- Efficacy of albendazole ointment on cutaneous larva migrans in a 2 years child. [Journal Article]
- EIEnferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2018 Jun 12
- Increasing evidence of low lymphatic filariasis prevalence in high risk Loa loa areas in Central and West Africa: a literature review. [Review]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Jun 15; 11(1):349
- In West and Central Africa, there is a need to establish the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that are co-endemic for Loa loa, in order to implement the appropriate strategies to scale-up ...
In West and Central Africa, there is a need to establish the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that are co-endemic for Loa loa, in order to implement the appropriate strategies to scale-up interventions for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF). Due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) to ivermectin in individuals with high L. loa microfilaraemia, the current strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is twice yearly mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole, supplemented by vector control targeting the Anopheles vectors. Defining W. bancrofti prevalence in areas co-endemic with L. loa is complicated by the cross-reactivity of rapid diagnostic immunochromatographic card tests (ICT), widely used for LF mapping, in individuals with high L. loa microfilaraemia. This has probably resulted in the overestimation of LF prevalence, triggering the implementation of MDA strategies, which may be unnecessary and wasteful of the limited resources for elimination programme implementation. Here we review the literature and present historical evidence, which uniformly highlight low or no prevalence of W. bancrofti infection and/or clinical LF cases across five Central African countries, in more than 30 different geographical areas covering 280 individual sites and > 22,000 individuals tested within high risk L. loa areas. This highlights the very limited information available on LF prevalence in L. loa areas, and potentially has major policy implications, which could shift the focus towards revised mapping criteria to verify low or no W. bancrofti prevalence in high risk L. loa areas. In this situation, revising the current WHO strategy from MDA, to focus more on ensuring high and effective vector control, through insecticide treated/long-lasting impregnated bednets (ITNs/LLINs), integration of point-of-care test-and-treat options into health systems, and consolidating closer links with the malaria control programme may be a more effective and appropriate use of the limited resources and drug donations available for LF elimination.
- Hyperinflation-Definitions and Causes. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Pract 2018 Jan 01; :897190018776392
- Hundreds of oral and injectable generic drugs have seen dramatic price increases during the 2010s. Several reasons for the astronomic price increases have been postulated, ranging from reduced compet...
Hundreds of oral and injectable generic drugs have seen dramatic price increases during the 2010s. Several reasons for the astronomic price increases have been postulated, ranging from reduced competition, shortages in the manufacturing supply chain, very small markets, market consolidation, the Unapproved Drugs Initiative of 2006, and unanticipated manufacturing safety issues. In one survey, over 90% of hospital administrators reported that higher drug prices had a moderate or severe impact on their budgets. Whereas compounding pharmacies may present an effective solution to high drug prices, it is a potentially dangerous one, as the case of New England Compounding Center makes clear. The risks make a meticulous vetting process necessary.
- Intracranial Hydatid Cyst: A Report of Three Cases in North-West India. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Neurosci 2018 Jan-Mar; 13(1):91-95
- Human echinococcus is caused by tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, which forms larval cysts in the human tissue. Incidence in the cerebral form is only 1-2%. This localization can be associated with ...
Human echinococcus is caused by tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, which forms larval cysts in the human tissue. Incidence in the cerebral form is only 1-2%. This localization can be associated with the involvement of other organs such as liver or lung or may be an isolated infestation of the brain or spinal column. Surgical removal of the intact and unruptured cyst is advised to prevent local recurrence that may require further surgery and long-term treatment with parasiticidal agents. We report three cases who presented with headache, vomiting, hemiparesis with decreased visual acuity, and convulsions. MRI showed a giant hydatid cyst in all three cases which was removed surgically and the patient was successfully discharged. Successful treatment of hydatid cyst requires preoperative diagnosis and meticulous surgical technique for complete excision of cyst without rupture under perioperative coverage of albendazole to avoid recurrence and anaphylaxis.
- Management of cystic echinococcosis in the last two decades: what have we learned? [Journal Article]
- TRTrans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Complications of CE are one of the most common causes of mortality in CE patients, with size, location, and number of cysts, and the 'watch and wait' treatment strategy being the main factors associated with mortality.
- Albendazole treatment in laying hens: Egg residues and its effects on fertility and hatchability. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Pharmacol Ther 2018 Jun 12
- This work characterized the egg residual concentrations of albendazole (ABZ) and its sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2 ) metabolites and evaluated their effect on egg fertility and hatchability...
This work characterized the egg residual concentrations of albendazole (ABZ) and its sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2 ) metabolites and evaluated their effect on egg fertility and hatchability after ABZ treatments to laying hens. Seventy hens were allocated in groups: Group-1 was the control without treatment; Group-2 received a single ABZ oral dose (10 mg/kg); Group-3, -4 and -5 were treated with ABZ in medicated feed over 7 days at 10, 40, or 80 mg kg-1 day-1 , respectively. Eggs were analyzed to determine the ABZ/metabolite level by HPLC or subjected to incubation to evaluate the fertility and hatchability. Only ABZSO and ABZSO2 metabolites were quantified in egg after ABZ single oral administration with maximum concentrations of 0.47 ± 0.08 and 0.30 ± 0.07 μg/ml, respectively. ABZ and its metabolites were found in eggs after 7-day ABZ treatments. The egg residue exposure estimated as AUCs (areas under the concentration vs. time curve) were 100.5 (ABZ), 56.3 (ABZSO) and 141.3 μg hr g-1 (ABZSO2 ). ABZ administration did not affect the egg fertility at any dosages. Egg hatchability was not affected by ABZ treatment at 10 mg/kg in medicated feed, but it decreased when the dose was 4-8 times higher. These results should be considered when ABZ is used for deworming laying hens.
- Orbital cysticercosis. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 08; 2018
- A young male patient presented to our ocular emergency department with chief complaints of progressive pain, redness, diplopia and a right-sided face turn. Ocular examination revealed severely restri...
A young male patient presented to our ocular emergency department with chief complaints of progressive pain, redness, diplopia and a right-sided face turn. Ocular examination revealed severely restricted extraocular movements along with retinal folds in the left eye. Initial orbital ultrasound and CT findings were equivocal; however, serology favoured an infective cause. Considering the endemicity of the disease and equivocal investigation findings, a diagnosis of orbital cysticercosis with an atypical presentation was made. The patient was managed medically with a combination of oral albendazole and steroids over a period of 6 weeks to achieve optimal results.
- Ruptured Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Following the Use of Albendazole. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018; 98(6):1555-1556
- First characterization of a microsporidial triosephosphate isomerase and the biochemical mechanisms of its inactivation to propose a new druggable target. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 05; 8(1):8591
- The microsporidia are a large group of intracellular parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is the second microsporidia species most frequently associat...
The microsporidia are a large group of intracellular parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is the second microsporidia species most frequently associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans, especially immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals, including children and the elderly. The prevalence reported worldwide in these groups ranges from 0 to 60%. Currently, albendazole is most commonly used to treat microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon species. However, the results of treatment are variable, and relapse can occur. Consequently, efforts are being directed toward identifying more effective drugs for treating microsporidiosis, and the study of new molecular targets appears promising. These parasites lack mitochondria, and oxidative phosphorylation therefore does not occur, which suggests the enzymes involved in glycolysis as potential drug targets. Here, we have for the first time characterized the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase of E. intestinalis at the functional and structural levels. Our results demonstrate the mechanisms of inactivation of this enzyme by thiol-reactive compounds. The most striking result of this study is the demonstration that established safe drugs such as omeprazole, rabeprazole and sulbutiamine can effectively inactivate this microsporidial enzyme and might be considered as potential drugs for treating this important disease.
New Search Next
- Progress on elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Sierra Leone. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Jun 04; 11(1):334
- CONCLUSIONS: Compared to baseline, there was a significant reduction of LF mf prevalence and density in the 12 districts co-endemic for LF and onchocerciasis after five annual LF MDAs. No statistically significant difference was seen in either measure compared to midterm. Eight of the 12 districts qualified for TAS. The other four districts that failed to qualify for TAS had historically high LF baseline prevalence and density and had regular cross-border movement of populations. These four districts needed to conduct two additional rounds of LF MDA before repeating the pre-TAS. The results showed that Sierra Leone continued to make progress towards the elimination of LF as a public health problem.