- Efficacy of targeting bone-specific GIP receptor in ovariectomy-induced bone loss. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Endocrinol 2018 Aug 18
- Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been recognized in the last decade as an important contributor of bone remodeling and is necessary for optimal bone quality. However, GIP recept...
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been recognized in the last decade as an important contributor of bone remodeling and is necessary for optimal bone quality. However, GIP receptors are expressed in several tissues in the body and little is known about the direct versus indirect effects of GIP on bone remodeling and quality. The aims of the present study were to validate two new GIP analogues, called [D-Ala2]-GIP-Tag and [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30, that specifically target either bone or whole body GIP receptors, respectively; and to ascertain the beneficial effects of GIP therapy on bone in a mouse model of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Both GIP analogues exhibited similar binding capacities at the GIP receptor and intracellular responses as full-length GIP1-42. Furthermore, only [D-Ala2]-GIP-Tag, but not [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30, was undoubtedly found exclusively in the bone matrix and released at acidic pH. In ovariectomized animals, [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30 but not [D-Ala2]-GIP-Tag ameliorated bone stiffness at the same magnitude than alendronate treatment. Only [D-Ala2]-GIP1-30 treatment led to significant ameliorations in cortical microarchitecture. Although alendronate treatment increased the hardness of the bone matrix and the type B carbonate substitution in the hydroxyapatite crystals, none of the GIP analogues modified bone matrix composition. Interestingly, in ovariectomy-induced bone loss, [D-Ala²]-GIP-Tag failed to alter bone strength, microarchitecture and bone matrix composition. Overall, this study shows that the use of a GIP analogue that target whole body GIP receptors might be useful to improve bone strength in ovariectomized animals.
- [Update of the German S3 guideline on atraumatic femoral head necrosis in adults]. [Review]
- OOrthopade 2018 Aug 16
- The update of the German S3 guideline on atraumatic femoral head necrosis in adults aims to provide an overview of diagnosis and treatment. All clinical studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses...
The update of the German S3 guideline on atraumatic femoral head necrosis in adults aims to provide an overview of diagnosis and treatment. All clinical studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in German or English between 01.05.2013 and 30.04.2017 were included. Of 427 studies, 28 were suitable for analysis. Risk factors are corticosteroids, chemotherapy, kidney transplants, hemoglobinopathies, and alcoholism. Differential diagnoses are for example bone marrow edema, insufficiency fracture, and destructive arthropathy. Radiography should be performed upon clinical suspicion. In patients with normal radiography findings but persistent complaints, magnetic resonance imaging (ARCO classification) is the method of choice. Computed tomography (CT) can be used to confirm/exclude articular surface collapse. A subchondral sclerosis zone >30% in CT indicates a better prognosis. Left untreated, a subchondral fracture will develop within 2 years. The risk of disease development in the opposite side is high during the first 2 years, but unlikely thereafter. In conservative therapy, iloprost and alendronate can be used in a curative approach, the latter for small, primarily medial necrosis. Conservative therapy alone as well as other drug-based and physical approaches are not suitable for treatment. No particular joint-preserving surgery can currently be recommended. Core decompression should be performed in early stages with <30% necrosis. From ARCO stage IIIc or in stage IV, the indication for total hip arthroplasty should be checked. Results after total hip arthroplasty are comparable with those after coxarthrosis, although the revision rate is higher due to the relatively young age of patients. Statements on the effectiveness of cell-based therapies such as expanded stem cells or bone marrow aspirates cannot currently be made.
- Analyses of the efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty and alendronate sodium on thoracolumbar vertebral fracture and the risk factors of fracture. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(2):679-684
- The present study investigated the efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty and alendronate sodium on thoracolumbar vertebral fracture, and the risk factors leading to the recurrence of fracture. In the ...
The present study investigated the efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty and alendronate sodium on thoracolumbar vertebral fracture, and the risk factors leading to the recurrence of fracture. In the present study, a total of 80 patients with thoracolumbar vertebral fracture who were admitted to the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College between January 2014 and March 2016 for combination treatment of percutaneous kyphoplasty and alendronate sodium were enrolled. According to the recurrence of fracture, the patients were divided into two groups, the observation group (patients with fracture recurrence, n=40) and control group (patients with no fracture recurrence, n=40). All patients participated in a 1-year follow-up. The recurrence of fracture and the site of fracture were identified through the clinical symptoms and examination of the spine using magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, comparisons of the time of alleviation in numbness of lower limb and that in pains in waist and legs were carried out. Furthermore, statistics on the adverse reactions during intervention in the two groups were also collected; changes in visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) of pains at different time points in two groups were also observed. One-way analysis and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the relevant risk factors. Alleviation time in numbness of lower legs in patients of the control group was significantly earlier than that in the observation group (P<0.05) and the alleviation time in pains of the waist and legs of patients in the control group was also significantly earlier than that in the observation group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the incidence rates of abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation and hypocalcemiain in the control group were also significantly lower compared with those in the observation group (P<0.05). One week, one month and one year after operation, the scores of VAS of pains and ODI in the control group were significantly lower compared with those in the observation group in the same period (P<0.05). Lower preoperative bone density and exosmosis of bone cement in treatment were the independent risk factors leading to the recurrence of fracture. For patients with thoracolumbar vertebral fracture who received the combination treatment of percutaneous kyphoplasty and alendronate sodium, there underlies an important correlation between the recurrence rate of fracture and the preoperative bone density as well as the exosmosis of bone cement in operation.
- Effects of Short Term Alendronate Administration on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. [Journal Article]
- PPril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) 2018 Jul 01; 39(1):5-13
- Association between alendronate and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality among hip fracture: an alternative explanation. [Letter]
- JBJ Bone Miner Res 2018 Aug 14
- Sing et al1 observed that individuals on alendronate (ALN) treatment had a 67% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and 45% reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). The...
Sing et al1 observed that individuals on alendronate (ALN) treatment had a 67% reduction in the risk of cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and 45% reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). These remarkable effect sizes deserve more explanations, and here we would like to offer an alternative interpretation relating to bias.
- Reply to: Association between alendronate and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality among hip fracture: an alternative explanation. [Letter]
- JBJ Bone Miner Res 2018 Aug 14
- To the Editor: We are thankful to Prof. Nguyen and Dr. Tran for their interest in our study and we appreciate the opportunity to respond to their comments. As Prof. Nguyen and Dr. Tran suggested that...
To the Editor: We are thankful to Prof. Nguyen and Dr. Tran for their interest in our study and we appreciate the opportunity to respond to their comments. As Prof. Nguyen and Dr. Tran suggested that censoring patients at the time of switching medications might have inflated the effect size, we investigated this potential bias by excluding patients with switching of medications. Of the 3,081 alendronate-treated patients, 281 patients (9.1%) switched the therapy during the study period. After excluding these patients, we observed similar findings (Table), suggesting that bias due to treatment of censoring data should be minimal in our study.
- Validation and Feasibility of the Medication Acceptability Questionnaire to Investigate Tablet and Liquid Alendronic Acid with Older Hospital Patients. [Journal Article]
- PPharmacy (Basel) 2018 Aug 11; 6(3)
- The effects of formulation characteristics on acceptability are poorly understood. This study evaluated the validity and feasibility of using the Medication Acceptability Questionnaire (MAQ) to inves...
The effects of formulation characteristics on acceptability are poorly understood. This study evaluated the validity and feasibility of using the Medication Acceptability Questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate factors influencing acceptability of tablet compared with liquid alendronic acid. Written consent was obtained from eligible patients on Older People's Medicine wards. MAQ face and content validity were evaluated through cognitive interviews while internal consistency and criterion validity were investigated by calculating Cronbach's alpha and correlation of MAQ items with visual analogue scale (VAS) responses. MAQ data were obtained from 33 and 25 participants for tablet and liquid formulations respectively. Cognitive interviews indicated MAQ face and content validity. The domains of appearance, efficacy, and tolerability demonstrated adequate internal consistency and suitable refinements were identified for the domains of convenience and taste with Cronbach's alpha <0.7. Significant positive correlations were identified between all MAQ domains and VAS. The liquid trended towards performing better for taste, appearance and tolerability and the tablet for convenience and efficacy. It is feasible to capture patient acceptability of a medication by questionnaire. Interpatient variation in acceptability for two formulations indicates that medication characteristics should be considered during prescribing and medication reviews to match patient preference with the appropriate formulation.
- Teriparatide treatment increases mineral content and volume in cortical and trabecular bone of iliac crest: a comparison of infrared imaging with X-ray-based bone assessment techniques. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Miner Res 2018 Aug 13
- Teriparatide increases bone mass primarily through remodeling of older or damaged bone and abundant replacement with new mineralizing bone. This post-hoc analysis investigated whether dual energy X-r...
Teriparatide increases bone mass primarily through remodeling of older or damaged bone and abundant replacement with new mineralizing bone. This post-hoc analysis investigated whether dual energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurement adequately reflects changes of mineral and organic matrix content in cortical and trabecular bone. Paired biopsies and aBMD measurements were obtained before and at end of 2-years of teriparatide treatment from postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who were either alendronate pre-treated (mean of 57.5 months) or osteoporosis-treatment naïve. Biopsies were assessed by micro-computed tomography (µCT) to calculate mean cortical width (Ct.Wi), cortical area (Ct.Ar), and trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV). Fourier transformed infrared imaging (pixel size ∼6.3 × 6.3 µm2 ) was utilized to calculate mineral and organic matrix density (mean absorption/pixel), as well as total mineral and organic contents of cortical and cancellous compartments (sum of all pixels in the compartment). Effect of pre-treatment over time was analyzed using mixed model repeated measures. µCT derived CT.Wi and BV/TV increased, accompanied by similar increases in the overall mineral contents of their respective bone compartments. Mineral density did not change. Marked increases in the total content of both mineral and organic matrix associated with volumetric growth in both compartments consistently exceeded those of aBMD. Increases in organic matrix exceeded increases in mineral content in both cortical and trabecular compartments. For percent changes, only change in CT.Wi correlated to change in femoral neck aBMD (r =.38, P = 0.043), while no other significant correlations of CT.Wi or BV/TV with lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck aBMD were demonstrable. These data indicate that 2 years of teriparatide treatment leads to an increased bone organic matrix and mineral content in the iliac crest. The magnitude of these increases in the iliac crest were not detected with conventional aBMD measurements at other skeletal sites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Conservative treatment of atraumatic femoral head necrosis]. [Review]
- OOrthopade 2018 Aug 10
- Femoral head necrosis is a progressive disease that can progress within a relatively short time. Therefore, an early and clear diagnosis including stage classification and treatment is necessary to p...
Femoral head necrosis is a progressive disease that can progress within a relatively short time. Therefore, an early and clear diagnosis including stage classification and treatment is necessary to prevent or delay the onset of the femoral head and joint destruction.
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- Bisphosphonates: Future perspective for neurological disorders. [Review]
- PRPharmacol Rep 2018 Mar 30; 70(5):900-907
- Neurodegenerative disorders and osteoporosis share some common underlying pathological features including calcium overload, accumulation of toxic chemicals, inflammation and impaired protein prenylat...
Neurodegenerative disorders and osteoporosis share some common underlying pathological features including calcium overload, accumulation of toxic chemicals, inflammation and impaired protein prenylation by isoprenoids (farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate) appear later stage of life. Substantial number of pre-clinical and clinical reports as well as in vitro data univocally acknowledged the negative impact of altered post-translational modification (prenylation) of proteins like small GTPases (Rffhes, Rho, Rac etc.) and cholesterol levels in both serum and brain on CNS integrity. Bisphosphonates (BPs), referred to as gold standard for osteoporosis treatment, have well established role in attenuation of bone resorption and osteoclast apoptosis by inhibition of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase enzyme (FPPS) in mevalonate pathway. BPs mainly nitrogen containing BPs (NBPs) have potential to offer new therapeutic targets for neurological disorders and received increasing attention in recent years. A year back clinical and pre-clinical studies revealed that NBPs have the potential to alleviate the symptoms of neurological disorders like brain calcification, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease by targeting mevalonate pathway. Though these drugs have well developed role in inhibition of isoprenoids synthesis, these were demonstrated to inhibit acetyl cholinesterase enzyme and cholesterol synthesis in brain that are considered as the critical factors for impairment of cognitive functions which is the hallmark of several neurological disorders. Still the current understanding of BPs' effect in CNS is limited due to lack of studies focusing the molecular and cellular mechanism. The present review aims to reveal the updated discussion on the mechanism contributing BPs' effect in CNS disorders.