- Estimation of the number of women of reproductive age in need of preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminth infections. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Feb 12; 12(2):e0006269
- CONCLUSIONS: To close current gaps in coverage, numbers of WRA in need of PC for STH are essential for operational strategies to control STH infection.
- Albendazole nanocrystals in experimental alveolar echinococcosis: Enhanced chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy in infected mice. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2018 Feb 15; 251:78-84
- Human alveolar echinococcosis is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and is usually fatal if left untreated. Medical treatment with albendazole (ABZ) remains an effective option. H...
Human alveolar echinococcosis is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and is usually fatal if left untreated. Medical treatment with albendazole (ABZ) remains an effective option. However, due to its low aqueous solubility, ABZ is poorly and erratically absorbed following oral administration resulting in low drug levels in plasma and liver distribution. Thus, there arises the need to find a simple, efficient and scalable method to produce new ABZ formulations with increased bioavailability. Bearing this in mind, ABZ nanocrystals (ABZ-NCs) appears to be a useful tool to achieve this goal. The aim of the current study was to investigate the chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy of an ABZ-NC formulation on mice infected with E. multilocularis. In the chemoprophylactic efficacy study, mean weight of the cysts recovered from the ABZ-NC group was 50% lower than that recorded from untreated mice, whereas the treatment with ABZ suspension did not show preventive effect. The viability of protoscoleces isolated from ABZ-NC treated mice was significantly lower than control groups. In the clinical efficacy studies, both ABZ formulations resulted in a reduction in the mean weight of the cysts obtained from mice, however only the treatment with the nanosuspension revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) compared to the control groups. Treatment with ABZ-NCs reduced the weight of the cysts by 77% and the viability of their protoscoleces to 34%. All these results coincided with the tissue damage determined at the ultrastructural level. The enhanced chemoprophylactic and clinical efficacy of ABZ-NCs observed in this study could be attributed to an increase in the oral bioavailability of the drug. In a next step, we will characterize the cyst concentration profile after the administration of ABZ-NCs in mice infected with E. multilocularis.
- The effect on liveweight gain of using anthelmintics with incomplete efficacy against resistant Cooperia oncophora in cattle. [Journal Article]
- VPVet Parasitol 2018 Feb 15; 251:56-62
- A replicated field trial was conducted to measure the effect on liveweight gain of failing to adequately control anthelmintic resistant populations of Cooperia oncophora and to determine whether popu...
A replicated field trial was conducted to measure the effect on liveweight gain of failing to adequately control anthelmintic resistant populations of Cooperia oncophora and to determine whether populations, and hence production losses, increased with time. Eight mobs of 10 Friesian-Hereford calves were run on independent farmlets from January to December, over each of two years. All mobs were routinely treated with a pour-on formulation of eprinomectin every six weeks, which controlled parasites other than Cooperia. Four mobs also received six weekly treatments with an oral levamisole plus albendazole combination anthelmintic to control Cooperia. Liveweights, condition scores, faecal egg counts and larval numbers on pasture were measured throughout. In the first year animals treated with eprinomectin alone were 12.9 kg lighter in November than those treated with eprinomectin plus albendazole and levamisole, however, in the second year there was no difference between the treatment groups. The data, therefore, support the view that while C. oncophora is less pathogenic than other cattle parasite species it can still cause production losses when present in sufficient numbers. In the first year of the study, parasite load, as measured by faecal nematode egg count and larval numbers on herbage, tended to be higher and calf growth rates lower than in the second year. In both years, counts of infective larvae on herbage declined over winter-spring to be at low levels before mid-summer. This suggests that the carry-over of infection from one crop of calves to the next was relatively small and hence that the level of challenge to the young calves at the start of each year was largely due to the effectiveness of the quarantine treatments administered when the animals arrived on the trial site. Low survival of larvae on pasture between grazing seasons, resulting in small larval populations on pasture when drenching programmes start each summer, might help to explain the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in this parasite under New Zealand grazing systems.
- Imported gnathostomiasis manifesting as cutaneous larva migrans and Löffler's syndrome. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 02; 2018
- Here, we report an unusual case of invasive gnathostomiasis in a returning traveller, with a shifting pattern of relapsing cutaneous disease. The previously fit and well 32-year-old man first present...
Here, we report an unusual case of invasive gnathostomiasis in a returning traveller, with a shifting pattern of relapsing cutaneous disease. The previously fit and well 32-year-old man first presented with serpiginous, pruriginous erythematous tracks characteristic of cutaneous larva migrans shortly after returning from South-East Asia. He was systemically well with no other symptoms. After ivermectin therapy, he re-presented with respiratory symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia and transient pulmonary infiltrates; the classic triad of Löffler's syndrome associated with invasive helminth infection.Gnathostoma spinigerumimmunoblot was positive. After a second round of ivermectin therapy his respiratory symptoms resolved, but the patient's cutaneous disease relapsed repeatedly over months, with migratory erythematous swellings appearing and settling after a few days. He was treated with a 21-day course of albendazole and is lesion free at 40 weeks post initial presentation.
- The first reported case of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to benzimidazole anthelmintic in goats in Poland [Journal Article]
- APAnn Parasitol 2017; 63(4):317-322
- Fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test with albendazole and egg hatch test (EHT) with thiabendazole (TBZ) were performed in a dairy goat herd suspected of anthelmintic resistance to benzimidazoles. Th...
Fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test with albendazole and egg hatch test (EHT) with thiabendazole (TBZ) were performed in a dairy goat herd suspected of anthelmintic resistance to benzimidazoles. The herd had been regularly dewormed with fenbendazole for 5 previous years and despite that it remained infected with several species of gastrointestinal nematodes (Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Teladorsagia circumcincta, and Haemonchus contortus). Albendazole was administered per os at dose of 20 mg/kg to 10 goats (treated group), while 10 other goats remained untreated (control group). Fecal egg count (FEC) was determined using McMaster egg counting method before and 7 days after the treatment in the treated group, and once (at the latter moment) in the control group. EHT was performed on the pooled rectal sample collected from treated goats. EHT comprised the negative control and 7 consecutive concentrations of TBZ (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 μg/ml) according to the standard procedure. Two hundred eggs/larvae were counted to determine percentage of unhatched eggs, which was adjusted by the natural mortality. TBZ dose effective in preventing hatching of 50% of eggs (ED50) was determined using the log-probit transformation. Median FEC (range) before the treatment was 1000 (250–3450) epg in the treated group and dropped to 150 (50–500) epg after the treatment (p=0.005). Median FEC (range) after the treatment was also significantly lower in the treated than in control group (p=0.009), where it was 725 (0–5050) epg. FECR between the treated and control group was 81% (95% CI: 49%, 93%). FECR in the treated group was 83% and 74% based on average and individual approach, respectively. ED50 value of TBZ was 0.78 μg/ml. Only H. contortus persisted in the treated group after treatment. The results indicate resistance of H. contortus to a benzimidazole anthelmintic, which is the first such case reported in Polish goats.
- Evaluation of the anthelminthic potential of Duranta erecta L. (Verbenaceae) fruits used in Nigerian ethnomedicine as a vermifuge. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jan 29; 216:57-62
- CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the poor anthelminthic effects recorded in the study, it is therefore recommended that Duranta erecta L. fruits be explored for its other useful effects rather than as an anthelminthic.
- The optimal timing of post-treatment sampling for the assessment of anthelminthic drug efficacy against Ascaris infections in humans. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 Jan 13; 8(1):67-69
- The egg reduction rate (ERR) is the current standard mean to assess the efficacy of drugs against human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). Alth...
The egg reduction rate (ERR) is the current standard mean to assess the efficacy of drugs against human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). Although the timing of post-treatment sampling is pivotal for a readily interpretation of drug efficacy, there is lack empirical data that allows recommending the optimal time point for a follow-up egg counting. In the present study, we re-analyzed both the kinetics of worm expulsion and egg output for Ascaris lumbricoides following a single oral dose of albendazole in a series of studies previously conducted in Kenyan communities. The results indicate that it takes up to 10 days post-treatment before the expulsion of both adult male and female Ascaris worms is completed, approximately 20% of the worms being expelled between day 7 and 10 post-treatment. The sequential analysis of the egg out put, indicated a poor ERR (89.4%) at day 7 post-treatment, but a 100% ERR at day 14 and 21 post-treatment. Based on our findings we recommend to wait at least 14 days after an albendazole treatment before conducting the follow-up egg count. Any sampling before this time point may result in biased ERR estimates, due the release of residual eggs from moribund or degenerating worms.
- Metabolism of albendazole, ricobendazole and flubendazole in Haemonchus contortus adults: Sex differences, resistance-related differences and the identification of new metabolites. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 Jan 27; 8(1):50-58
- Haemonchus contortus (family Trichostrongylidae, Nematoda), a hematophagous gastrointestinal parasite found in small ruminants, has a great ability to develop resistance to anthelmintic drugs. We stu...
Haemonchus contortus (family Trichostrongylidae, Nematoda), a hematophagous gastrointestinal parasite found in small ruminants, has a great ability to develop resistance to anthelmintic drugs. We studied the biotransformation of the three benzimidazole anthelmintics: albendazole (ABZ), ricobendazole (albendazole S-oxide; RCB) and flubendazole (FLU) in females and males of H. contortus in both a susceptible ISE strain and resistant IRE strain. The ex vivo cultivation of living nematodes in culture medium with or without the anthelmintics was used. Ultrasensitive UHPLC/MS/MS analysis revealed 9, 7 and 12 metabolites of ABZ, RCB and FLU, respectively, with most of these metabolites now described in the present study for the first time in H. contortus. The structure of certain metabolites shows the presence of biotransformation reactions not previously reported in nematodes. There were significant qualitative and semi-quantitative differences in the metabolites formed by male and female worms. In most cases, females metabolized drugs more extensively than males. Adults of the IRE strain were able to form many more metabolites of all the drugs than adults of the ISE strain. Some metabolites were even found only in adults of the IRE strain. These findings suggest that increased drug metabolism may play a role in resistance to benzimidazole drugs in H. contortus.
- Albendazole solution formulation via vesicle-to-micelle transition of phospholipid-surfactant aggregates. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Dev Ind Pharm 2018 Feb 20; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: (1) A new drug delivery system for parenteral delivery of albendazole is proposed, offering high drug solubility and low toxicity of the materials used; (2) New insights on the role of surface curvature on albendazole solubilization in surfactant and surfactant-phospholipid aggregates are provided.A new albendazole delivery system with high drug load and low toxicity of the materials used was developed. The high solubility of albendazole was explained with vesicle-to-micelle transition due to the larger interfacial curvature preferred for albendazole solubilization locus.
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- In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extracts of Aerial Parts ofCissus quadrangularisL. and Leaves ofSchinus molleL. againstHaemonchus contortus. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2017; 2017:1905987
- CONCLUSIONS: The current study evidenced that the crude methanolic extracts of the plants have promising adulticidal and egg hatching inhibitory effects againstH. contortus.