that albendazole therapy could be considered as a therapy for continued symptoms of anisakidosis and postexposure prophylaxis of Anisakis larvae ingestion from a common source.
- Case Report: Ivermectin and Albendazole Plasma Concentrations in a Patient with Disseminated Strongyloidiasis on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 17
- Disseminated strongyloidiasis is often fatal, despite treatment with oral albendazole and parenteral ivermectin (IVM). Here, we report elevated plasma IVM and albendazole sulfoxide concentrations in ...
Disseminated strongyloidiasis is often fatal, despite treatment with oral albendazole and parenteral ivermectin (IVM). Here, we report elevated plasma IVM and albendazole sulfoxide concentrations in the context of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy in a patient with disseminated strongyloidiasis treated with subcutaneous IVM and nasogastric albenzadole. Despite elevated drug plasma concentrations, live filariform larvae were detected in endotracheal aspirates after 2 weeks of treatment.
- Towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis in southeastern Madagascar: Successes and challenges for interrupting transmission. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Sep 17; 12(9):e0006780
- CONCLUSIONS: Although TAS results suggest that MDA can be stopped in three districts of southeastern Madagascar, the adult population still presents high CFA prevalence levels. This discordance raises important questions about the TAS procedures and the interpretation of their results.
- Dual Cestode Infection in a Thai Patient (Spinal Sparganosis and Racemose Neurocysticercosis): A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Case Rep 2018 Sep 14; 19:1090-1095
- CONCLUSIONS: In this case report, we describe a middle-aged man who presented with spinal cord symptoms (hip pain, progressive weakness and numbness of the leg, and difficulty urinating) and cranial nerve palsies (vision and hearing loss) caused by spinal sparganosis and racemose neurocysticercosis, respectively. Neurological symptoms did not improve with anthelmintic drugs.
- Clinical course and treatment outcomes of toxocariasis-related eosinophilic disorder. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(37):e12361
- Blood eosinophilia is a common clinical finding. Helminthic infections, including toxocariasis, are a common cause of eosinophilia; however, the clinical course of toxocariasis associated with eosino...
Blood eosinophilia is a common clinical finding. Helminthic infections, including toxocariasis, are a common cause of eosinophilia; however, the clinical course of toxocariasis associated with eosinophilia is not fully understood. Thus, controversies exist regarding treatment indications.To evaluate the clinical features and natural course of various types of eosinophilia, with a particular focus on toxocariasis, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1000 patients with peripheral blood eosinophilia who were referred to the allergy clinic at Asan Medical Center between 2007 and 2012. Clinical parameters and imaging study findings were evaluated. The treatment response to albendazole and resulting changes in eosinophilia and imaging studies were analyzed in patients diagnosed with toxocariasis.Among the 1000 subjects, toxocariasis was the most common cause of eosinophilia (n = 534; 53.4%), followed by allergic disease and adverse drug reactions. The majority of patients with toxocariasis were men, and they were mostly asymptomatic. More than one-third of patients (n = 215; 40.3%) with toxocariasis exhibited organ involvement, particularly hepatic involvement. In most cases of eosinophilia and organ involvement due to toxocariasis, the symptoms normalized regardless of treatment.Most cases of eosinophilia related to toxocariasis displayed a self-remitting course regardless of treatment. With the exception of several clinical situations, including ocular involvement, the clinical need for anti-helminthic therapy in toxocariasis is not that significant.
- In silico identification of albendazole as a quorum sensing inhibitor and its in vitro verification using CviR and LasB receptors based assay systems. [Journal Article]
- BBioimpacts 2018; 8(3):201-209
- Introduction: Quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) is one of the vital tools to overcome emerging virulence of pathogenic bacteria which aims at curbing bacterial resistance. Targeting QS (quorum sensing...
Introduction: Quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) is one of the vital tools to overcome emerging virulence of pathogenic bacteria which aims at curbing bacterial resistance. Targeting QS (quorum sensing) as chemotherapy is less likely to generate resistance among pathogens as it targets only the adaptation and not the survival mechanism of the pathogen. Several QS inhibitors were developed in the recent past but none of them managed to have clinical application due to known toxic effects for human consumption. A rapid development of QS inhibitor drugs could be achieved by verification of the QSI activity of drugs which are already in clinical use with known pharmacology. Recently, a known FDA approved clinical drug niclosamide belonging to an anthelmintic class is found to exhibit QSI activity. Methods: We have focused our study on Albendazole, another FDA approved clinical drug belonging to the same class for its potential to act as QSI. The structure-based molecular docking is used for finding putative interactions made by this drug with the CviR and LasB receptor protein of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , respectively. Further, the in vitro activity of this drug has been evaluated by employing CviR and LasB receptor-based bioassay. The efficacy of this drug alone and in combination with antibiotic Tobramycin to inhibit P. aeruginosa based biofilms was also analyzed by developing the biofilms on chambered glass slides and performing anti-biofilm assay. Results: Further, this drug found to inhibit purple pigment violacein production in C. violaceum , which is under the control of C6-AHL-CviR mediated QS in this human pathogen. The in vivo bioassays results suggested that albendazole has great potential to act as a QS inhibitor as found inhibiting violacein production in C. violaceum and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa , respectively. Conclusion: It is that structure-based molecular docking guided bioassay evaluation is an efficient tool for finding the new therapeutic use of old drugs which could have more chances to come easily in clinical application for their newly identified therapeutic uses.
- The impact of intensive versus standard anthelminthic treatment on allergy-related outcomes, helminth infection intensity and helminth-related morbidity in Lake Victoria fishing communities, Uganda: results from the LaVIISWA cluster randomised trial. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Sep 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite reductions in S. mansoni intensity and hookworm prevalence, intensive MDA had no effect on atopy, allergy-related disease or helminth-related pathology. This could be due to sustained low-intensity infections, thus a causal link between helminths and allergy outcomes cannot be discounted. Intensive community-based MDA has limited impact in high-schistosomiasis-transmission fishing communities, in the absence of other interventions.
- Effects of Decavanadate Salts with Organic and Inorganic Cations on Escherichia coli, Giardia intestinalis, and Vero Cells. [Journal Article]
- ICInorg Chem 2018 Sep 10
- Decavanadate salts with nicotinamide (3-pyridinecarboxamide, 3-pca) and isonicotinamide (4-pyridinecarboxamide, 4-pca) in both neutral and protonated forms, (3-Hpca)4[H2V10O28]·2H2O·2(3-pca) (complex...
Decavanadate salts with nicotinamide (3-pyridinecarboxamide, 3-pca) and isonicotinamide (4-pyridinecarboxamide, 4-pca) in both neutral and protonated forms, (3-Hpca)4[H2V10O28]·2H2O·2(3-pca) (complex I) and (4-Hpca)4[H2V10O28]·2(4-pca) (complex II), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and Raman), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 51V NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The effects of sodium decavanadate (henceforth called NaV10) and compounds I and II on Escherichia coli, Giardia intestinalis, and Vero (African green monkey epithelial kidney) cells were evaluated. Enhanced growth inhibitory activity against E. coli cultures was observed upon treatment with products I and II when compared to that with NaV10 (GI50 values of 2.8, 4.0, and 11 mmol L-1, respectively), as well as lower cell viability as measured by the intake of propidium iodide (PI). Exposure of Giardia trophozoites to NaV10 and II revealed reduction in trophozoite viability (GI50 values of ca. 10 μmol L-1) and affected the parasite adherence to both polystyrene culture tubes and a monolayer of Vero cells, even at low concentrations. A lesser effect on Giardia was shown for I. Furthermore, all three compounds were significantly less toxic to Vero cells than the reference drug, albendazole, employed in the treatment of giardiasis. Toxicity reports of oxidovanadium compounds toward Giardia are unprecedented and open a path to the development of new therapeutic agents.
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- The Effect of Deworming School Children on Anemia Prevalence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- ONOpen Nurs J 2018; 12:155-161
- CONCLUSIONS: School based deworming program decreases prevalence of anemia and will contribute to reduction of anemia in the community. Therefore the program should be expanded in all areas and integrated with other child care programs.